Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers

Q.14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of EIS? 

Ans. Advantages of EIS: The advantages of Executive Information System (EIS) are as follows:

1. It contributes to strategic control flexibility. 

2. It enhances personal thinking and decision-making. 

3. It has the ability to analyses trend. 

4. It increases executive time horizon. 

5. It improves mental model of the business for higher executives. 

6. It helps in improving consensus building and communication. 

7. It can be easily used by top level executives and there is no need of computer experience.

8. It provides easy access to existing information. 

Disadvantages of EIS: The disadvantages of Executive Information System (EIS) are as follows:

1. It has limited functions and hence cannot perform complex type of calculations. 

2. It is hard to quantify benefits and also to justify implementation of an EIS. 

3. It is difficult in EIS to keep current data. 

4. It leads to less reliable and insecure data. 

5. The companies which are smaller can’t afford the excessive costs required in the implementation of an EIS. 

6. Sometimes, there are chances for system to become slow, large and even hard to be managed.

7. There is possibility of information overloading for managers. 

Q.15. What is A.L.? Explain in brief.

Ans. All human beings have intelligence which they use for problem solving. Intelligence when supported by knowledge and reasoning abilities becomes artificial intelligence. When such an artificial intelligence is packed in a database is known as A.I. system. A.I. System falls into three basic categories, ie the expert system (knowledge based), the natural language system (native language) and the perception system (vision, speech, touch).

Artificial Intelligence is a software technique applied to the non-numeric data expressed in terms

symbols, statements and patterns. It uses the method of symbolic processing, social and scientist reasoning and conceptual modeling for solving the problems. The A.I. system is finding applications in configurations, design, diagnosis, interpretation, analysis, planning, scheduling, training, testing all rafting. Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) system helps to avoid making same mistakes and to respons Bely and effectively to a new problem situation. The knowledge-based expert system is special system. It has wide applications in business and industry.

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers
Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers

Q.16. Discuss about the course objectives of A.I.. C. 

Ans. The course objectives of A.I. include: 1. To develop informed opinions about the present and past opinion intelligence debate.

2. To develop a simple, informal expert system by performing an the present and past opinion of leaders in the artificial 2.  To effort of knowlwdge engineering by a real, human expert.

3. To develop a series of WebPages that will serve as a cur various A.I. application areas, which may be suggested by the that will serve as a current ‘State of the art review of the course by participants,

4. To experience some actual hands-on demonstration software wn of current application areas in A.I. Examples of such are

on demonstration software while accomplishing the review Processing (NLP), genetic algorithms or artificial liareas in A.I. Examples of such areas might include Natural Language UF), genetic algorithms or artificial life environments, Neural nets of parallel computing environments, data mining, fuzzy log! intelligent tutoring system, etc.

Q.17. What is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence 

Differentiate between strong A.I. and weak A.l. 

Ans. Intelligence: Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. 

Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is a very wide field of Science and which makes intelligent machines and especially intelligent computer programs.

A.I. is classified into two classes: 

1. Strong A.I. 2. Weak A.I. 

Strong A.I. makes the bold claim that computers can be made to think on a level at least equal to humans. Strong A.I. research deals with the creation of some form of computer based artificial intelligence that can truly reason and solve problems. People advocating strong A.I. believe that it will eventually lead to computers whose intelligence will greatly exceed that of human beings. In strong A.I., the programs are themselves the explanations.

Weak A.I. simply states that some “Thinking-like’ features can be added to computers to make them more useful tool. Weak A.I. research deals with the creation of some forms of computer based artificial intelligence which can reason and solve problems in a limited domain.

Hence such a machine would act in some ways as if it was intelligent but it would not possess true intelligence.

Al researchers are of the opinion that goal of A.I. should be to build machines that help people in their intellectual tasks rather than do these tasks. ‘Helping is called weak A.I. and ‘Doing’ is sometimes referred to as strong A.I. 

Difference between Intelligence or Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

S.No Intelligence or human intelligence Artificial intelligence
1. Natural. Programmed by human beings.
2. Increases with experience and also hereditary. Nothing called hereditary but systems do learn from experience.
3. Highly refined and no electricity from outside is required to generate output. Rather knowledge is good for intelligence. It is in computer system and we need electrical energy to get wutput. Knowledge base is required to generate output.
4. No one is an expert. We can always get better solution from another human being. Expert systems are made which have the capability of many individual person’s experiences and ideas.
5. Intelligence increases by supervised or unsupervised teaching. We can increase A.I.’s capabilities by other means apart from supervised and unsupervised teaching.

Q.18. Define neural network. What are the needs and advantages of neural networks?

Ans. Neural Network: This involves the art of learning pattern recognition by processing sa problems and making their solutions. It looks for patterns in the set of examples and learns to those examples by combining the input patterns with the correct answer. It is used mainly for cro assessment and fraud detection.

Needs of Neural Network: These are as follows:

1. Partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. 

2. It is easy to create own organisation through it.

3. Its computations can be carried out in parallel. 

Advantages: The advantages of neural network are as follows:

1. It has a built-in capacity to adapt their weights to changes in the surrounding environments 

2. It has the potential to be inherently fault tolerant or capable of robust computation. 

3. It provides uniformity of analysis and design. 

4. Knowledge is represented by the structure and activation state of a neural network. 

5. It is designed to provide information not only about which particular pattern is selected but about the confidence in making decisions. 6. A neural network is non-linear, i.e. it is distributed throughout the network which is a highly important property. 

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers

Q.19. Explain the concept of fuzzy logical control systems.

Ans. Fuzzy Logic: This is an area in which A.I. is close to the human level. Fuzzy logic is an approach of dealing with imperfect data in a meticulous way. It is concerned with processing uncertain data and using the results/inferences in order to solve many unstructured issues to a great extent if not completely.

It is a way of reaching conclusions based on unimportant information. It is a mathematical method to handle imprecise detailed information. The values are assigned between and 1 to this imprecise information. The higher the value, the closer it is to 1.

Fuzzy logic is generally applied to financial analysis, pharmaceutical industry, wood processing, manufacturing of antilock brakes, etc. in the field of business. It is used by Google in Internet to find answers to search terms.

To create a personal computer-based fuzzy logic control system, it is important to: 

1. Determine inputs. 

2. Describe the cause and effect action of the system with fuzzy rules. 

3. Write a computer program to act on inputs and determine the output. 

4. A weighted average is used to merge the various actions called for by the individual inputs into one output acting on controlled system. 

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence MBA 1st Year Semester Short Question Answers

Q.20. What do you mean by virtual reality?

Ans. Virtual Reality (VR): It is a technology that allows a user to interact with a computer simulated environment. It uses a range of multi-sensory input/output devices (human computer interfaces) that enable the user to experience and interact with computer-simulated objects, entities and environments as if they actually exist. The most extensive use of VR is in the field of computer aided design. Other applications are in the field of medical diagnostics and treatment, flight simulation for training pilots and astronauts, game playing, scientific analysis, engineering and human resource training and recreation.

Impact of Virtual Reality: It can be described as follows:

1. It will be integrated into daily life and activity, and will be used in human ways.

2. Techniques will be developed to influence human behavior and their communication. 

3. There will be a gradual migration to virtual space resulting in important changes in economics world view and culture. 

3.The design of virtual environments is used to promote human freedom and well being.

Q.21. What do you understand by expert system? Discuss its advantages. 

Ans. Expert System: This knowledge-based system is basica ugh a reasoning and analysis ability. The role of a knowledge engine age-based system is basically involved in providing information tem. Their job is to interview experts in a subject area and embody of a knowledge engineer forms the foundation of the computer program for carrying out some task.

An expert system is an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems witch are difficult enough to require significant human expertise for their solution. Knowledge necessary to perform at such a level, plus the inference procedures used, can be thought of as a model of the expertise for the best practitioners of the field’.

Advantages

The advantages of expert system are as follows:

1 Operation in Unsafe Environments: Many tasks must be pe in ES can allow humans to avoid such environments. It enables workers to avoid hot, humid or toxic environments, such as nuclear power plant that has malfunctioned. This feature is extremely important in military conflicts.

2. Accessibility to Knowledge and Help Desks: Expert systems make knowledge accessible, thus freeing experts from routine work. People can query systems and receives useful advice. One area of applicability is the support of help desks. 

3. Ability to work with Incomplete or Uncertain Information: In contrast to conventional computer systems, expert systems like human experts, can work with incomplete, imprecise, uncertain data, information or knowledge. The user can respond with ‘Do not know’ or ‘Not sure’ to one or more of the system’s questions during a consultation and the ES will still be able to produce an answer’ although it may not be a certain one.

4. Provision of Training: ES can provide training. Novices who work with ES become more and more experienced. The explanation facility can also serve as a teaching device and so have notes and explanations inserted into the knowledge base.

5. Enhancement of Problem Solving and Decision-making: ES enhances problem solving by allowing the integration of Monte of top experts into the analysis. For example, an ES called Statistical Navigator was developed so as to help novices to use statistically complex computer packages.

6. Improved Decision-making Processes: ES provides rapid feedback on decision consequences, facilitate communication among decision-makers on a team and allow rapid response to unforeseen changes in the environment, thus providing a better understanding of the decision-making situation.

7. Improved Decision Quality: ES is reliable. It does not become go on strike and they do not talk back to the boss. Es consistently pay attention to details and motion and potential solutions thereby making fewer errors. Also, ES provides the same recommendations to repeated problems.

8. Ability to Solve Complex Problems: One day ES may explain complex problems whose solution is beyond human ability. Some ES are already able to solve problems in which the required scope of knowledge exceeds that of any one individual. I miss allows decision

needs that of any one individual. This allows decision-makers to gain control over Complicated situations and improve the operations of complex systems.

9. Knowledge Transfer to Remote Locations: One of the greatest potential benefits of ES is its ease of transfer across international boundaries.

10. Enhancement of Other Information Systems: Expert Systems often provide intelligent capabilities to other information systems. Many of these benefits lead to improved decision-making, improved products and customer service and a sustainable strategic advantage. Some may even enhance the organization’s image.

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