- Title bold or prominently displayed.
- Illustrations: photos, charts, figures etc.
- Text: Descriptions, explanation, appeal etc.
- Brand/Trade Mark.
- Name, address, fax, e-mail of the manufacture or supplier.
The types of advertisements discussed above are of the popular ‘display’, type. They are guided above all by the ‘sale’ point of view. Whether the advertiser is launching a new product or felicitating the patrons on the occasion of an anniversary, or recruiting personnel at the level of regional/branch manager he must ‘sell’ himself, his idea, his image. His advertisement will, therefore, be prominently displayed on a quarter or half or may be on a full page of a newspaper or its weekly supplement set apart for such purposes.
Display advertisements may also be related to
- Improving company image.
- Opening a new factory or sales office.
- Explaining management stand on a strike by employees.
- Informing the consumers and the general public about malpractices prevailing in the market pertaining to company’s product, infringement of trademarks copyrights etc.
- Publication of notices under various statutes.
- Inviting tenders or sale of scrap.
- Public issue of shares, debentures, etc.
- Appointment of dealers and distributors.
- Making a detailed policy statement, clarification etc.
The classified advertisements that appear on the second and sometimes on some subsequent pages are in small print and being in a large number give a crowded look. They are called ‘classified’ because they are grouped into different categories or heads like ‘situations vacant’, ‘situations wanted’, ‘motor vehicles’, ‘pets’, ‘property for sale/purchase’, ‘matrimonial’ etc., Even though they look closely huddled in columns after columns and running across pages after pages they have become a necessary part of our life. They give us valuable information about many important things.
Classified advertisements are different from ‘display’ advertisements in the sense that they are not sale or promotion advertisements. Instead of attracting or persuading buyers they perform the function of bringing together two parties that need to meet or contact each other. If, for the post of a private secretary or assistant, the advertiser knows that there are candidates already looking for an opening through the ‘classified’ columns, he simply ‘informs’ them about the vacancy and the rest follows its own logical order”.
Given Below Are A Few Sample Classified Advertisements
- “Wanted Restaurant cum Banquet in charge having minimum 7 years experience in a reputed restaurant/banquet hall. Excellent salary with accommodation. Contact phone – Mobile”.
- “Wanted Female receptionist, fluent in English, experienced, computer literate. Also wanted accountant who can independently handle computerized accounts: 4 – 5 years experience. Contact”.
- “For sale 500 sq. mts freehold, 2 1/2 storeyed top class construction, three sides open, teakwood used. Genuine buyers contact”.
- “ENHANCE YOUR PROFITS” – Best online integrated business automation accounting software. Largest installation base. Young Engineer Consultants, Dealers’ enquiry solicited”.
- “OFFICES, SHOPS and GODOWNS – Furnished, A.C. cabins/work stations with complete support services available at Connaught place and Vikas Marg. Contact – Business centre……..”.
As compared to display advertisements, the classified ones are characterized by brevity, clarity and completeness within their limited space. A display advertisement by its very nature is elaborate. But a classified advertisement is guided as well as constrained by the economy aspect of a quick job. Every square inch counts.
So for we have dealt only with the use of the printed word in advertising. But this is not all. Advertising is the most resourceful communication activity taking place between the manufacture/marketer an the consumer. In order to lure the consumer it exhausts all possible means/media of communication – verbal and non verbal, oral and written, visual, audio and audio – visual, and now state – of – the – art Info-tech. The use of spoken word along with all manner of arresting gestures has been in use from time immemorial. Then, with the use of drawings, pictures, and posters the visual means of communication came to be used in a big way. Drawings and cartoons and specially commissioned painting still remain a very important means of communication for the purpose of advertising – that is to catch the attention of the consumer/potential consumer. The famous painting of a child making bubbles given in ‘Pears Cyclopedia’ was commissioned by the manufactures of Pears Soap. Every now and then paintings of master painters of all ages are published along with the write – up. In fact whole series of paintings of the greatest artists of the world have been commissioned and reproduced by prestigious advertising agencies and behalf of important names in business.
The importance of radio and television in advertising cannot be over – emphasized. Through the commercial programmes of radio, brand names of all kinds of products have reached the farthest nook and corner of the world. Television has brought about the most effective combination of audio and visual elements of communication. So much so that a large number of viewers, especially teenagers and women, are more interested in the commercials than in other programmes. Every TV viewer is familiar with the soap operas, the dramatic programmes that were initially sponsored by soap companies. In fact, now TV is more commercial than anything else. Even the regular news bulletins have commercial breaks very colorfully and musically reminding the viewers of the omnipresence of ‘BBC’, ‘Hard-talk’, ‘KLM’, ‘STAR TV’, ‘Raymond’s Suiting’s’, ‘Surf Ultra’, ‘DAEWOO’, ‘SAMSUNG’, ‘SONY’, and so an. And now comes in the internet that has taken the business world by storm. Inspired by the publication of the best seller, ‘Competing for the Future’ in 1994 the Madras Advertising Club organized a seminar to enlighten the people in business about the vast potential of the internet and its meaning for advertising business in the days to come. “What is the future”, asks Sushila Ravindranathan in ‘Business India’, February 9 – 22, 1988, and says, “The future lies in electronic media, the world wide web, the internet, online services. According to Bates World Wide, London Internet is increasingly being used for market research as it has become an interactive medium. It is going to dominate the print medium in the near future because it will have immediate impact on the Emotional state as they view the ad will become very much easier.
The language of advertisement makes a very interesting and exciting area of study. Language, as we know, is a systematic set of symbols or a code mutually understood by both the sender and the receiver. There are certain well laid out, conventionally used and universally understood rules governing the language or code used by the participants in any communication event. Now, in advertising the sole aim being to catch the attention of the consumer/audience, all kinds of liberties are being taken with the code/language. It must also be noted that English is the most flexible and hence the most widely used language in the world, fast undergoing change owing to a large extent to the ingenuity of the people engaged in advertising industry.
In the first place the language of advertisements is full catchy slogans/captions at once arresting the mind of the audience. Everybody remembers captions like the following.
‘LIMCA IS VERI VERI LIME N LEMONI’
‘TASTE THE THUNDER’
‘THIRST AID CENTER’
‘WITH YOU FOR YOU ALWAYS’
‘LANE DRIVING IS SANE DRIVING’
‘BACK TO MOTHER NATURE WITH EXOTIQUE’
As Eric Partridge says, “…..of all the arts, advertising has the most decidedly come – hither eye and the most Provocative ways.” That is why catchy captions and slogans sometimes verge on crazy slogans in which figures of speech like pun, alliteration, metaphor, onomatopoeia etc., find a free play as, for examples, in the following.
‘THIRST EXPERIENCE’ (pun on ‘first’)
‘UTTERLY BUTTERLY’….. (Alliteration)
‘CHOOSE CHOICE CHEESE’ (Alliteration)
‘CRUNCHY MUNCHIES’ (onomatopoeia)
Code switching and code mixing are fast becoming an integral part of the language of advertisements. On the whole, English is the language of business and advertisements worldwide. But most of the people in business are bilingual or multilingual. The result is that, in order to achieve mass appeal and sound convincing, many commercials mix or switch the code. For example, quite often advertisements on TV in India give a savory mixture of English and Hindi. In a popular advertisement aimed at promoting vegetarianism, Maneka Gandhi exhorts the viewers to eat vegetables highlighting their nutritive value in English and Finishes off in Hindi. “Accha Hai”.