1. Marmavo is a suitable place which is near to the Goa capital, Panaji. It is only five kilometers away from main vegetable and fruit market of Goa.
2. This area is also connected with Panaji railway station.
3. Some dealers have to store their goods in cold storage situated far away from the market, incurring necessary expenditure to transport and facing a good deal of inconvenience. In my opinion, order should be placed for the purchase of the cold storage plant.
Q.18. Make out a complaint to the postal department stating that a certain parcel you booked a month back has not reached to the address. Also request them to have an enquiry to find its whereabouts. (2012-13)
Ans. Complaint Letter to Postal Department
Rachna Cloth Emporium
(Wholesale dealer of cotton, wool and silk garments)
22, Lajpat Nagar,
Date-14th April, 2016
Subject: Delay in delivery of goods.
Today we have come to know about the parcel booked booked by us has not reached the destination yet While tallying the goods with the order letter it has been found that the parcel was sent a month back pay que attention in finding the parcel. Enquire about it as it is necessary to deliver. This parcel has the following goods:
1. 40 oswal blankets.
2. 15 rolls of blazers.
You are requested to pay immediate attention to the matter mentioned above.
For Rachna Cloth Emporium
Q.19. Write an enquiry letter to Mahima Cloth Centre, Allahabad on behalf of Amit Cloth Centre, Dehradun regarding various types of cloth.(2015-16)
Ans. Enquiry Letter
Amit Cloth Centre,
Dehradun Telephone no.-223345
22, Sarojini Vihar,
Date: 2nd August, 2016
Mahima Cloth Centre,
Subject: Enquiry regarding dispatched items.
We have received today the goods (clothes) dispatched by you but while tallying the go order letter, it has been found as if the goods were sent without giving any attention to
re sent without giving any attention to the order letter. The main discrepancies are given below:
1. 30 Oswal blankets have not been sent at all.
2. 10 rolls of blue blazer have been sent instead of 5.
3. 30 woollen shawls have been sent without any order.
4. Instead of 320, only 300 silk sarees have been sent.
I want to enquire about the same and you are requested to please pay immediate atte matter mentioned above.
For Amit Cloth Centre
Q.20. You as a marketing manager hae haen et research to know the market potential of a new product which your company is Intending to launch in the market in near future. Prepare a draft of business report.
Ans. Draft of a Business Report
The new students working in market research might define the process as:
1. Gathering data from the markets.
2. Conducting customer surveys.
3. Determining the needs of customers.
4. Testing the products in the market place.
5. Estimating the potential sales of product.
Report on a New Product Launches in the Market
Let us take an example of a new product launch of Burger King. Burge King. Burger King routinely conducts a product screen study to determine which new concepts for menu items are most appealing to the marketing department, research and development, advertising agencies and marketing partners, such as Coca-cola.
The ideas are then tested among a national sample of consumers who are ageu visited a fast food restaurant during the past four weeks. They are shown a photo of the propose product with a short description and the selling price. They are then asked how likely they would be make a special trip to Burger King to purchase the product, how unique they think the product is and how they perceive its value for the money.
The products that achieve Burger King’s action standards, then go into testing. First, in hours sensory testing is done with employees in Burger King’s test kitchen. Next, the product is tested in a taste test study in which consumers sample it as the people who qualify for the study and are willing to try it in Burger King’s restaurants,
Q.21. What is an office memo? What purpose does it serve? Also discuss the guidelines to write a memo.(2012-13, 14-15)
Ans. Office Memo or Memorandum: A memo or memorandum is a short piece of writing used by an officer of an organisation to communicate within the organisation. It is the most common form of written communication between people or departments or even branch offices of an organisation. Some organisations insist that even small events and requests, telephone conversations on official matters, etc. should be recorded in the form of memos.
Memos are used in the organisation even when the communication can be easily affected by way of speech. This is because of the following advantages:
1. Memo can be used for giving the instructions clearly.
2. Memo as in the written form thus leaves no scope of confusion or ambiguity.
3. Memo as in the written form thus can be used as a record of facts and figures.
4. Memo can be used to establish future accountability.
5. It gives time to the receiver of communication to deliberate upon it and react accordingly.
Purpose of Writing Memo: Memos can be used for any official communication. The purpose of writing memo can be varied, anything which the person communicating prefers to communicate in writing
Usually memos are used for:
1. Conveying routine message.
2. Submitting periodical reports.
3. Communicating changes in the organisation.
4. Writing suggestions.
5. Issuing instructions to the staff
6. Asking certain special information
7. Confirming a decision made at phone.
8. Granting/withdrawing certain permission to do something
9. Calling explanation or some matter of conduct
Format of a Memo or Memorandum
5. Issuing instructions to the staff
6. Asking certain special information
7. Confirming a decision made at phone.
8. Granting/withdrawing certain permission to do something
9. Calling explanation or some matter of conduct
Format of a Memo or Memorandum
Guidelines for Writing Memo: Careful planning and clear thoughts are required for writing a good memo. The process and guidelines for writing a memo involves the following stages:
Stage 1. The Exploratory Stage: In this stage:
1. Note down everything you want to convey about the topic. Presentation
2. Use personal pronouns. is a commitment by
3. Do not evaluate what you note at this stage. the presenter to help the
Stage 2. The Drafting Stage: In this stage: audience do something to
1. Write the purpose of the memo. solve a problem.
2. Underline every item that is important to your reader.
3. Divide the underlined items into separate category.
4. Write a heading for each category.
5. Decide the sequence of different categories and number them.
6. Start writing the memo.
In the case of short memnos, they can be written in direct way narrating the facts in the logical manner. But in the case of long memos, it is divided into following parts:
(a) Introduction: In the introductory part, the purpose and subject of memo is stated
(b) Discussion: It is the main part of memo and should be limited to a few para’s that
narrate exactly what a memo wants to convey.
(c) Concluding Remarks: This section reviews the main points and problems the end keep in mind and specifies the action the reader should take.
Stage 3. The writing Stage:
At this stage, the draft memo is reviewed and revised to give it a final shape. This is du the memo brief, clear and final.
While writing a memo, the writer should consider the following guiding points:
1. Gather all references and data before hand.
2. Organise the facts in logical sequences.
3. Get quickly to the point.
4. Be accurate about the facts.
5. Specify clearly the action to be taken.
6. Use active verbs and positive tone.
7. Avoid language which is too technical.
Q.22. What do you understand by ‘Presentation’? What purpose does it serve?What are its essential features and types?
Ans. Presentation: Preser dience or a learner. Presentations come in nearly as many forms as there are life situations. In the business world. There are sales presentations, informational and motivational presentations, first encounters, interviews, briefings, status reports, image building and of course the inevitaable training sessions.
Although, individuals most often think of presentations in a business meeting context, there are countless occasions when that is not the case. For example, a non-profit organisation presents the need for a capital fund-raising campaign to benefit the victims of a recent rragedy; a school district superintendent presents a program to parents about he introduction of foreign language instruction in the elementary schokols; and artist demonstrates decorative painting techniques t oa group of interior designers; a horticulturist shows garden slub members or homeowners how they might use native plants in the suburban landscape; a police officer addresses a neighbourhood association about initiating a safety program.
Purpose of Presentation: There are three basic purposes for giving oral presentations:
1. To inform,
2. To persuade,
3. To build goodwill.
Features of Presentation: There are following features of presentation:
1. The process of offering for consideration or display.
2. A social introduction as of a person at court.
3. A demonstration, lecture or welcoming speech.
4. A manner or style of speaking, instructing or putting oneself forward.
5. The manner of presenting especially the organisation of visual details to create an overall
6. The formal introduction of a person, as into society or at court debut.
Types of Presentation: In recent years, it has become increasingly common for individuals more so employers request job applicants who are successfully shortlisted to deliver one or more presentations at their interview, debut or other important event that needs to be highlighted in a more official way. The purpose of the presentation in this setting may be to either demonstrate candidates skills and abilities in presenting or to highlight their knowledge of a given subject. It is common for the presenter to be notified of the request for them to deliver a presentation along with their invitation to attend the event. Usually presenters are only given a title for their presentation and a time limit which the presentation should not exceed. Be sure to stress on current presentation etiquette before preparing slide presentations. How you use this visual aid can make or break the presentation.
1. Informative Presentation: Include talks, seminars, proposals, workshops, conferences and meetings where the presenter or presenters share their expertise and information is exchanged.
2 Persuasive Presentation: Sometimes called transactional, they are often motivational. Persuasive presentations are designed and delivered to come out with a specific goal in mind.
3. Goodwill Presentation: Goodwill presentations, which often take the form of after dinner speeches, are often designed to be entertaining, e.g. by sharing video highlights of a football season or anecdotes from a presidents term.
4. Multipurpose Presentation: Presentations usually have more than one purpose. A presentation to employees may be announced as an informative session on new regulations but in reality may also be an all out effort to persuade workers to buy into the new rules.
5. Sales Presentation: Sales techniques are complex and require two essential items for success in sales presentations which are knowing and understanding your audience and building rapport (refer to know your audience).
6. Political Presentation: Presentations in the political arena are primarily grouped in the persuasive category. To be effective, they must include lots of information and also build goodwill.
7. Motivational Presentation: Motivation is another form of persuasion, but one that somehe takes on a more fervent, highly charged tone.
8. Interviews Presentation: Alob interview is yet another presentation form, where the present. should make an effort to identify his or her immediate audience, but also take great pains to know much as possible about the larger audience.(2009-10)
Q.23. Mention the different elements of the presentation.
Or When giving a presentation, what are the techniques you would use for gaining and keeping audience attention?
Ans. Essential Elements of a Good Presentation: The following elements should be included in every presentation:
1. Introducing Yourself: This is your first opportunity to engage and connect with your audience. Get personal and share your own story. Who are you? Why are you there? What will you be doing during your time with them? Likewise find out about your audience. What are their names? Interests and Backgrounds? In this way, you can all learn what inspiration and curiosity you Share.
2. Inspiration and Involvement: Learners get more involved when they move outside preconceptions and open up to new ways of thinking. Build your audience’s engagement by exploring why your topic is important. Ask leading questions that help the group express what they care about as individuals. Why is this important to you? Have you ever wondered?
(a) Connect your topic to your learner’s interests, community, school or current events.
(b) Connect these interests to your overall presentation goals.
3. Background your Audience Needs: Each group has their own journey to make in order to learn what you want to teach. The information you present, as well as your presenting style will depend on the specific group you are addressing,
(a) If you can find out about your group in advance, grade-level, science background, etc.
(b) Use your knowledge of audience and your teaching goals to determine what information or vocabulary the audience needs to learn.
(C) Introduce important new words and ideas in ways that respect learners needs:
(i) Use pictures or objects to share ideas.
(ii) Ask learners to define words for you.
(iii) Write definitions for the group as you go.
4. Learning Experiences: You are setting the stage for your audience to do its own learning. It is important to let each learner make discoveries in a hands-on way, because this makes the information you are providing their own. The key steps to keep in mind are:
(a) Provide context for activities with related demonstrations, assisted use of tools and clear
(b) Provide materials tools and instructions that allow each learner to have a personal hands-on experience.
(i) Let learners do their own thinking-in-large or small groups or as individual
(ii) Help them draw conclusions from what they experience.
(iii) Provide ways for learners to document and share their conclusions.
5. Wrap up and Closing: Are there things that you would like to say to wran presented and to say good-bye to the students?
(a) Directions for clean up of materials, if necessary.
(b) Conduct a discussion what did you learn?
(c) Suggest ways they can find out more on their own.
6. Support for Follow Through: Support your audience! Build their confidence by with appropriate tools, materials and references that they can use independently. Are an on-going contact, or will you be leaving handouts, additional activities, or further want your group to continue their learning after you have gone–come prepared with about how they can do it on their own.
Q.24. What is a speech? Explain the characteristics of a good speech.
Ans. Speech: Speech is the vocalised form of him of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These e of many thousands of different types of mutually uninteng their set of speech sound units, differ creating the human communication exists for the deaf in the form of size at types of mutually unintelligible human languages. A gestured form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language.
Speech repetition, the ability to map heard spoken ewords into the vocalisations needed to recreate that plays a key role in the vocabularly expansions in children and speech errors. Several academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, congnitive science, communilcation studies, otolaryngology and computer science. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.
Characteristics of a Good Speech
The characteristics of a good speech are as follows:
1. Keep it Brief: A speech should be kept in brief. The speaker must not forget that his audience is there to hear the person you are introducing, not you. He should consider himself the medium between the audience and the speech. The longer the speaker talks, the more impatient you will be. It e also important to remember that your guest speaker is primed and ready to go. by delays appearance with a long-winded introduction, you are leaving your listeners ‘hanging in wait. For the sake of your audience and your guest, keep your introduction short.
2. Use only Accurate Material: Get a brief bio from your speaker hand and stick to the facts. Practice this material out loud so that you are comfortable with your words. Be able to pronounce the individual’s name properly as well as any other information that is pertinent to your presentation. There is nothing worse than listening to someone stumble over pronunciations or words because of lack of knowledge or practice.
3. Adapt your Material to the Audience, the Occasion and the Speaker: Giving personal or private information about the speaker is in poor taste; however, relaying something the speaker said to you in advance, if appropriate to the occasion, would be perfectly permissible. In your introduction, describe your speaker by giving information that is relevant to the occasion and to your audience. By the same token, were you to introduce the same speaker to entire audience for a different event, your introduction would probably be different.
4. Create Anticipation with your Words: Delivering a brief bio on the speaker is certainly appropriate but adding some exciting words about what they will learn, hear, or experience creates anticipation. Another means of creating excitement is to save the speaker’s name to the very end of your introduction. In doing so, you create drama. A dramatic introductory speech is much more exciting than a summary of the individual’s biography. 0.25. Give steps for making a delivery of presentation more effective.
Ans. Steps to make a delivery of presentation more effective are as follows:
1. Know your Audience and Understand its Perspective: Whether your goal is persuasion, or simply to inform you need to understand your audience, its level of expertise and how your message will resonate. Crafting a presentation for a group of high school interns would be very different compared to an executive report to management, pitching a sales idea or addressing a hostile audience bout why the company needs to cut benefits.
2. Research Thoroughly: You absolutely must be an expert on the subject. Okay, you don’t have be the worlds leading authority, but you have to know the critical facts as well as much of the littlewn information. Just talking about things everybody already knows is a recipe for boredom. Its at all unusual to spend weeks or months getting the facts alternate opinions and comments from Putable sources as well as what the general community may think.
3. Document your Sources: Where you get your information is as important as the informan itself. Without solid, peer-reviewed data, you are just a person with an opinion. The audience, in th exercise, is expecting facts and projections.
4. Write your Speech: Off-the-cuff talks are fine if you’re on a soap box in a park. In a large roo with hundreds of attendees, you just can’t afford that. You might not exactly read the speech, but that certainly not uncommon, especially if you are going to be using a teleprompter. Print the speech in large print so you can easily see it at a glance without appearing to read from it. You want to give the appearance of talking to the audience instead of reading to them, but you also want the words and phrases to be precise and pre-determined.
5. Prepare the Slide Show: If you are going to use a slide show, the visuals you will show to the audience need to be designed to support what you are saying. Avoid showing a slide that has an thordinate amount of detail the visuals are for impact. A spreadsheet with dozens of rows and columns will be basically meaningless. Titles on the slide should reflect the content of the slide and support what you are saying. Do not read the slide assume the audience can read. The visuals should support your words, not duplicate them. There are very few things you can do that will have a worse impact than reading what the audience can read on their own. If all you are going to do is put up slides and repeat what’s on them, then they don’t need you. Your speech should have more content than the slides.
Dont pack slides too densely. If you put too much information up at once, the audience will lose focus Have your bullet points move around ten words or less. This is a PowerPoint not a Power Essay.
Don’t use too many flashy graphics and animations. They distract attention from the information content of the slides and they will distract attention away from you, the speaker and what you are saying,
Time your presentation to fit the information. Make sure the colour schemes of slides are appropriate for the presentation venue. In some situations, dark text on a light background looks best, while sometimes light text on a dark background is easier to read. You might even prepare a version of your presentation in both formats just in case.
6. Rehearse Alone: Do this repeatedly. Read your speech and watch your presentation dozens of times. This needs to be so familiar to you that you know what slide is next; what you are going to say about each one, how you will segue between slide. When you begin to get completely bored with doing this and you know it by rote, then you are ready for the next step.
7. Do a Dress Rehearsal: Enlist some people that you trust to give honest opinions. These should be people who are reasonably representative of your expected audience. Give them the whole presentation. Have them make notes during the rehearsal, where are you confusing, what is particularly good?
8. Tweak the Presentation: Take what you learned in the dress rehearsal and make modifications, Try to put yourself in the audience when you do this. What will they hear when the slides are on the screen?
9. Prepare yourself: So far, the steps have all been about preparing your presentation. Now, its time to think about you. Unless you do this for a living, you are going to be nervous. Do some visual image of yourself in front of the crowd; doing a perfect job; getting applause, oohs and aahs.
10. Introduce the Presentation: You have done a great job preparing, you know the material, you have rehearsed, you have visualised perfection, in short, you are ready. One of the very important things to which you must pay close attention is your physical demeanor. You don’t want to look too stiff and you don’t want to look too casual. You should have already got the right stance and movement in your dress rehearsal.
11. Present the Material: Obviously, this is the meaning of the subject. Remember you are the expert. Also remember you will be nervous. How to avoid ‘Stage fright varies from person to person (you have heard the ‘Imagine them in their underwear’) but one serious tip is to use eye contact. Present to one person-then another-then another. Don’t think of it as a large crowd you are talking to one person at a time. Remember that you are presenting the material.
12. Question and Answer: This is optional, but can be an important way to clarify key points d be certain that your audience received your message. How to do a Question and Answer session orthy of an article in itself but there are a few things you should consider. You must be in control.questions will undoubtedly be less than friendly.
When you get a question, first repeat the question to the audience so everyone can hear it, then roceed to answer. Take a few seconds to formulate a clear answer before replying to a question. Failing do so can lead to wandering or vague responses that do not reflect well on you as a speaker.
13. Exit the stage: Thanks everyone for their attention, tell them the presentation is available in printed form. If you will be available for personal consultation, make sure you mention that. Don’t and a lot of time in the exit; you are finished and to exit graciously
Q.26. How would you design a presentation? What would be the visual support you will consider for your business presentation? Is appearance and posture play vital role for the presentation? (2011-12)
Or Enumerate the various points to draft a presentation.
Ans. Drafting or Designing a Presentation: To create a winning presentation, you need to know how to tailor it for your audience and then how to present it effectively.
The first step is to decide on your content. All the bells and whistles in a presentation program can make you forget that you still have to say something that will influence your audience. Using fancy graphics with whiz-bang animation doesn’t relieve you of the responsibility to carefully plan and organise the text. Believe me, your audience will see right through you if you do not. Basically, all presentations should follow this structure:
1. Attention-getting opener.
2. Brief overview of the topic.
3. Describe what your audience needs, that is the problem.
4. Explain how your solution meets that need.
5. Tell how your audience can implement your solution, that is action steps.
6. Brief summary and conclusion.
Of course, in order to describe what your audience needs, you need to research your audience. A cardinal rule of presenting is to find out as much as you can about your audience before you create your presentation. In a worst case scenario when no information is available in advance, chat with your audience as they enter the room to learn as much as you can and adjust your presentation on the fly. In order to explain how you can meet their needs, you have to know your product, service or solution thoroughly. Then, leave most of your knowledge out and include only the most important points. People can only comprehend and remember a few points in one sitting,
By organising a presentation into this six-step structure, you can ensure a logical flow that your audience can easily follow. Also, the material in each step must be simple and organised. The best way to put together a presentation in power point is to create the text using the outline pane or view. In other Words, start creating your presentation wit on your text in outline form, you can easily write down your ideas, see the flow of the entire presentation at once and move ideas from one place to a as from one place to another so they flow more logically. Do not forget to add examples and anecdotes as you go. Once as you go. Once you have completed this process, you not only have a meaningful presentation, but power point has created your entire presentation for you, slide by slide.
You are not finished yet. Now you shown that high quality visual effects add to the effectiveness and influence of the presentation. Visual impact contains three elements and they are all important; colour, graphic images and layout.
Consider colour first because your colour choosing a set of colours for your presentation, think about the the entire presentation. When choosing a set of colours for your preentation, thik about the overall impresion you are trying to make. Do you want to evoke boldness, comfort, authority or somes other quality?
Then take the following into account:
1. Whichever colour you choose, make sure that all your text contrasts enough with your background to be easily legible.
2. Traditionally, dark backgrounds are used for on-screen presentations compared to overhead transparencies) because light colours are too bright and make your audience uncomfortable However, medium backgrounds can also work when you want a softer impact. Just make sure that the text is clearly visible.
3. Avoid certain colour combinations which may be difficult to look at or which some people cannot distinguish, i.e. red/green, brown/green, blue/black and blue/purple.
4. Use red with care because it has certain undesirable connotations, such as financial loss However, it can be used sparingly for contrast.
5. Blue is the most common colour for business presentations. To avoid the bland blues, use a background with some variations, Green is believed to stimulate interaction and is often used by trainers and educators to generate a response. Save one or two colours for contrast and emphasis. If you overuse them, they lose their effectiveness
The most professional looking backgrounds are photographs or
textures rather than solid colours. You can manipulate photographs Visual aids in photo editing software to soften and colourise them to your are used to help clear an chosen background colour. vagueness or to remove
1. Next choose your graphic art. Go for emotional impact if you complications and difficulties can. Photographs are especially effective. Avoid cartoons. The in understanding. standard guidelines is that 50% of your slides should have some graphic element. Don’t overdo the graphics. If you add animation, keep it low key and appropriate.
Here’s a professional tip: Auto shapes are especially effective to help your audience visualise your presentations structure. For example, if your presentation has three sections, create a shape with the sections name (such as ‘Action Steps’) and use it on each slide in the section. Vary the colour for each section. Place the shape at the top or bottom of each slide.
Slopy layout makes a presentation look unprofessional but few users know how to layout the elements of slide. Graphics artists create a grid on a slide to help check for balance. In PowerPoint, you can do the same thing with guides. Choose View > Guides to see the guides. To add guides, press Ctrl and drag a guide to a new location. PowerPoint has a number of other features to help you layout a slide with precision, such as snapping to the grid and to objects, aligning and distributing objects, creating a master slide and so on.
Visual Support for Considering a Presentation: Refer to Sec-B, Q.15.
Importance of Appearance
Appearance is an important aspect of presentation skills if you want to encourage the audience to listen to what you have to say.
Presentation begins the moment someone recognises you as the speaker. Avoid writing down notes at the table before you speak. People might get the impression that you did not carefully prepare. Be sociable in the activities that precede the speech. Look pleasant, meet and greet people and show a genuine interest in the other person. Show by your expression and actions that you are engaged in the activities which precede your presentation.
Importance of Posture
There are certain postures that convey a negative attitude and you should practice using less of them. Folded arms or crossed legs usually send the message that you are being defensive or are nou interested in what is happening. It also shows that you are withdrawn from the entire situation and are not ready to embrace any new idea that comes out.