MBA 1st Natural and Technological Environment Long Question Answer Sample Paper :- In this Post you will find MBA 1 year related to important questions related to the answer such as the Introduction Micro Business Answer and many other important questions. Long Questions are answered in English Section C
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. Explain technological leadership and followership.
Ans. Technology Leadership: Industry leaders are those companies which maintain their competitive positions through early development and application of new technologies. However technology leadership imposes costs and risks to the organisations which aspire for maintaining technological superiority or leadership. Given table lists the advantages and disadvantages of technological leadership
Advantages and disadvantages of technological leadership are as follows:
|First- mover advantage||Greater risks|
|Little or no competition||Cost of technology development|
|Greater efficiency||Costs of market development and customer education|
|Higher profit margins||Infrastructure costs|
|Sustainable advantage||Costs of learning and eliminating defects|
|Reputation for innovation||Possible cannibalization of existing products|
|Establishment of entry barriers for competitors|
|Occupying of best market niches|
|Opportunities to learn|
Technology Followership: Not all firms are equally prepared to be technology leaders, nor would leadership benefit each firm equally. Whether a firm chooses to be a technology leader or a follower depends on how the firm positions itself to compete, the benefits gained through the use of a technology and the characteristics of the firm.
Technology followership also can be used to support both low cost and differentiation strategies. The follower firm can learn from the experiences of the leader firm and can avoid the costs and risks associated with technological leadership, thereby helping to establish a low cost position. Followership can also support differentiation. The follower can learn from the leader and can adapt the products to more closely fit buyer’s needs.
MBA 1st Natural and Technological Environment Long Question Answer
Q.2. What are the effects of technological developments on globalisation Process:
Ans. Effects of Technological Developments on Globalisation Process Technological develop ments are conceived as the main facilitator and driving force of most of the globalisation processes Before elaborating on the consequences of several technological developments, we must go through the definition of technology as a sociological term, so that we can further explore the social and political role of technology in the globalisation process.
Technology can be defined as the socialised knowledge of producing goods and services. We can describe the term technology with five important elements: production knowledge, instruments possession and change. Our definition of technology as a socialised knowledge can be better conceived with these elements. Now we shall briefly look through them:
1. Production: It has something to do with production (of goods and se to produce something either goods (e.g. clothes, television sets, cars, etc.) security, teaching, etc.) Technology improves our capacity to produce.
2. Knowledge: Technology has something to do with knowledge. Technology is a result of intellectual activities. Therefore, technology is a type of intellectual property. Today technology is developed through research and development institutions as integral parts of the universities.
3. Instrument: Technology has something to do with instruments. extensions of the human body, whenever an instrument is used there is te boay, whenever an instrument is used there is technology involved. The instruments indicate the usage of technology by human beings. Instruments are as computers, vacuum cleaners or pencils, but sometimes there are immaterial instruments too, such as databases or algorithms in computer programming.
4. Possession: Technology has something to do with possession. Those people who possess technology also control it. Controlling technology has usually something to do with economics and politics. Therefore we can speak of technologically rich and poor countries and the struggle among them usually in the forms of patents, transfers and protection of intellectual rights.
5. Change: Technology has something to do with change.
With technology, the world has changed drastically. Most of the innovations from the technological advances have very important effects on the lives of people of the world, which has witnessed radical changes especially after 1960’s revolutions on the microelectronics technologies. Even there are some people who argue that the history is made by technology as a result of their highly criticised techno-determinist view.
All these aspects of technology justify our definition of technology as the socialised knowledge of producing goods and services, and this definition makes a clear differentiation between the terms technology and technique (technics). Therefore if we speak about the effects of technology on globalisation, instead of techniques or technical developments, we refer to technology as a social and political term.