Q.13. What are the branches of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.)? (2014-15)
Or What is artificial intelligence? Briefly explain its applications and benefits.
Ans. Artificial Intelligence: Refer to Section-B, Q.15.
The various branches of artificial intelligence are as follows:
1. Natural Language Processing (NLP): Processing and perhaps understanding human natural language.
2. Knowledge Engineering/Representation: Turning, what we know about a particular domain into a form in which a computer can understand it.
3. Planning: Given a set of actions, a goal state and a present state, decide which actions must be taken so that the present state is turned into the goal state.
4. Machine Learning: Programs that learn from experience.
5. Pattern Recognition: When a program makes observations of some kind, it is often programmed to compare about what it sees with a pattern. For example, a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face.
6. Speech Recognition: Conversion of speech into text.
7. Search: The finding of a path from a start state to a goal state. A.l. programs often examine large numbers of possibilities, e.g. moves in a chess game or inferences by a theorem proving program. Discoveries are continually made about how to do this more efficiently in various domains.
8. Representation: Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used.
9. Inference: From some facts, others at for some purposes, but new methods kind of non-monotonic reasoning is default reasoning but the conclusion can be withdrawn if there is evidence to the contrary. For example, when we hear of a bird. We may infer that it can fly, but this conclusion can be reversed when we hear that it is a penguin.
10. Common Sense Knowledge and Reasoning: thsi is the area in which A.I. is farthest from human level. While there has beeb considerable progress, e.g. in developing systems of non-monotonic reasoning and theories of action, yet more new ideas are needed.
11. Learning from Experience: The approaches to A.I based on connectionism and neural nets specialise in that. There is also learning of laws expressed in logic. Programs can only learn who or behaviours their formalisms can represent.
12. Planning: Planning programs start with genera situation and a statement of a goal. From these a statement of a goal. From these, they generate a strategy for achieving the go strategy is just a sequence of actions.
3. Epistemology: This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving prohlo in the world.
14. Ontology: Ontology is the study of the kinds of things that exist. In A.I., the programs sentences deal with various kinds of objects and we study what these kinds are and what are their basic properties.
15. Heuristic: A heuristic is a way of trying to discover something or an idea embedded in a program. The term is used in various ways in A.I. Heuristic functions are used in some approaches to search to measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal.
16. Genetic Programming: Genetic programming is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random lisp programs and selecting the most fit in millions of generations.
17. Bayesian Network: A technique of structuring and inferencing with probabilistic information.
18. Neural Network: The study of programs that function in a similar manner as animal brains does.
Benefits: Refer to Section-C, Q.14.
Q.14. How artificial Intelligence is different from human intelligence? Explain expert system as an application of A.I. by giving suitable examples.
Or Write a short note on simulation of sophisticated and intelligent behaviour in different areas of A.L.
Ans. One of the goals of the A.I. is to simulate intelligent behaviour with a computer or by any other means. Areas which are related to A.I. and somewhat overlap include engineering linguistics, psychology, cognitive science and philosophy. The different areas in which A.I. is applied are shown in fig. (a).
Different areas in A.I. which are beneficial to us, are as follows:
1. General Problem Solving: It involve easoning about physical objects and their rela stions and their consequences. Several specific p calesman problem or other general problems, such as lo or the missionaries and cannibal problem, etc. can be taken up along with A.I. machines.
2. Expert Systems: These are A.I. programs wecific domain or specified areas. Even an inexpe Snert system and can solve problems and make systems do not replace an expert in that domain Expert systems have been built that can diagnose faults 1 diseases and recommend medicines. Expert systems are also financial planning.
3. Natural Language Processing: Natural languag one speaks. The term natural language is used to distinguish language modelled on natural human languages. For the computer to understand natural language is equally complex at present. In order to understand natural language it must know how to generate, understand and translate.
4. Understanding Natural Language: Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. contences is not enough either. This is because natural language has developed as an effective communication medium between intelligent beings. It can be seen as transmitting a ‘Mental structure from one brain to another which have highly similar mental structures. This similarity in contexts mainly helps in generating and understanding highly condensed messages. One of the areas of A.I. is the creation of programs that are capable of nderstanding and generating natural language.To build such computer systems, both the contextual knowledge and the processes for making effective inferences are required.
Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that is seen as a scientific discipline. Computer vision is concerned
with the theory and technology for building artificial systems that obtain information from images or multi-dimensional data. The world is composed of three-dimensional information from images orobjects, but the imputs to the human eye and computrs t.v, cameras are two-dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two-dimensions, but full computer vision rquires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of twodimensional views.
Computer vision is a technique for a computer system to search beyond the data that is give and to find out almost the real world by analysing and evalyating visual information. By search and pattern matching tefchniques a computer can pick up key features and then identify feactures that a human eye can miss.
Difference between Humn intelligence and Artificial Intelligence: Refer to Section-B,Q.17
Q.15. Discuss the concept of cross-functional Information system and its applications in today’s business world.(2013-14)
Ans. Cross-functional Information System: These are the systems which support business processes, such as product development, production, distribution, order management, etc. These information systems associate with different functional areas. These processes cut across the traditional organisational structure grouping employees from different functional specialities so as to complete the work. The organisations view cross-functional systems as a strategic way to use it for sharine information resources and hence improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. Applications in Today’s Business World
These information systems are seen in the form of enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, supply chain management, business intelligence.
1. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): It covers the techniques leuge B, and concepts employed for the integrated managementofbusinesses
Information OS as a whole so as to improve the efficiency of an enterprise.
Apart from the low cost of ownership and savings achieved by standardising one application to management business functional usage of ERP promises much more, With a successful inpl?ementation of and ERP system, top management can have a consolidated view of sales, inventory and receivables at the same time.
Improved Visibility: Due to the centralised nature of ERP system, organisations can track inventory levels on a daily basis, including inventory in transit and future consignments to be received. This visibility can enable organisations to control their working capital requirements to great degree of extent. This visibility also enables organisations to run their enterprise in accordance with their strategy, while empowering them to make quick decisions so as to pursue opportunities.
Reduced Operating Costs: One of the most immediate benefits from implementing an ERP is reduced operating costs such as lower inventory control costs, lower production costs and lower marketing costs. By avoiding duplication of information but not reinventing the wheel for common business processes, an ERP provides opportunities for cost reduction and value-added tasks, leading to increased margins.
Standardised Business Processes: Most ERP vendors design their products around standard best business processes, which are based on industry based practices. Organisations can use these business processes to standardise their own processes. This process consistency allows a consolidated view of the business across the distributed enterprise, enabling organisations to drive continuous improvements, as operations are streamlined and there is health synergy between departments and functions. The improvement also comes from transparency and reduction in human errors due to automation of inter-company transactions.
Improved Compliance: With ERP, organisations can enforce compliance that is related to different regulations, such as Sarbanes-Oxley or industry specific initiatives.
2. Customer Relationship Management (CRM): It is a comprehensive strategy and process of acquiring, retaining and making partnerships with selective customers to create superior value for the company and the customers.
The main objective of CRM is to raise the market efficiency by cooperative and collaborative processes which help in reducing the transaction costs and hence the overall development costs of the company.
3. Supply Chain Management (SCM): It is a wide network of manufacturer, supplier, assembly distribution and other logistics facilities which perform the functions of procurement of materials transformation of these materials into the finished products and the distribution of these products to the customers.
It is the systematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the technique: for the purpose of improving long-term performance of the companies.
4. Business Intelligence (BI): It represe planning process of a business enterprise. Theses analyse the corporate data so as to help in decision making.
Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Long Question Answers
Q.16. Discuss the applications of computers the applications of computers and information systems in today’s competitive business (2013-14)
Ans. Applications of Computers: These are as follow:
1. Banks: It is very hard for a bank to o They help a bank to save time and money, hence can be used to generate profits. Computers are used to track information related to customers and help taellers to keep a record of all transactions.
2. Business: Shops and other stores use computer software to calculate the bills. Accounting is done using computers. Trading can be done online.
3. Education: The capacity of learning using multimedia methods makes computer a powerful tool in enhancingthe process of learning. They also help in searching information about schools or colleges.
4. Health Care, i.e. Hospitals: Patient monitoring
can be done easily using computers. Through computers, the monitored status of the patient gets associate with the nursing and medical records by members of health care team.
5. Supermarkets: These are adopting complex computer systems that allow them to regulate their practices by providing business leaders with more information to make decisions saving both time and money.
Information System in Today’s Competitive Business Environment and Organisation: Information system performs three vital roles in any type of organisation:
(a) Support of business operations.
(b) Support of managerial decision-making.
(c) Support of strategic competitive advantage.
Let’s take a retail store as an example to illustrate this important point. As a consumer, you have to deal regularly withAthe information systems that support business operations at many retail stores where you shop. Most retail shops use computer-based
information systems to help them record consumers purchase, keep track of inventory, pay employees, buy new merchandise and evaluate sales trends. Store operations would grind to a halt without the support of such information systems.
Information systems also help store managers to make better decision and hence attempt to gain a strategic competitive advantage. For example, decisions on what lines of merchandise need to be added or discontinued or on what kind of investment they require are typically made after analysis provided by computer-based information systems. This not only supports decision-making but also help them to look for ways to gain advantage over other retailers.
winds of change. Organisations’ strategic objectives and buffeted on all sides by strong, frequently shifting winds of change. Organisation eses are undergoing significant and volatile changes, placing great pressure on firms their business processes are undergoing significant and volatile changes, placing great pressure on firms and their managers. The shifting winds of chnge in today’s business environment have made information systems and information technology vital components that help keep an enterprise on target so as to meet its business goal. Information technology has become an ingredient in several strategic thrusts that business have initiated to meet hte challenge of change. These include globalisation business process reengineering. Agile competition using information technology for compedtitive advantage.
Globalisation: Many dcompanies are in process of globalization, that is they arebecoming global enterprises. For example, businesses are expanding into global markets for their products and services, using global roduction facilities to manufacture or assemble products, raising money in global capital markets, forming alliances with global partners and battling with global commetitors for customers from all over the globe. Managing and accomplishing these global changes would be impossible without the global computing and telecommunication networks that are central nervous systems of todays global companies.
(b) The above figure shows how information technology supports globalisation. For example, Global companies operate at a competitive environment in which networked computer system make possible for the global markets that can instantly and cheaply process business transaction , companies can now operate globally, sometimes by forming global business alliances with other organisations including customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and government agencies. Todays networked global corporation can collectively exploit many national market niches that would be too small for any one national company to service. They can also pool skills from many countries to work on projects that need workers with a variety of skills that cannot be found in any one country.
Business Process Re-engineering: Businesses have used information technology for many years to automate tasks from automated bookkeeping to automated manufacturing. More recently business establishments have used computer-based information systems to support the analysis, interpretation and presentation of data in business making. –
However, Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is an example of how information technology is being used to restructure work by transforming business processes. A process is any set of activities which are designed to produce a specified output for a customer or market. New product development or the purchase of inventory are typical examples. Re-engineering questions all assumptions about “The way we do business.’ It focuses on how and why a business product process, so major changes can be made in how work is accomplished. BPR thus moves far beyond more cost cutting or automating a process to make marginal improvements.
Competitive Advantages: Using information technology for globalisation and business process reengineering frequently results in the development of information systems that helps to give a company a competitive advantage in the marketplace. These strategic information systems use information technology to develop product, services, processes and capabilities that give a business a strategic advantage over the competitive forces that it faces in its industry. These forces include not only a firm competitors but also its customers and suppliers, potential new entrants to its industry and companies offering substitutes for its products and services. Information technology can be used to implement a variety of competitive strategies to confront these competitive forces. These include:
1. Cost Strategies: Becoming a low cost producer, lowering your customer’s cost or increasing of your competitor must pay to remain in industry.
2. Differentiation Strategies: Differentiation from your competitors make customers per your products having unique features.
3. Innovation Strategies: Introducing unique products or making radical changes in bu processes that cause fundamental changes in the way, that business is conducted in your industry.
Finally, it is important that the use of information and information more and more advantage raises various ethical issues which they and their employees must be aware of.