BBA Business Communication Study Material Advertising : BBA Notes Sample Model Question Answer Papers.
Bba Business Communication Study Material:- Advertising
- Advertising is the most ingenious way of communication.
- Advertising is found everywhere in the world.
- Literally the word ‘advertise’ means ‘to turn or pay attention to’.
- There are mainly two kinds of advertisements – informative and competitive or persuasive. The purpose of informative advertising is to educate the consumers while that of competitive advertising is to convince the consumers that a particular brand of goods is better than others.
- Recently ‘institutional’ or ‘reputation’ advertising has come up in a big way. Its aim is primarily to project the image of an organization.
- The salient features of institutional advertisement are – a suggestive or forceful title, introduction to the organization, highlighting the achievements of the organization, statement of the organization’s commitment to public good, attractive layout, and repeated emphasis on the brand/name of the organization.
- The basic elements of an advertisement copy are – audience exposure, audience desire, audience of the message, and audience resolve to act.
- There are various kinds of advertisement copy, viz, suggestive copy, expository copy, educative copy, institutional copy, narrative copy, humorous copy.
- The structure of an advertisement copy comprises title, illustrations, text, trade mark, and name, address, fax etc of the manufacturer/supplier.
- There are two types of advertisements appearing in papers – ‘display advertisements’ and ‘classified advertisements’. The aim of classified advertisements is to bring two parties together.
- Advertising is the most resourceful communication activity harnessing all possible means/media of communication – verbal and nonverbal, oral and written, visual, audio, audio – visual, and the internet.
- Advertising makes very ingenious use of language. Certain salient features can be easily isolated.
- For certain reasons advertising has come to be regarded as ‘deceptive marketing communication’.
- Consumer awareness is the best defence against deceptive advertising.
- Business houses are now becoming increasingly aware of their social commitments.
Advertising is the most exciting, ingenious, colorful and resourceful way of communication. There are few places in the world where one would not find advertising of some kind. It can be a road side hoarding in a remote part of a country, a crude illustration on the side of a building, or a compelling, eye-catching photograph printed in a newspaper or magazine. And now, of course, every television programme is interspersed with advertisement, tempting the viewers to go in for ‘the good life’.
The word ‘advertise’ means ‘to describe or present (a product, organization, idea, etc.) in some medium of communication in order to induce public to buy, support, or approve of it’. It has been derived from the Latin word ‘advertere’ that means ‘advert’ that in turn means ‘to turn or pay attention to’. So, by its very nature, advertising is an eye – catching, ‘attention turning’ communication activity. The aim of most advertising is to make the public buy a product of one particular company in preference to the products of other companies.
In some form, however primitive, advertising has always been there to attract the customers. There was a time when person to person advertisement was enough to sell the goods produced by a single, small producing unit. But modern advertising is very different. It was introduced by a Texas salesman Albert Lakers who in 1904 transformed the genteel advertising of newspapers more organized and complex, advertising became less of an art and more of a science. The modern advertising man likes to think of himself as less of a salesman than a ‘consumption engineer’ operating between the manufacturer and the consumer.
There are mainly two kinds of advertisements:-
- Informative, and
- Persuasive and competitive
It must, however, be said that both these kinds are overlapping and cannot always be distinguished. The purpose of informative advertising is to ‘educate’ consumers by giving then information about the goods and services available. The aim of competitive advertisement, on the other hand, is to persuade consumers to buy one particular manufacturer’s brand of a commodity rather than another’s competitive advertising has, therefore, come to be associated with the marketing of ‘branded goods’. If a manufacturer is successful in persuading a sufficient number of consumers that his product is superior to all other’s even though there is hardly any difference, it becomes possible to increase sales without reducing prices.
The effective of competitive advertising, therefore, is that the prices are kept up, the selling costs are passed on to the consumers. As everyone knows in the case of pharmaceutical companies advertising is the largest and most important item of the costs involved in marketing products. That is why there is such a stupendous difference between the manufacturing cost and the MRP (maximum retail price) of a medicine available over the counter.
Modern age is an age of advertising and, in recent years, there has been unprecedented growth in big business and institutional advertising. It is not obviously or plainly concerned with selling particular products, but displaying high – minded sentiments about life, the world and business in general. This is ‘prestige advertising’, ‘company advertising’, ‘reputation advertising’, or ‘institutional advertising ‘. It carries a multiplicity of names in the advertising world.
Usually the object is clear – such advertisements convey the aims of a political party, a government defending its internal polices, appeals for OXFAM) Oxford Committee for Famine Relief) or Age Care India or CRY (Child Relief and You), our support demanded against a government proposal to build a new airport in an undesirable location or to build a dam near a river valley, or fulsome praise for some business house’s invaluable contribution to the national economy. “Company advertisements”, says a brochure issued by the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising, “Can influence the public to regard a company or an institution in a certain way, as forward looking people with a vigorous policy of industrial and scientific research, as friendly, helpful people with ideas or making the world a better place if we will only give them the chance; as salve to public conscience as people who CARE; as craftmen in the old tradition of personal pride in a job well done.:”
A look at four model advertisements
In the light of the ongoing discussion about advertising, let us have a look at the four following advertisements that appeared in newspapers, magazines and journals recently.
All these four advertisements appeared in widely circulated publications. It is to be noted that, like all publications, they have a target audience – an audience for which they have an immediate appeal, or, in other words, for whom they have straight relevance. At the same time, a discerning reader can also recognize a wider appeal. They are therefore, also of interest to general public. Thus they acquire an educational value. Their attractive layout also makes an aesthetic appeal that is now widely recognized as an essential ingredient of effective advertising.
In fact they are a result of great mental exercise. Modern day advertising has become highly professionalized. That is why the business sector and advertising companies look for bright young graduates who are really good in copy writing.
Advertisement No. 1 is aimed at inviting the attention of suitably qualified people in the field of software development. It holds the promise of satisfying job. Advertisement No. 2 entices investors to buy ‘Business Standard’ so as to get the latest information regarding opportunities for investment. The third advertisement has been issued an behalf of Government of India with a view to inviting foreign investment. The fourth advertisement speaks volumes about the TATA Group’s social commitments and then focuses an TATA Tea and their beverages. All these advertisements are both educative and persuasive. It has been mentioned earlier that these two qualities/characteristics of advertisements are over – lapping. And they are becoming more and more so with advertising itself emerging as an industry, harnessing the best of talent, communication skills, educational/information technology developments and growing demands and expectations of manufactures, customers/consumers/job seakers and public at large.
A closer look at these advertisements that can safely be regarded as models of present – day advertising throws up the following salient features-
- A suggestive title/slogan or forceful declaration.
- A reader – friendly introduction to the organization.
- Highlighting the achievements of the organization/government.
- Convincing arguments in favour of the organization and its products/service.
- Clear and emphatic statement of commitment to public good.
- Attractive layout, enriched with photos, diagrams, maps etc.
- Repeated emphasis on the brand/name of organization.
Designing/writing out such an advertisement requires great skill and the part of the copy writer. The first and foremost aim of an advertisement is to influence the public/audience so as to make them act in a particular way. This requires the gearing up of the communication process in such a way as to achieve the following aims.
- The reader/audience must be exposed to the communication.
- The reader/audience must be able to perceive what action is desired by the advertiser.
- The reader/audience must retain the message of the advertisement.
- The reader/audience must act on the basis of the facts and arguments given in the advertisement.
Needless to say that advertisement strategy right from preparing the copy, timing, frequency etc is a function of sophisticated professionalism. Only a highly skilled copy writer can decide whether he has to prepare (a) a suggestive copy (b) an expository one giving all the details of a product/ service with pictures/illustrations, (c) an educative copy giving valuable scientific or technological information or an (d) institutional copy highlighting the strength/reputation of a manufacture, (e) narrative copy telling a story or recalling an incident appealing to the customer’s sentiments or (f) humorous copy writer must be thoroughly familiar with different styles of writing. Wide reading in literature and journalism is indispensable. Whatever by the nature of the advertisement copy the following points emerge as the essential elements of its structure –