10. MIS is Information Resource: Pervading the entire organisation must be a concept that information is a valuable resource, particularly in the management control and strategic planning ares and must be properly managed. This is a suitable but important change in thinking. It was common in this part to view data processing as an entity into itself doing its own thing. The new outlook is that of data processing. MIS is more than a support for the business; in many instances it is inextricably bound up in the business itself. One of the manifestation of IRM is that MIS will have l higher reporting relationship in the organisation and will become more a part of its executive committee.
Conclusion: As a matter of fact, the rationality of a decision-making process constitutes consideration of information about all possible factors and the circumstances having a bearing on the decision-making. Thus, for a successful manager, it is imperative and rational to have reliable information for decision-making.
Q.7. What are the components of MIS?
Ans. The components of MIS can be explained by describing the system as a processor. We would define the system processes by identification of our input and its transformation to outputs. The typical example of a system as a processor, is data processing system. Here, the raw data is processed. The processes include classification, sorting, calculating and summarising of data. These processes lead to generation of useful information, a computerised MIS processes information. In this case, the process consists of computation and skilful stylisation of management reports. These processes yield paramount decisions for all levels of management for operational, tactical and strategic control as well in the functional relationship between input and output of a process is mainly used to design and evaluate feedback systems.
Process: The total process of a system is the net cont
process of a system is the net contribution of many individual processes in the complished by ongoing activities in converting inputs to outputs.
For example, we consider a typical marketing inforn outputs could be perceived as follows:
Inputs: The inputs are given below:
1. Sales unit by each salesman for a period.
2. Estimate sales in unit of competitors or above.
3. Economic conditions and trends.
Outputs: The outputs are given below:
1. Sales by product.
2. Sales by salesman.
3. Sales by region, salesman and product.
4. Sales trends analysis.
5. Sales forecasts.
For conversion of outputs from inputs, it is imperau input quantities to vield desired output variables. This point of time. It is pertinent to note that the of new technologies, restructuring holds for corrections in the sales forecast. Similarly, emergence
stant variations in sales forecast rer sales staff or discovery of new market spaces result in constant
mare called the parameters of MIS. We iden These quantities which determine the state of the system are called the ures, manuals and computer-based system design which depends upon the cost constrain
system is identifiable through the functional effective implementation of our system. The structure of System relationship among the users and the computing devices.
Boundaries: Any system is identified by certain limiting factors which encompasses ite components, processes and its inter-relationships. These limiting factors are termed as boundaries of the system. Effective interfaces can be built amongst various systems by identification of their boundaries. All elements within the boundary contribute to the specific goals of the system.
Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Long Question Answers
Q.8. What are the importance and needs of MIS?
Ans. Importance of MIS: Roles, characteristics and goals of an efficient MIS in an organisatio be summarised in the following statements:
1. Information primarily is geared to assist managerial decision process and control.
2. Information communication is based on relevancy with
relevancy with respect to diverse nee management at different levels.
3. Timeliness of information (delayed information may be contrieved or obsolete and thereforfe useless for decision- making process.
4. Information flow is based on system approach within an organisation to exchange information. This information obliterates data redundancy and inculcates efficient and cost-effective usage of data storage.
5. Flexibility in information system is required
ent and cost-effective usage of data storage. on need basis.
Needs of MIS: The need of computerised MIS assumes significance due to following factors:
1. In the absence of computerised MIS, an organisation fails to meet its commitments persistently because of inappropriat and delayed information that results in inappropriate decision.
2. Manual information systems are difficult to be maintained and results in tedious paper work, non-productive overtime costs in respect of clerical stff, backlogs and disjointedness in information flows.
3. Manual information lets the organisation to acq diversification and/or expansion of strategic plans
because the management is engrossed in finding solutions to cover increasing operational problems
4. Major advantage of MIS in an organisation is age of MIS in an organisation is to improve management process with decisions
lacts rather than subiective approach or bureaucratic procedures. Benefits of MIS may be qualified in terms of monetary gains but can be explored radically. An efficient MIS
cates the over dependency or indispensability of expertise of any particular executive in an organisation. The unfair emphasis on procedures results in delayed and not always appropriate decisions. MIS supplements management by activity with management by results. Major impact of an efficient MIS is being felt on traditional pyramidal structure of an organisation. This
structure is flattering into a two tier system of analytical and operational levels.
Q.9. What is TPS? Discuss its functional areas and TX series for multi-platforms.
Or What is Online Transaction Processing System? How does it differ from manual systems? Explain with an example.(2009-10)
Ans. Transaction Processing System (TPS): Refer to Section-B, Q.7.
Functional Areas of TPS:Transaction processing system provides three functional areas:
1. System Runtime Function: Transaction processing system provides an execution environment that ensures the integrity, availability and security of data. It also ensures fast response time and high transaction throughout.
2. Administration Function: Transaction processing system provides administrative support that lets users configure, monitor and manage their transaction systems.
3.Application Development Function: Transaction processing system provides functions for use plications, including functions used to access data, to perform inter-computer in custom business applications, including functions used communications and to design and manage the user interface.
Services of TPS: The services of a transaction proce
The services of a transaction processing system runtime environment includes the following:
1. Scheduling and Load Balancing: Controlling the rate and order in which tasks are processed to give higher priority tasks the best response
2. Managing System Resources: Maintaining a pool of operating a company because it is system resources to be used for transaction processing, loading the source of data for other application programs and acquiring and releasing storage.
3. Monitoring: Monitoring the progress of tasks, suspending those waiting for input, adjusting task priorities and resolving problems.
4. Managing Data: Obtaining required data needed by tasks, coordinating resource managers (such as file servers and database managers),locking daata for update and logging changes.
5. Managing Communications: Monitoring communications with users and between servers and other systems, starting communications sessions as needed, managing data handling and conversion and routing data to the right destination.
6. Time Management: Managing transaction processing in relation to the passage of ti tasks at predefined times, logging the date a predefined times, logging the date and time of events onto disk and regularly control of the business system to provide degrees of automation.
Online Transaction Processing (OTP) System: Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) a class of systems that facilitate and manage transaction oriented applications typically for dat val transaction processing. OLTP has been used to refer to processing in which the system responds immediately to user requests. An ATM for a bank is an example of a commercial trans processing application
Today S OLTP increasingly requires support for transactions that span a network and include than one company. So new OLTP software uses client server processing and brokering software,
OLTP is different from manual systems which involve data processing that doesn’t make use of stored program computing equipment but uses other types of tabulating equipment, such as can programmed calculators
TX Series for Multi-platforms
TX series for multi-platforms is a transaction processing system which provides the transaction processing facilities that enable application programs to be implemented as transactions. The work of many users can be processed at the same time, by a single server or by multiple servers. To users, TX series for multi-platforms provides seemingly dedicated processing of their work, with the security of access, reliability of data update, and other benefits that transactions provide. It hides the complexity of the facilities from user applications by providing standard APIs.
In CICS, the transaction processing system is implemented by developing one or more CICS regions, which are individual administrative units that support multiple concurrent application programs.
CICS regions do the following:
1. Perform work that one or more clients have requested to do. For example, a user application that is running on one machine (the client machine) requests work to be done on another machine (the server machine). Typically, the region or application server accesses some data, applies some business logic to it and then replies to the client. Such service is provided by running one or more programs on behalf of a transaction.
2. Maintain and use a pool of multi-threaded processes, each of which provides a complete environment for running a transaction. In CICS, such processes are called application servers
3. Coordinate all the facilities that its application servers need. For example, they coordinate the security of the application servers, obtain data and storage that they need and log in transactions. Among other advantages, multiple CICS regions can be need to navide a distributed transaction processing environment for greater throughput and management of workload.
4. Subcontract many services to other servers that can do the work better and provide extra services that are needed for integrated transaction processing.
Q.10. Explain the term DSS. Explain its characteristics and components.
Ans. Definition of DSS: Systems that support decisions are Decision Sun any system that supports decisions and qualifies for decision non-trivial, practical decision-making situations. For example, planning a way to spend ten rupees in your pocket in a crowded marketplace and choosing scope of decision support, the former being too trivial and the latter too demanding on your involving emotions that too are out of reach of modelling! Similarly, a calculator on the executive desk or the telephone and fax machine in the office do support decision-making, but they are not DSS due to their simplistic nature. One would only consider the system as opposed to components that help in decision-making involving real world, non-trivial, organisational decision, like the location of a new plant or the introduction of a new technology.
Decision Support System is a system that support decision-making using flexible access to data and models for use by end users, the systems should provide fleible interfaces to support non-routine unstructured decisions often involving uncertain decisionsituations and multiple objectives with provision for incorporating the decision-maker’s individual style of decision-making.
Q.11. What is the difference between the ability of a manager to retrieve Information instantly on demand using an MIS and the capabilities provided by a DSS?(2015-16)
Ans. MIS provides only relevant information. However, determining what information is relevant may be difficult in situations in which analysis vary for different managers or according to the particular circumstances such as in the case of special problems. MIS is computer based network containing one or more operating systems, provides relevant data to management for decision-making purposes and also contains the necessary mechanism for implementing changes of responses made by management in decision-making.
MIS equips the system to handle a wide variety of applications by providing quickly their information requirements. It determines the ability of a manager to retrieve information instantly on demand. It improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision-making. It is used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organisational plans and procedures.
On the other hand, DSS supports on automation of decision. It allows the decision-maker to retrieve data and test alternative solutions during the process of problem solving. It provides fast and continuous access to information. Managers can get the information they want presented in a format that suits their needs. DSS produces text, tables, line drawings, pie charts, trend lines and more. Managers use a DSS to get a better understanding of a situation and to convey this understanding to others.
A manager can get more levels of detail when needed by drilling down through data. Marketing research surveys can be analysed in a variety of ways using programs that are part of a DSS. Many of the analytical programs associated with a DSS are actually stand alone programs and the DSS brings them together. DSS has various other capabilities also. It is a process of determining the input values required to achieve a certain goal. DSS is also particularly useful in medium risk and high risk environments. DSS allows decision markets to identify the most appropriate model for solving the problems.
Characteristics of DSS
Decision Support several ways of characterising the DSS approach to building systems. The notable are as follows:
1. Decision aid.
2. Semi-structured decision support.
3. What if analysis.
4. Effectiveness vs efficiency.
5. Satisficing principle.
6. Heuristic problem solving.
7. Individual preferences and decision style.
8. Trade-off analysis.
DSS emphasises support to the decision-maker and does not hold him. This has helped the easy acceptance of DSS approach by end users, thereby enabling thousands of real world meaningful systems to be built and used in such diverse areas such as education, justice, environment, manufacturing, public policy, etc. Most of these systems concentrate on (semi-structured decisions), leaving the fully structured decision to the domain of MIS. Structured decisions admit automation of the situations. Once an algorithm is implemented in the form of a computer code, checked out and implemented, there is little scope for the decision-maker to contribute. On the other hand, semi-structured decisions need continuous input from the decision-maker by way of preferences, trade-offs and value judgements that must be incorporated at different stages before the final result is produced by the system. While the scope of MIS is to provide answers to a number of questions by routine computation, DSS concentrates on insight into the system by providing what if sensitivity questions. To many end users, what if analysis is the maior contribution of DSS. The interface of DSS permits such questioning in a flexible manner by the decision-maker. Many of these questions cannot be determined accordingly, menu of possible questions cannot be anticipated and built into the system. Many of the what if questions would be guided by the results upto a particular stage, which obviously would be unknown before reaching that stage. Though many DSS have built in optimisation capabilities, the decision-makers prefer a satisfying series of what if questions. This appears more natural in the way decision-makers accept DSS and in consistency with the observations made by Simon
Possible, not all the the constraints of the problem are amenable to mathematical articulation; without such and articulation, optimisation may not be possible
leaving us with nko choice but to resort to satisfying. AlternatiVELY, FOR MANY OF THE PROBLEMS, THE COSt to find and optimal solution is so high, that it may not be worth of it, as the proponents of heuristic problem solving would argue. DSS also captures the individual preferences and decision style of the decision-maker. Since many of thesemi-structured decision involve multiple objectives, it is clearly necessary to capture the preferences of decision-makers to multiple objectives by way of articulating trade offs. It is well known that when faced 27with conflicting multiple criteria, such and approach is absolutely necessary and simple scoring and weighing schemes would not suffice. Simmilar is the case of decision situations involving uncertainty modelling. In such situations, recourse to perssonal or subjective probability is necessary, this in turn calls for individual preferences which must be elicited from the decision-maker through a series of interactions with the decision-maker. Detailed mechanisms are elaborated in the work of keeney and Raiffa, DSS must take into account such trade-off analysis in order to model uncertainty.
Q.12. With the help of example how process control system enables automation with which a small staff of operating personnel can operate a complex process from a central control room? (2015-16)
Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Long Question Answers
Ans. Process control system refers to feedback mechanism that provides information about the process characteristics and variables, process performance, action on the process inputs, transformation process and action on the output. It is the mass production of continuous processes such as oil refining paper manufacturing, chemicals, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, bio-pharmaceutical power plants and many other industries. Extensively used in process based industries, process control enables automation, with the help of which a small staff of operating personnel can operate a complex process from a central control room.
routine, unstructured decisions often involving uncertain decision situations and multiple objectives with procision for incorporating thef decision-maker’s individual style of decision-making
For example, raising the temperature in a room is a process that has the specific outcome to reach and maintain a defi controlled variable. At the same time it is the in input variable since it is measured by a thermometer The state of the heater (eg, the setting of the valve allowing hot water to flow through it) is called the manipulated variable since it is subject to con
whether to heat or not to heat. The desired temperature (20°C) is the set point. manipulated variable since it is subject to control actions.
Programmable logic controller or PLC is a commonly used con and analog inputs, apply a set of logic statements and generate a set of analog a
“gic controller or PLC is a commonly used control device used to read a set of digital above example, the room temperature would be an inpu
ogic statements and generate a set of analog and digital outputs. In the she set point to the input temperature and determine whethe
room temperature would be an input to the PLC. The logical statements compare the temperature constant. A PLC output then either opens or closesti put temperature and determine whether more or less heating is necessary to keep whether, more or less hot water is needed. More complex systems can be controlled by a Distributed control system (DCS) or SCADA system
Process control system can be characterised as one or more of the fokllow forms:
- Discrete: Discrete processs control is mostly usesd in manufacturing, motion and packaging applications. Robotic assembly, such as that found in automotive production can be characterised as discrete process control. Most discrete manufacturing invoklves the production of discrete pieces of product such as metal stamping.
(b) Continuous: Often a physical system is represented through variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket is an example of continuous process control. Production of fuels, chemicals and plastics are good examples
of a continuous process.
(c) Batch: Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in -specific way for particular durations to produce an intermediate or end result. An example is the production of adhesives and glues which normally requires the mixing of raw materials in
a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product.
(d) Hybrid: Applications having elements of discrete, batch and continuous process control are often called hybrid applications.