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Chapter 15: Improvement In Food Resources- Class 9th NCERT Science Notes.
For the existence, all living organisms essentially require food. Early human beings started hunting animals and collecting fruits, flowers and roots of forest plants to meet their food requirements. Food required for growth, development and body repair. It also protects the body from diseases and provides energy for doing all life functions.
Among all the living organisms, only green plants are Autotrophs- They make food for themselves. In fact green plants combine carbon dioxide (Co2) and water (H2 O) to produce carbohydrate (Food). Contrast to green plants, animals and huaman beings are Heterotrophs, i.e, they depend on plants and other animals for food.
Sustainable Agriculture And Organic Farming:
Our country ranks second in population growth around the world. According to an estimate, by the year 2020, indian population is risen up to 1.5 billion. To feed such a huge population, we will require at least 241 million tons of graind production per annum.
Suistanable agriculture can be defined as the adoption of various farming and production management techniques to maximize agricultural yeild. Implementing such activiteis would help in:
- consrving natural recources,
- maintaining enviornmental balance and
- coping with changing human needs.
To assure sustained livelihood of indian farmers and related persons, it is necessary to adopt sustainable agricultural practices such as mixed farming, crop rotation, inter cropping, and intergrated farming (also known as intergrated agriculture)
It implies a combination of agriculturr with other forms of culture such as pisiculture(Fish culture), Apiculture(Bee keeping), Sericulture(Rearing of silk worms to produce silk), Poultry farming, piggery, live stock production (animal husbanary), etc.
Advantages Of Sustainable agriculture:
- Achieves the integration of natural biological cycles and controls.
- Protects and renews soil fertility and the natural resource base.
- Optimizes the management and use of farm resources.
- Reduces the use of non-renewable resources and purchased production inputs.
It is the practice of raising crops which have not been polluted with the use of manures, biofertilisers and biopestisides. Instead heathy cropping systems that provied optimum nutrients to plants and keep the pests as well as weeds undfer control are used. In organic farmjing there is a litte or no use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides. There is no toxicity due to pollution of crop plants, soil, water or air. Organic wastes are rwecyled in the form of manures. Biofertilizers include the nitrogen fixing organisms (bacteria and blue green algae) and mineral solubilizing bacteria.
Advantages Of Organic Farming:
- It prevents pollution of any component of our enviornment.
- Farm wastes are recycled.
- The food obtained from organic farming are free from any pesticides or toxic chemicals.
- Organic farming maintains the soil health.
- The cropping system of organic farming keeps insects pests and weeds under check.
Improvement Of Crop Yields:
Agriculture is the sicence and practice of farming, which mainly involves raising of livestock, cultivating land, raising crops, harvesting and marketing proceduce. It is furthur sub divided into many categories:
- Agronmy: It includes the production of field crops and management of the soil.
- Horticulture: Branch of agriculture that deal in growth and management of fruit and flowering plants in orchards and gardens.
- Olericulture: Reffers to growing and manging the vegetables.
- Aquaculture: the farming and harvesting of plants and animals in bodies of water for economical purpose.
(Agronomist: An agronomist studies the crop dicease, selective breeding, crop rotation and climatic factors, tests the soil, investigates the cause of soil erosion and designs land reclamination and irrigation schemes.)