MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF ADVERTISING APPEAL
The success of any advertisement, to a great extent, depends upon advertising appeal. Anything that induces a prospect to buy an advertised product is called advertising appeal. Without appeal the advertisement fails to draw the attention of the prospect and thereby fails to achieve its objective. Hence the advertisement must have such an appeal for the readers that the prospective buyers should feel a keen desire to possess the advertised product. The word ‘appeal’ provides the clue-something that touches the reader directly without his having to exercise his mind to find out what the advertiser tries to communicate to him. Some definitions of advertising appeal are given below:
1. According to the Committee on Advertising, “An advertising appeal is the inducement used by an advertiser to stimulate a buying motion.”
2. In the words of Sandage and Fryburger, “A form of stimulus used by the advertisers is generally referred as the advertising appeal. They further added, “An advertising appeal is an incentive which is used by the advertiser to induce the buying instinct.”
Kinds/Classification of Advertising Appeals
Appeals may be classified in several ways. Appeals are broadly classified as rational, emotional and moral appeal. Rational appeals ar those directed at the thinking process of the audience. Emotional appe are those appeals which are not preceded by careful analysis of the prons and cons of making a buying decision. Moral appeals are those appeals to the audience which appeal to their sense of right and wrong. Now it is up to the advertiser to select as to which type of appeal will attracy the maximum number on prospects. The modern classification of advertising appeals may be given as under:
1. Appeal to Perception. It includes all appeals to sense. They are directed to readers sight, taste, hearing, sound and touch. Among these sight is the most important appeal. Taste is also an important appen applied in the case of selling foodstuff, the sense of smell is associates with the odour of perfume.
2. Appeal to Discrimination. Here an appeal is made to prospective buyer to select one particular product in preference
another, price, price, qualiu, durability, economy, performance, resale value Ease of use are appeals the rational buying motives of the buyer by trying these verinis appeals, It Is possible to determine which one in dominant in the case of a buyer in view. It is also called rational appeal It is directed to the thinking process of the prospect, auch as, mary Consumer poods are purchased for their quality, such as clothing food temo, beverages etc.
3. Emotional Appeals. There are generally known as human interest appeals which include any feeling of joy, grief, love, fear, hatred Emotional appealk are based on human emotions. Erections are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to purchase a particular product. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions which will motivate product interest or purchase interest in the prospect. Thus, emotional appeals are of two types:
((i) Nepative Emotional Appeal, and
(ii) Positive Emotional Appeal.
An advertiser may try to induce a particular bebavioural change by emphasising either positive or negative appeals or a combination of both For example, an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect, low cost relative to other investment, the services the insurance company provides, early settlement of claims and so on, or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance the danger of losing one’s possession or the Tavages of fire Positive appeals use the strategy of reducing a person’s anxiety about buying and using a product, while negative appeals use the strategy of increasing a person’s anxiety about not using a product or service. In general, a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with persuasive message, the negative appeal stresses his loes which he is bound to suffer if he fails to comply. Fear appeal is a negative appeal and is most important among emotional appeals, and also the most effective. On the other hand, positive advertising highlights product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer’s behaviour. They are love, pride, prestige, humor and joy etc. Most baby food products have a mother’s love appeal. For example, mother’s love for the baby has been appealed in an advertisement of Johnson’s baby soap. It says, “Gentle as a kiss of your 1 baby’s tender skin.” It further goes on to say, Johnson’s baby o because Johnson and Johnson care more for your baby as you do.” However positive appeal is not effective When the adviser shows as much care more for the child as his mother does.
4. Direct and Indirect Appeals. Direct appeals are those which Clearly consumers with the about a given need, followed
by a message which explains the advertised brand as a product whid satisfies that need. In industrial advertising, some advertisements ma have a direct appeal, satisfying the customer’s technical need.
Indirect appeals are those which do not emphasise a human need but allude to a need. Indirect appeals are either product-oriented consumer-oriented or may be the combination of the two. Product oriented indirect appeals are-(i) feature-oriented appeals, such as Cherry shoe polish, Lux soap, Colgate toothpaste etc. (ii) use-orientei appeals, (iii) product comparison appeals. On the other hand, consumer oriented appeals are-i) attitude-oriented appeals. (ii) significant group oriented appeals, (iii) life style-oriented appeals, (iv) in ge-trienter appeals, (v) sub-conscious oriented appeals etc.
5. Moral Appeals. As already said, moral appeals are those appeal to the audience which appeal to their sense of right and wrong. Thes are often used in messages to arouse a favourable response to socia causes, such as prohibition, adult literacy, anti-smuggling and hoarding equal rights for women, consumer protection, rural development assistance to weaker sections of the society, social responsibility donations for floods and for famine relief operations, employmeni generation etc.