If a communication is a social need for an individual, it is the lifeblood for an organisation. If we as an individual, communicate 70% of our walking time, an organisation communicates 90% of its working time. The other side of oral communication is your ability to present your viewpoint. In order to be an effective communicator, try to present facts, not your opinions, keep to the point, keep the listener’s interest in mind, support your arguments with suitable example and body language ie proper eye contact, proper posture, right kind of head movements supported by different gestures, etc. ie. your body language should also speak what you exactly want to convey.
Q.7. Examine the importance of body language in the oral communication. What effective measures should be taken to make the oral communication more understandable?(2010-11)
Ans. Importance of Body Language: Body language is the hidden language we communicate with, it is estimated that between 60% and 93% of our total communication is non-verbal. Most of our body language communicates very much on an unconscious level.
People can’t live without each other, we are social beings. We communicate when we are in contact with others. For this, we make use of spoken and written language. We can also communicate without words. This kind of communication tells us something about the relationship between people. When we contact with a person, we have to make it clear to each other how the content of a spoken message needs to be interpreted.
Usually body language occurs unconsciously yet the body language we decide to a large extent the quality of our communication we can learn to use our body language for a purpose as well as learn to understand and interpret body language of others. It is important to note that body language has different meanings in different cultures. It is used especially to express feelings.
Body language plays a big role in intuition as it gives us messages about the other person that we can interpret at an intuitive level. It is therefore necessary to get to know our own body language first. we should learn about it and recognise it in others as well as in ourselves.
Effective Measures to Make Communication Understandable: Following are the effective measures to make communication understandable:
1. Try to simplify your thoughts before communicating.
2. You must analyse the intent of each and every message.
3. Consider the overall physical setting whenever you communicate.
4. You must discuss with others, where appropriate in planning communication.
5. Prepare yourself for transmitting the message properly.
6. Be sure your actions support your communication.
7. Seek not only to be understood but understand.
Q.8. What kind of communication is meant by paralanguage? Also mention different forms of paralanguage with examples.(2009-10)
Ans. Paralanguage plays an important role while speaking or listening in oral communication. The speaker or listener makes use of sounds like ‘Hum’-‘ha’ or clicks his tongues or chuckles. These sounds though do not have a semantic value are in fact important plotters in maintaining an unbroken communication chain. They are effective tools of listening. Empathetic listening is characterised by the use of paralanguage. Our speech is affected by the volume of our voice, the speed of articulation, etc and such sounds are made by clicking of our tongue, chuckling, etc. We come across people whose voices give excitement. Some others races the decibel level of their voice. These are people who shriek or shout when provoked. All these lead to an evaluation of the personality of the communicator.
Different forms of Paralanguage
These are different forms of paralanguage commonly used while communicating.
1. Audible sounds like singing, laughing, crying, clearing the throat, whistling and groaning are the vocal characteristics. These sounds serve to communicate some meaning that characterizes the vocal characters.
2. Vocal segregates or fillers are meaningless words or sounds that are used to punctuate or pace sentences. People use filler expressions like ‘Right?’. You know what I mean or ‘OK’ to fill in their silences. So, vocal fillers are awkward parts of speech and hence they should be avoided as far as possible. Since these fillers produce a lack of confidence and also a feeling of stress, so they must be avoided.
3. The process by which sounds, syllables and words are formed when tongue, jaw, teeth, lips and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds is called as articulation. When the sounds of such type of words are omitted, substituted or distorted, such poor articulates emerges.
Q.9. Discuss the significance of written communication for any organisation. What are its merits and demerits?
Ans. Significance of Written Communication in a Business Organisation: For any business, organisation has to correspond in writing with its customers, branches, auditors, media, persons, Employees, shareholders and others with whom it has a business relationship. Written form of ommunication is the most convenient way for any business to reach across the people within the
cality and neighbourhood and also customers, prospects and other public spread across other cities, egions and even countries. Written form of communication has an extremely wide range of reach and is also very useful for any business whose operations are widely spread out.
The world of business cannot be thought without written communications were in ant form-hand written, typewritten or printed: every business organisation whether a banking sector em worm of electronic company hotel industry college library, etc, dealing with people requeitations, price lists, offers, quotations communication. Dealing with people may comprise enquiries, invitations, recoveries and reminders, orders announcements, due notices, new arrivals, clearance and disposal, recoveries and reminders, orders and a host of other such kind of activities of everyday relevance for any through written communication.
Advantages/Merits of Written Communication
Written communication has certain clear advantages which are detailed as under:
1. Written communication has an extremely wide reach.
2. Written communication can be well organised to convey the precise message.
3. Written communication, unlike oral communication can be effective as a standalone medium
4. Written communication can be sent in a language that the receiver can read and understand.
5. Written communication can carry the much desired personal touch.
6. Written communication can be erased, revised and re-written.
7. Written communication, when stored, can be exactly reproduced or repeated.
8. Written communication, very importantly, creates records and reference sources.
Demerits/Disadvantages of Written Communication
The demerits of written communication could be detailed as under:
1. If in written form of communication, the written text is poorly drafted, it may be misconceived or misunderstood or it may also create a confusion in the mind of the receiver. It may also lead to creation of conflicts between the parties to the communication.
2. Written communication is more expensive for transmitting the short message. It also takes a
long time to convey the message.
3. Once a written communication is dispatched, there is very little scope of making amendments for the inaccuracy or rectification of the errors.
4. Written form of communication is of formal nature. One cannot pretend to show his/her gestures or postures to convey his/her feelings or emotions along with the written message.
5. Written communication may give rise to different queries for clarification and elaboration which may lead to further loss of money as well as time also.
6. Written communication may be blocked due to bureaucratic procedures in the organisation.
Q.10. Clearly elaborate the role and importance of thesaurus in making the writing stylish and powerful. (2007-08)
Or What are the different uses of thesaurus? How can the thesaurus be used for making the writing more stylish and impressive? (2006-07)
Ans. Uses of Thesaurus: A thesaurus helps to avoid repetition in writing and helps to find a word for an idea in mind. It can be used to increase vocabulary. By understanding the parts of the entries and any changes in typography, it is easy to grasp the reference book’s text.
1. Thesaurus can be used in conjunction with a good dictionary whenever selecting a word or phrase unfamiliar.
2. Each headword A to Z is offered with its part of speech.
3. Concise definitions accompany the headwords, supplying users with a basic reference point.
4. Thesaurus has separate entries for different parts of speech.
5. The numbers that appear in superscript after the part of speech serve to distinguish the different meanings of a word.
Importance of Thesaurus in Making Stylish Writing
The importances of thesaurus in making stylish writing are:
1. Use the thesaurus to avoid repeating words within a sentence and avoid beginning successive sentences or paragraphs with identical words.
2. A thesaurus groups words that are similar in meaning.
3. Remember that no two words mean exactly the same thing. No two words are directly interchangeable.
4. We turn to thesaurus, to find different, more expressive ways of speaking and writing but we must turn to a dictionary for a sophisticated semantics tool, to determine meaning. Always consider synonymist in their desired context and consult a dictionary if there is any doubt about the application of a word or a phrase. These words may be stronger or weaker in meaning and may not mean the exact opposite of the entire word.
Q.11. Write a detailed note on writing techniques.
Ans. Writing Techniques: Various techniques of writing include:
1. Adaptation and Selection of Word: The study of clear writing begins with adaptation. It is fitting the message to the specific reader. w ledge B It begins with visualising the reader what he knows, feels and 20 Writing Ocx thinks what his educational level is.
will be effective if it is In adapting the communication, one should begin by visualising organised, has appropriate the receiver. One should form a mental picture of which they are, tone and is readable. how much they know about the subject, what their educational levels are and how they think. Then, the symbols are selected that will communicate to them. The adapting task is relatively simple when one is communicating to a single receiver or a homogeneous group.
If one keeps in mind the logical use of adaptation then only he will fully understand the intended meaning of the instruction.
2. Care in Word Choice: Written communication involves not only writing clearly and relevant but one should be careful while selecting words during writing. Some points should be kept in mind during writing so that reader can understand the written matter in an effective manner:
Selecting the words the reader will understand:
(a) Use familiar and simple words.
(b) Choose the short over the long word.
(c) Use technical words with caution.
(d) Use strong, vigorous words.
(e) Use the concrete words.
(f) Favour active over passive verbs.
(g) Avoid overuse of camouflaged verbs.
Selecting Words for Precise Communication: Writing requires some knowledge of language. The greater the knowledge, the better one is likely to be able to write. One use words without thinking of the meanings they convey. Knowledge of language enables one to use words that come close to give the meanings one wants to communicate. Use correct idioms also.
Avoiding Masculine Words/Biased Language: Such words are to be avoided for reasons of fair play as well as courtesy for which some of the suggestions are:
(a) Masculine pronouns for both sexes by reword of the sentence, making the reference plural or
substituting neutral expressions.
(b) Words derived from masculine words.
(c) Words that demean women’s status.
3. Using a Thesaurus: A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms, in which the words are arranged in groups that have similar meanings like correct, accurate and exact. It helps to avoid repeating the same words monotonously, to avoid clichés, to recall the word that is on the tip of tongue or to find the words that suits the type of writing. The A-Z presentation of the modern thesaurus makes it simple to use.
4. Writing Effective Sentences: Clear writing is not limited to the words alone. It also means using clear sentences. In writing, there is no hard and fast rule for deciding upon the length of sentences but short sentences are simple and easy to understand. The various purposes are to be kept in mind for this:
(a) Emphasis on short sentences:
(i) Adapt sentences to readers.
(ii) Clear sentences that result from orderly thinking.
(iii) Clear sentences have several qualities.
(iv) Length is the most important quality and long sentences are hard to read.
(v) Keep sentences short for best readability by limiting sentence content, economising on
(b) Determining emphasis in sentence design.
(c) Giving the sentences unity using unrelated ideas, excessive detail, illogical constructions.
(d) Arranging sentences for clarity.
5. Developing Logical Paragraph: A paragraph is a group of related sentences that deal with a distinct unit of thought for a specific purpose of developing the subject of an article. It is a small unit, a link of bigger unit, a chain.
Designing a paragraph requires the ability to organise and relate information. It involves the use of logic and imagination and for this, there are some general suggestions:
(a) Giving the paragraph unity.
(b) Keeping the paragraph short.
(c) Putting topic sentences to good use:
(i) Topic sentence first.
(ii) Topic sentence last.
(iii) Topic sentence within the paragraph.
(d) Omitting unnecessary detail.
(e) Making the paragraph move forward.
6. Other Techniques: In order to develop a courteous relationship, the writer should follow the following techniques also:
(a) Sighing out the reader.
(b) Refraining from preaching.
(C) Avoiding anger as angry words destroy goodwill.