MBA 1st Year Network And Internet Long Questions Answers Study Notes
Q.8. What is packet switching? Why is this method used for digital data communication between computers? (2009-10)
Ans. Packet Switching: It is a digital networking communication method that groups all transmitted data—irrespective of content, type or structure into suitably sized blocks called packets. Packet switching features delivers variable bit rate data streams over a shared network. Packet switching contrasts with other networking method called as circuit switching which is a method which set-up a limited number of dedicated connections of constant bit rate and constant delay between nodes for exclusive use during the communication session.
Two major packet switching modes exist-connectionless packet switching also known as datagram switching and connection oriented packet switching also known as virtual circuit switching. In the first case, each packet includes complete addressing or routing information. The packets are routed individually sometimes resulting in different paths and out of order delivery. In the second case, a connection is defined and preallocated in each involved node before any packet is transferred. The packets include a connection identifier rather than address information and are delivered in order.
Packet mode communication may be utilised with or without intermediate forwarding nodes. In all packet mode communication, network resources are managed by statistical multiplexing or dynamic bandwidth allocation in which a communication channel is effectively divided into an arbitrary number of logical variable bit rate channels or data streams. Each logical stream consists of a sequence of packets which normally are forwarded by the multiplexers and intermediate network nodes asynchronously using first-in, first-out buffering. In packet switching, different messages can pass through different routes and when there is a dead time in the communication between the source and the destination, the lines can be used by other routers.
Packet switching is commonly used for digital data communication between computers because of the following reasons:
1. Packets are short, the communication links between the nodes are only allocated to transferring a single message for a short period of time while transmitting each packet.
2. Another benefit is pipelining. The total delay for transmission across a packet network may be
considerably less than for message switching.
Q.9. Explain how computers are being used in banking and financial Institutions.(2009-10)
Ans. Computers Used in Banking: Com mnet is full of information and services related to banking and investing from general advice about planning for retirement upto the minute stock prices, plus more and more banks are offering customers ibkube access to their bank account. You also can manage your own stock portfolio online.
Computers are used in banks for a variety of reasons. The ning for retirement upto the minute stock prices plus more and more banks are offerin ices related to banking and investing from generate profits.
2 The number of products and services a customer has is also stored in computers,
3. With a computer, banks can analyse ageing reports and track the cus checks returned due to non-sufficient funds.
4. Computers help tellers keep a record of all transactions for the day. When customers make deposits and withdrawals, cash checks, open checking accounts, acomp track all of the information.
5. A bank can use computers for new loan applications and credit card applications.
6 Computers can be used to track customers who are delinquent on their loan and the card payments.
7. Computers can keep a record of all communications that a bank employee may have with a bank customer including collection activity and other deposits.
Computers Used in Financial Institutions
Online financial services have become a popular way for people to take care of all their monetary needs from the comforts of home. Whether it’s planning for the children’s future, for retirement, investment planning or simply managing your assets, utilising one of the several reputable financial services who have set-up shop online may be worth considering.
Protecting your privacy should be one of your top priorities at all time, as while it may be perfectly safe to do things, such as your banking online through a secure, protected site with a reputable financial service, the overall safety relies greatly upon you, the end user and the choices you make. Remember your financial service will not send e-mails asking for your password or other sensitive information and when there is any doubt, always contact the company via telephone before doing anything.
When it comes to handling your finances online, protecting your privacy also entails the important matter of keeping your passwords safe and secure. Don’t choose a password with your birth date or address and instead create one that’s completely unique and meaningless, writing it down and keeping it in a safe place and also changing the password every month.
Your computer should be equipped with the latest, antivirus software and firewall protection in order to keep trying eves away from your vital, personal information. Any financial services vou deal with should also have a secure encrypted website and those details should be easily visible on their website.
Also never access any of your accounts from a computer in public places such as a cafe, coffee shop or library.
There are currently a wide range of solutions available for those looking to invest either for growth Income potential. It is a well known fact that people today are simply not investing enough for their rement and with longer that over life expectancies but it is imperative to fully plan for the years ahead.
Some online financial services take advantage of tax efficient investing by collective investmen and bonds. An online financial planner will be able to recommend the best course of action depending upon your future plans and offer advice regarding potential returns as well as the level of risk involved.
Protecting Your Future
As we all very well know, life can often be unpredictable so it’s important to protect for the future and not just in terms of retirement but in the event of an unexpected and expensive or life changing event
With careful planning and attention to detail, safeguarding your family when it comes to matters such as bereavement includes preparing a will that will be tax efficient for your family and finding viabla ways of reducing your IHT (Inheritance Tax) liability, all of which are possible with an experienced online financial service.
Also be sure to take advantage of your service resources on their website which often include helpful tips to read or download to print for later on informative brochures, guides and tools to give you everything that you will need to make sound financial decisions.
Computers are used extensively in office administration to perform the routine clerical work Routine uses of computers are:
1. Computers are used extensively in accounting and there are multitude of computer software for accounting.
2. Payroll accounting was the first commercial area to become widely computerised.
3. Computer helps to exercise the type of stock control needed by the organization. It updates the sales and purchases record.
4. Programming can be done for any sales accounting system.
5. Costing and budgetary control can be affected through the computer, the computer will point
out the variations from the planned performance.
6. The computer also helps greatly in production planning and control.
MBA 1st Year Network And Internet Long Questions Answers Study Notes
Q.10. What do you mean by IT (Information Technology)? Describe its advantages and disadvantages. Discuss its applications.
Ans. Information Technology (IT): IT is the study, development, design, support or management of computer related information system consisting of hardware as well as software applications. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and other computer software to store and retrieve required information securely.
Advantages of IT: These are as follows:
1. IT has brought the world closer together.
2. It has allowed the world’s economy to become a single interdependent system.
3. Communication has become cheaper, efficient and quicker.
4. IT has helped to make the business processes computerised.
5. Opportunity of new and interesting jobs is the biggest advantage of IT.
Disadvantages of IT: These are as follows:
1. IT has created a downfall of jobs for lower and middle level people.
2. It has brought along privacy issues.
3. It has contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one.
4. Internet has made job security a major issue.
Applications of IT: The various applications of IT are as follows:
1. A strategic use of Internet technologies is to build an E-business which develops its business value by making the values of customers its strategic focus.
2. IT is a key ingredient in re-engineering business operations by enabling radical changes to the business processes that improve their efficiency and even effectiveness.
3. IT can be used to improve the quality of business performance by supporting programs of continual improvement in meeting.
4. A business can use IT to help it become a rapidly growing company by prospering in rapidly changing markets with broad product ranges.
5. Forming virtual companies has become an important competivtive strategy in today’s dynamic global markets. Their managers depend on It to help them manage a network of people, physical resources, knowledge to take advantage of changing market opportunities.
6. IT is used in knowledge management system to support the creation and dissemination of business knowledge and its integration into new products, services and other business processes.