MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English

MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English

MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English

MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English

MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English
MBA Ad Budget Short Question Answer Sample in English

Ad budget, Methods of budgeting, Measuring effectiveness of advertisement, Legal and Ethical concepts and issues in advertising, Global vs. Local advertising, Decision areas in international advertising, Media planning and strategy-Media types and their characteristics, Setting media objectives; Steps involved in media planning Media strategy, Emerging concepts and Issues in marketing communications

Section B

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

0.1. Write a brief note on advertising budget.

Ans. Advertising Budget: Advertising budget is an estimation of total expenses that are to be incurred on advertising during a given period of time. The advertising budget includes items on expenditure relating to advertising programmers, cost of space, advertising material (including advertising copy) production expenses, media expenses, agency commission and advertising research, etc. In the most elementary form, it states the proposed advertising expenditure as well as informs and suggests the company management of the anticipated cost of executing the advertising plan. It is the translation of advertising plan into money.

The advertising budget must be realistic, flexible and adequate for the advertising programmers. The advertising budget must consider the advertising goals and the size must relate to advertising needs. It should be tailored to suit the needs of the business enterprises. An advertising budget will show also how much, where and for what purposes the amount provided in the budget is to be spent. The amount provided in the advertising budget is not fixed arbitrarily but is determined on scientific lines keeping in view the nature of the product, size of the market to be covered by the enterprise, types of consumers and the strategy of the competitors, etc. It is a plan for the company’s future advertising programmed. It provides a programmed of the best assortment of types of advertising to be undertaken along with its time table and frequency. In addition to planning function, the advertising budget also serves as a control of advertising expenditure.

Q.2. Explain the process of advertising budget.

Ans. Process of Advertising Budget: Advertising budget is prepared by the advertising manager of the company. The advertising budget process includes the following major steps:

  1. Collection of Data and Preparation of Advertising Budget: The starting point of any advertising budget process is the determination of the size of advertising appropriation. The requisite Information keeping in view with the products packaging, target markets, advertising copy, new product introductions, types of consumers, extent of competition along with the competitors, strategy. media selection, etc. is gathered. Having decided upon the above variables, the advertising manager takes a decision on the very important issue, how much to spend for advertising. Once the total expenditure is arrived at the next step is the apportionment of this fund among various advertising units over a period. By advertising unit, we mean a specific advertisement delivered through various media vehicles. The fund allocation has to take into account the market potential within various Segments, the time period and the geographical areas over which advertising will be spread in accordance with the overall advertising strategy.
  2. Presentation and Approval of the Budget: After the preparation of advertising budget, the next step in a budget making process is to present the same before the top management through thief of the marketing division for necessary approval. In some organizations, there is a separate budget committee comprising of the representatives of the financial and other functional areas. The aged committee or the top management, as the case may be, will evaluate such proposed expenditure to achieve the targeted sales in a given budgeted period. Since advertising budget is employed to increase sales, the advertising budget must be compatible with the sales goals of the company. Besides increasing sales, it should be adequate enough for the new product to make a successful entry in the chosen segment of the market. After considering all these factors if satisfied, the budget committee or the top management as the case may be, will finally accord his approval over the budget proposals and thus will return the same to the advertising manager for execution.
  3. Budget Execution: After the approval, the next step in budget Ad budget is

making process is the execution of the budget. During the execution an estimate of the of the budget, the advertising manager has to exercise monitoring funds needed for meeting control so that the funds that have been allocated are spent in advertising objectives of the accordance to the approval plan and in economical manner. firm that are developed in Whenever there are critical changes in the marketing situation, life to the company’s necessitating an adjustment in the advertising support, the objectives, vision and necessary modifications should be effected in the advertising mission. budget. That is why, advertising budgets should be flexible and provision is made for the contingency account to face the critical changes in the marketing environment. The advertising manager should be duly authorized by the budget committee or the top management for making the required modifications, etc. as and when required.

  1. Control of Budget: The fourth and the last step in the budget making process is to have a control over the budget. It is the prime duty of the advertising manager to see whether the actual expenditure coincide with the budgeted expenditure or not. The advertising manager should also see that the amount appropriated for advertising is being used only on the item and activity as expressed in the budget.
  2. Determining Advertising Appropriation: Advertising appropriation is that part of company’s budget which is to be spent or say, invested on media, men and other advertising material so as to impersonally communicate with the target-prospective customers. Determining the appropriation advertising outlay is essential for the development of creative media strategies because in a large measure, the tempo and tenor of the advertising campaigns depend on how much is available for spending. However, from the managerial point of view, it is the most difficult work. Cost factor is one of the deciding factors in determining the advertising appropriation. A cost analysis study of different media of advertisement and their effectiveness should be considered while determining the advertising appropriation.

0.3. Discuss about measuring effectiveness of advertisement.

Ans. Measuring Effectiveness of Advertisement: Evaluation of advertising or advertising effectiveness refers to the managerial exercise aimed at relating the advertising results to established standard of performance and objectives so as to assess the real value of the advertise performance. This evolution exercise is also known as advertising research. It is an attempt to key practical cost whether the message designed properly has reached the greatest number of prospects at the least practical cost.

It is an attempt to measure whether the time, talent and the treasure invested in the create activity has resulted in attaining the goals of profit maximization to the advertiser and satisfaction the consumers at large.

What is to be Measured: Ad effectiveness evaluation is a research activity and by its very nature is to establish the cause and effect relation between the efforts and the results. This ad effectiveness to be seen in five areas namely, markets, motives, messages, media and overall results.

In each area, one is to look in for the advertising ability and the achievements in the light of preset objectives. Advertising testing is indispensable because, it enables to get down to the facts, to decide on

Spending to guard against the mistaken notion that you have to keep in touch with latest trends, to cults from the rupee investments so made. Separate wheat room the chart, the sheep from goats, the winning ideas from the duds, to multiply the results from the rupee investments so made.

When to Test: Testing of ad effectiveness is possible at any stage of advertise dung or age effectiveness is possible at any stage of advertising process. It can be done before the advertising campaign begins or during its run or after the campaign is fully run. Pre-testing gives the maximum safety as much is not lost, concurrent testing makes him to lose little more as the advertising process has advanced.

Post-testing results in maximum loss if it fails as the whole show is over and he gets the postmortem report, as to what has happened. Nothing is certain unless and until we are sure about the accuracy and reliability of feed-back that the advertiser gets from such research.

How to Test: Fortunately, the advertising has wide range of testing techniques or the methods to choose for evaluation purpose. What methods or techniques he is going to use is dependent on when he is going to measure the ad effectiveness.

Q.4. What are the different types of ethical issues in advertising?

Ans. Different Types of Ethical Issues in Advertising: The goal of advertising is to entice individuals to buy a product or service. Good advertisements stick with an individual because they are clever or show the product in such a positive light that an individual cannot help but want to buy it. Many in the advertising industry profess a responsibility to the general public to make ethical decisions surrounding advertising to children, telling the truth and promoting health. With ethical considerations in advertising, there is not always an obvious right or wrong way to proceed. Some of the ethical issues in advertising are as follows:

  1. Social Responsibility: Advertising encompasses a social responsibility to the general public, yet the specifics of that responsibility are not always clear-cut For example, if it’s stipulated that advertisements should generally show individuals in a positive light, this raises the question of how to define a positive light. What some individuals find offensive, others might enjoy. An example of this involves advertisements depicting women. Athletic companies show strong, capable, athletic women performing in sporting events. Some other advertisers depict women as simply being beautiful to look at, which offends those who see it as objectifying women. The ethical question becomes what social answer. responsibility these companies have regarding the way they portray women. There is no right or wrong answer.
  2. Children: Another ethical issue involves advertisements geared towards children. Advertisers need to be aware that children might follow the role model of what they see in a commercial way. Children may believe that the behavior depicted is acceptable when in fact it is questionable. For example, a commercial for a beauty product showing children swimming in a pool without adult Supervision is questionable considering the safety implications for the children. Children could get the ea of swimming alone and this could lead to a dangerous situation.
  3. Truth: As an ethical issue, advertisements should strive to tell the truth. Most well-known companies always tell the truth in their advertisements because they have general counsel, pare holders and regulatory commissions that monitor their activities. There can be legal consequences for false advertising. Sometimes advertisements come close to the line, however onside, for example, an advertisement showing someone in a wheelchair who, the ad implies, might e able to walk in the future with the help of a new and upcoming medical technology-even though the technology is frequently not effective. This raises the ethical question of whether this kind of advertising is misleading intending to confuse the viewer or is simply a message filled with hope.
  4. Health: Advertisements that promote products with questionable effects on an individual’s the raise ethical considerations. Examples include alcohol, energy drinks and cigarettes. Tobacco retirements have been limited by the government for some time, due to the known consequences of king. While the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption are not in dispute, scientific studies disagree on the positive or negative effects of alcohol in moderation. There also are mixed studies the effects of energy drinks. The ethical question, then, is (or if) companies should advertise prod with questionable effects on the health of users.

Qus.5. Write a short note on international advertising.

Ans. International Advertising: International advertising entails dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. Target audiences differ from country to count in terms of how they perceive or interpret symbols or stimuli, respond to humor or emotional appeals as well as in levels of literacy and languages spoken. How the advertising function is organized also varies. In some cases, multinational firms centralize advertising decisions and budgets and use the same or a limited number of agencies worldwide. In other cases, budgets are decentralized and placed in the hands of local subsidiaries, resulting in greater use of local advertising agencies.

International advertising can, therefore, be viewed as a communication process that takes place in multiple cultures which differ in terms of values, communication styles and consumption patterns. International advertising is also a business activity involving advertisers and the advertising agencies that create ads and buy media in different countries. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values and propagates certain values worldwide.

Q.6. Give the importance of International advertising..

Ans. Importance of International Advertising: Importance of international advertising can be summed up as follows:

  1. Promotion of Sales: It promotes the sale of goods and services by informing and persuading the people to buy them. A good advertising campaign helps in winning new customers both in the national as well as in the international markets.
  2. Introduction of New Product: It helps in the introduction of new products in the market. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its product to the public through advertising. A new enterprise can’t make an impact on the prospective customers without the help of advertising Advertising enables quick publicity in the market.
  3. Creation of Good Public Image: It builds up the reputation of the advertiser. Advertising enables a business firm to communicate its achievements in an effort to satisfy the customers’ needs. foreign competition in the market. This increases the goodwill and reputation of the firm which is necessary to fight against both local and foreign competition in the market.
  4. Mass Production: Advertising facilitates large-scale production. Advertising encourage production of goods in large-scale because the business firing knows that it will be able to sell large-scale with the help of advertising. Mass production reduces the cost of production per unit by economical use of various factors of production.
  5. Research: Advertising stimulates research and development activities. Advertising has beck a competitive marketing activity. Every firm tries to differentiate its product from the subs available in the market through advertising. This compels every business firm to do more and research to find new products and their new uses. If a firm does not engage in research development activities, it will be out of the international market in a short while.

6 Education of People: Global advertising educate the people about new products and then Advertising message about the utility of a product enables the people to widen their knowledge advertising which has helped people in adopting new ways of life and giving-up old habits.” contributed a lot towards the betterment of the standard of living of the society.

  1. Support to Press: Global advertising provides an important source of revenue to the published and other media houses with broader coverage. For instance, it enables the publishers to inbred circulation of their publication by selling them at lower rates. People are also benefitted because get publications at cheaper rates.

Qus7. What are the barriers in international advertising? 

Ans. Barriers of International Advertising: Following are the barriers in international advertising

  1. Culture: Culture is a problematic issue forma men difficult to understand. One may violate the cultural norms of another country without Dem is a problematic issue for many advertisers since it is inherently nebulous and informed of this and people from different cultures may feel uncomfortable in each other’s presence without knowing exactly why. Communication is more difficult because cultural factors largely determine the way various phenomena are perception of the message itself differs. Various phenomena are perceived. If the perceptual framework is different,

It is a well-known fact that the culture of a country influences the customer preferences. Customers are quite sensitive about cultural aspects depicted in advertisements: advertising themes, incorporating social acceptance, mutual dependence, respect for elders, harmony with nature, use on seasons, innovation and novelty, distinctive use of celebrities…

  1. Language: Translation from one language to another language is crucial in international advertising. The literal translation may fail to convey the desired message across the countries due to cultural factors. For instance the word yes means in low context in USA and Europe and in Japan, 1 means I am listening to what are you saying, in Thailand it means OK. So there are differences in the languages of different countries.
  2. Education: The level of literacy plays an important role in deciding what advertisement tool and message should be used in international market. Market segments with lower level of adult literacy need to be addressed by way of more audio visual content rather than a written message. It should be ensured that the visuals convey the desired message rather than the text part of the advertisement.
  3. Government Regulations: The regulatory framework of a country influences the advertisement strategy in international market. The government regulations in the following country relate to following issues:

(a) Advertisement in foreign language.

(b) Use of sensuality.

  1. C) Comparative advertising referring to the competing product from rival firms.

(d) Use of children as models.

(e) Advertisement related to alcohol and tobacco.

(f) Advertisement related to health and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Media Limitation: Media may diminish the role of advertising in the promotional program and may force the marketers to emphasize the other elements of promotional mix. A marketer’s creativity is Certainly challenged when a television commercial is limited to 10 showing a year with no two exposures closer than 10 days. In some African countries, advertisers run boats up and down the rivers playing popular music and broadcasting commercial into the bush as they travel.

Qus.8. Explain the international advertising concept

 Ans. International Advertising Concept: International advertising is becoming increasingly complex. More and more local and international companies are competing for consumers who are increasingly sophisticated and demanding. International advertising is defined as the non-personal communication by an identified sponsor across international borders, using broadcast, print and/or Interactive media. It requires dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than vie country. Target audiences vary from country to country in terms of how they perceive or interpret symbols or stimuli; respond to humor or emotional appeals, as well as in levels of literacy and languages ken. How the advertising function is organized also varies.

The various international advertising concepts are as follows:

  1. International Advertising as a Communication Process: The international communication odes involve using the entire promotional mix to communicate with the final consumer. First, the appropriate message is determine

is determined for the target audience by the advertiser. Next, the international user (sender) usually represented by an advertising agency, encodes a message into words and

images. The message is then translated into the language of target market and transmitted thru, channel of media channels to the audience who then decodes and reacts to the message barriers may hamper effective transmission of the message at each stage in the process and miscommunication,

  1. International Advertising as a Business Practice: International advertising can explained as a business activity through which a firm attempts to inform target audiences in dif countries about itself and its product or service offerings. In some cases, the advertising m relates to the firm and its activities, i.e. its corporate image. In other cases, the message relates 50 specific product or service marketed by the firm. In either case, the firm will use the services advertising agency to determine the appropriate message, advertising copy and make them placement

Advertising has gone through five major stages of development-domestic, export, international multi-national and global. For global advertisers, there are four potentially competing business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising-building a brand while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creation process, maximizing local effectiveness of ads and increasing Global company’s speed of implementation. Born from the evolution an stages of global marketing are the three primary and advertising embraces fundamentally different approaches to the development of global standardized strategies in advertising executions-exporting executions, producing local which advertising content executions and importing ideas that travel

Advertising research is key to determining the success of an under the premise that ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements the entire world is a single and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how entity. Economies of scale are maximized. Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures, such as flow of attention, flow of emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the add

  1. International Advertising as a Social Force: When we consider it from the advertiser’s point of view, according to them the primary objective of advertisement is that the product or services which they are offering should be sold in the market. And in achieving the main objective of selling the product or services, there are other profound consequences. Advertising puts an influence which is both persuasive and pervasive in nature. Through the selective reinforcement of certain language and values as well as values and social goal, it acts as important force attitudes that underlie behavior not only in the marketplace, but also in all aspects of life.

In an international marketing concern, advertising has an important social influence in a number of ways. Many of the international advertising are designed to promote and introduce new products from one market to another. Often this results in sudden change in lifestyles, behavior patterns of a society, stimulate For example, the adoption of fast food, casual attire or hygiene and beauty products. International advertising encourages desire for products from other countries; it creates expectations about ‘the good life’ and establishes new areas of consumption. Advertising is thus a potent force for change, while selectively reinforcing lifestyles, certain values and role models.

0.9. Write a note on global vs. local advertising. 

Ans.                              Global vs. Local Advertising 

 

Sino.Basis of differenceGlobal advertisingLocal advertising
1.

 

 

 

2.

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

6..

 

 

 

 

7.

Campaign offer

 

 

 

Coverage

 

 

Advertising cost

 

 

 

 

 

Economies of scale

 

 

.

Consistency in brand

 

 

Coordination and control

 

 

 

 

Penetration to world market

Global averting offers common campaign to all target audience

 

 

It covers each and every part of the entire globe.

 

Lower advertising cost as a result of reduction in planning and control.

 

 

 

Economies of scale in production and distribution of advertisement .

 

A Consistent international brand and company image

 

 

Simplification of coordination and control of marketing and promotional

 

 

Abilities to exploit good ideas on a worldwide basis and introduce products quickly into various world market.

It does not always offer common campaign to all audience because of the heterogeneous nature of the target audience

It covers only the national boundary of the country..

 

Higher advertising cost as a result of increasing and multiple planning of various advertising campaign that would reach the heterogeneous audience targeted.

 

Diseconomies of scale in the production and distribution of advertisement.

 

Consistency in local brand and image management of organization.

 

Complexity of coordination and control of marketing and promotional programs for all categories of audience.

 

It does not have the quick opportunity to penetrate world market.

 

Qus.10. What do you mean by media? What are the various terms used in it?

Ans. Media: The word media comes from the Latin word ‘middle’. Media carry messages to on a targeted audience and can add meaning to these messages.

Media Terminology

  1. Media Planning: Media planning is the process of designing a strategic course of action that shows how advertising space and time can be used to present the message in order to achieve the advertiser’s goal.
  2. Media Objectives: Media objectives are goals to be attained by the media strategy and programs.
  3. Media Strategy: Decisions on how the media objectives can be achieved.
  4. Media: The various category of delivery systems including broadcast and print media.
  5. Broadcast Media: TV or radio network or local radio station broadcast.
  6. Print Media: Publications like newspaper, magazine, direct mail, etc.
  7. Media Vehicle: The specific message carrier, it can be a specific television show, or a specific newspaper.
  8. Coverage: Refers to the potential audience that might receive the message through the media vehicle.
  9. Reach: Reach refers to the number of people that will be exposed to a media vehicle at least once during a given period of time.
  10. Frequency: Frequency refers to the average number of times an individual within target audience is exposed to a media vehicle during a given period of time.

Qus.11. Discuss about the elements involved in the setting of media objectives.

Ans. Elements in Media Objectives: The elements involved in the setting of media objectives areas follow:

  1. Defining the Target Audience: It is the one key step to take in the objective setting process.

Ideally; the target audience for the media plan should be identical marketing plan. Since most of a brand’s sales are typically generated by its current users, the target audience definition is likely to include Selection of op some product usage qualification.

The media target should be identical to the creative target. One Is the basic principle of important consideration for defining the media target is whether in media planning and on should be broad or narrow. A second consideration in establishing inherent part of media media objectives is the cost effectiveness of the plan. When strategy defining the target audience, one must be sure that the audience will be reachable at an affordable cost.

Having defined the target audience, the next step is to find out as much as possible about the individuals who make up that audience.

  1. Communication Objectives: These objectives are measurable to some degree through communication tests with the target audience that find out what information the audience is taking away from the message

Communication objectives vary depending upon the kind of product we are promoting. For launching a new brand, we want our advertising to generate awareness of the product. These objectives affect our reach and frequency goals. For a new product, we would want to establish some broad reach to drive the awareness whereas for the well-established brand, a higher frequency reminder message will be more effective.

  1. Creative Requirements: The last area that should be considered in pre-planning discussions is any special creative requirement that will affect the media selected. This should be made evident in the Creative brief and it provides another reason why it is critical for media specialists to be exposed to that document.

In order for a media plan to be successful, it must be tied directly to the broad marketing objectives for the brand, defined in terms of sales and market share. The goals for media should also be derived from the advertising objectives which show where the advertising fits into the consumer’s decision process such as increasing awareness or improving customer satisfaction or generating additional use of the product. Both marketing and advertising objectives are tied to the media objectives by considering the relationship that exists between consumers, brand and media.

Q.12. Write a short note on media strategy.

Ans. Media Strategy: Media strategy can be defined as the usage of an appropriate media mix in order to achieve desired and optimum outcomes from the advertising campaign. It plays a key role in advertising campaigns. The objective of media strategy is not just about procuring customers for their product or services but also focuses on placing a right message towards the right people at the right time and ensuring that the message is relevant and persuasive. Media strategy is designed to achieve the above mentioned target but the budget is always kept in mind. There are three ‘W’s to be decided. They are:

  1. Where to Advertise: The question is to find out where the advertisement should be displayed to the current and prospective customers. The common available options are.-TV, radio, newspapers, blogs, hoardings on roads, sponsorships, ads during breaks in theatres, etc. It can be done at international/national/state/city level as per the requirement of the brand.
  2. When to Advertise: The timing of advertisement is very critical especially with respect to the seasonal products. There is no point in airing advertisement for room heaters in summer season. It should be aired right at the end of monsoon and beginning of winter season
  3. Which Type of Media to Use: It is very important to use a correct media type for delivering the message. There are two basic media approaches which can be adopted: (a) Media Concentration Approach: In this approach, firms concentrate their campaigns only of using a wide variety of media types. on a few media types (generally two or three) in order to reach their target consumers instead of using a wide variety of media types.

Media Dispersion Approach: In media dispersion approach, a wide variety of different media categories is employed to reach the target customers. It is employed when the en entire target market can’t be reached by a few media types.

Quos. Explain programmatic advertising. What are its benefits? 

An Programmatic Advertising: Programmatic advertising is a highly automated form of digital arising, whereby advertising space is bought and advertisements are placed through an auction ass campaigns from a large number of advertising platforms and where bids are calculated in real e per individual ad placement, using a set of advanced algorithms, historic data and a number of ammeters and tactics. Simply stated, programmatic advertising is the automated process of buying nod selling ad inventory through an exchange, connecting advertisers to publishers. This process uses bifacial intelligence technologies and real-time bidding for inventory across mobile, display, video and social channels, even making its way into television.

Benefits of Programmatic Advertising: The following are five benefits of programmatic advertising that can help to improve any marketing campaign:

  1. Target the KPIs More Closely : Programmatic technology is continually working to improve performance towards the campaigns KPIs and increasing overall ROI.
  2. Cost Effective: With programmatic advertising, advertisers have the ability to adjust CPMs in real time dependent upon how heavily that impression is valued
  3. Gain More Customer Insights: Programmatic technology is continually gathering ‘smart data based upon the type of individual that engages with the brand. Take these learning have and apply it across all marketing efforts to increase overall campaign performance, creating a more holistic marking approach.
  4. Easier Media Buying: Forget the complication of traditional media buying metrics and spend more time focusing on the overall strategy for the campaign through programmatic technology.
  5. Scalability : Programmatic advertising allows us to reach a larger audience across multiple websites and touch points in a timely and efficient manner.

 Q.14. Write a short note on native advertising.

Ans. Native Advertising: Online content that is created for paid promotion of a brand on a media site which doesn’t use a traditional ad format such as a banner ad, but includes editorial content such as a blog post or info graphic is called as native advertising.

Native advertising platforms are classified into two categories, commonly referred to as ‘open’ and ‘closed’ platforms, but hybrid options are also utilized with some frequency.

  1. Closed platforms are formats created by brands for the purpose of promoting their own content intrinsically on their websites. Advertisements seen on these platforms will not be seen on others, as these ad types are generated for its sole use and structured around exhibiting ad units within the confine of the website’s specific agendas. Namely, advertisements distributed on closed platforms originate from the platform’s brand itself. Popular examples include promoted tweets on Twitter, Sponsored Stories on Face book and True View Video Ads on YouTube.
  2. Open platforms are defined by the promotion of same piece of branded content across multiple platforms ubiquitously, but through some variation of native ad formats. Unlike closed platforms, the content itself lives outside any given website that it appears on and is usually distributed across multiple sites by a third party company, meaning that the advertisements appearing on open platforms namely are placed there by an advertiser.
  3. Hybrid platforms allow the content publishing platforms to install a private marketplace when advertisers have the option to bid on the inventory of ad space either through direct sales programmatic auction through what is known as Real-Time Bidding (RTB). Therefore, advertise me distributed on hybrid platforms are placed there by the platform itself, the space having been sold to an open platform advertiser

Q.15. Write a short note on mobile advertising.

Ans. Mobile Advertising: Mobile advertising is the communication of products or services to mobile device and Smartphone consumers. The mobile advertising spectrum ranges from Short Message Service (SMS) text to interactive advertisements.

Mobile advertising targets users according to specified demographics, Mobile networks identify related mobile profiles and preferences and display corresponding advertisements when consumers download and use data services like games, applications (apps) or ringtones. Mobile advertising can be done in the following ways:

  1. Mobile Web: Text tagline ads, mobile web banner ads, WAP 1.0 banner ads, rich media mobile ads.
  2. Multimedia Messaging Service: Short text ads, long text ads, banner ads, rectangle ads, audio ads, video ads, full ads.
  3. Mobile Video and TV Advertising Units: Ad breaks, linear ad breaks, nonlinear ad breaks interactive mobile video and TV ads.
  4. Mobile Applications: In-app display advertising units, integrated ads, branded mobile applications, sponsored mobile applications.

 Q.16. What is digital advertising? Give its examples.

Ans. Digital Advertising: Digital advertising refers to marketing media that is digitally displayed. Digital advertising technology exists on the internet, on Smartphone and hand-held media devices and even on automobiles and billboards. Businesses and product manufacturers use digital advertising to build or maintain a brand image and market products and services to consumers. Some of the examples of digital advertising are as follows:

  1. Electronic Billboard: Electronic billboards are the digital version of traditional billboard advertisements. These billboards display a variety of digital advertising messages. They are targeted because they provide advertisers with the opportunity to change advertising messages throughout the day. Digital billboards are cost-effective because several advertisers share the expense with rotating advertisements. They are flexible because new designs and advertising messages can be changed within a day or two.
  2. Web-based Marketing: Another example of digital advertising is web-based marketing. This form of advertising targets internet users while they visit websites. Pop-up advertisements appear as a new window and display an advertising message for a product or service usually related to the original website. Video advertisements are another form of digital web-based advertising that plays brief ‘commercials’ before the video loads, during a break in the video or at the conclusion of the video. Major search engines offer video media options to advertisers.
  3. Viral Marketing: Viral marketing is a form of digital advertising that businesses use to spread the word about their brand. Advertising messages are spread digitally through e-mail and other online media. This form of advertising encourages existing customers to tell others about a product, service or company. The intent is for word to spread like a virus to others within a social group or network.
  4. Audio Advertising: Audio advertising is a form of digital advertising that targets consumers through Podcasts, Internet radio and live streaming digital radio. Podcasts are digital audio files such as an MP3 that users download to a computer or personal media player. Internet radio and live streaming digital radio play ‘sponsor messages that advertise products and services to consumers while they listen to the radio online.

Qus.17 What are advertorials? Give its types and advantages

Ans. Advertorials: Advertorials are ads that are presented in the form of editorial content. Trial is a blend of the words ‘advertisement’ and ‘editorial. The concept is to anent stimulating to the reader while at the same time delivering a marketing message. Althea marketing message. Although they d successfully in offline media, advertorials carry a certain commercial stigma a

Certain commercial stigma and online station is rare. Those web sites that do use the model tend to list it under various euphemisms active to web users. In some instances the diffclar promotional feature or integrated content to make them more in some instances, the difference between an advertorial (content written by narrow is not readily apparent to the reader.

Types of Advertorials: Advertorials can be classified into three types:

  1. Image Advertorials: The organization running the advertisement wants to produce a favor w of the organization or its products among the readers.
  2. Advocacy Advertorials: The organization wants to explain its view of a controversial subject.
  3. Journalism Advertorials: The organization wants to attract media attendees: The organization wants to attract media attention to a subject or themselves. Their goal may be inspiring independently written be inspiring independently written stories about their area of interest, to get quoted in related stories or to influence how journalists will write about a subject in the future.

Advantages of Advertorials: The advantages of advertorials are as follows:

1 Advertorials basically define themselves since they are advertisements that take we

editorial content. This combination results in the name, advertorial.

  1. They are longer advertisements that are presented as informative articles.
  2. While advertorials can be used on multiple media channels, print has always been the most popular. Print advertorials are written as articles and designed to appear like other editorial Content
  3. Advertorials are clearly promotions, but highlight the benefits of a product or service in a more subtle way than other types of ads.
  4. They also allow advertisers to get their message across in a more detailed and less

promotional way.

 Q.18. Define public relations. What are its functions?

Ans. Public Relations: A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives. Public Relations (PR) involve a variety of programs/events that are designed to promote or protect a company’s image or its individual products.

‘Public relations practice is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its public.’ –

Public Relations (PR) helps an organization and its publics relate to each other to the benefit of

Public Relations or PR is an activity which is aimed at increasing communication and understanding between an organization, individual and one or more groups called as public. The ultimate goal of any public relations effort is for a corporation, institution, organization or individual to win favor with the general public.

Functions of Public Relations

Following are the key functions of public relation that serve as an aid to overall marketing objectives of a firm:

  1. Media Representation: Representation of a company or individual to the media is one of the more well-known functions of public relations. Media management includes developing and distributing both written and video news releases, pitching stories to journalists and responding to reporter inquiries, Media representation also includes monitoring and measuring news coverage of the organization or individual.
  2. Content Development: Preparing documents, written and electronic, is another if public relations. Examples of content developed by a public relations department include newsletters, blogs, speeches and annual reports. Content may also be written for another the company, such as a letter to employees from the CEO.
  3. Social Media Management: Establishing, monitoring or growing an organization individual’s online presence is another function of public relations. Specific tasks may include or updating Face book Pages, tweeting information and keeping an eye on what others are as cyberspace about an organization.
  4. Crisis Communication: Crisis communication is a plan developed by a public relation and typically includes determining specific logistics for expected reporters, the designation official spokesperson for the crisis, the development of targeted messages for internal and exit audiences and training for company leadership on how to handle tough or hostile questions.
  5. Stakeholder Relations: Stakeholders are any persons or groups who have an interest in could be affected by an organization’s objectives or actions. Representing an organization stakeholder groups is another main function of public relations.

Qus.19. What are the different types of publicity? Give Its importance.

Ans. Different Types of Publicity: In this digital age, there are two major types of publicity offline publicity and online publicity.

  1. Offline Publicity: It is done without the internet. Offline publicity includes print media (magazines, journals, newsletters, daily newspapers, postcards, bills and fliers), television, radio and giant billboards. Offline publicity is meant for offline traffic
  2. Online Publicity: It is the one done through any internet-based platform. Some online publicity techniques are e-mail marketing, web page pop-ups, blogs, websites, Face book publicity, and Twitter publicity and referral links/ad banners. Online publicity is meant for online traffic.

Importance of Publicity: The importance of publicity is given below:

  1. Publicity helps businesses to build credibility and brand awareness.
  2. It’s a cost-effective strategy. So, it is the low-cost or no-cost option.
  3. Publicity positions the business and the principals of that businesses as experts in the industry.
  4. Publicity helps the business to stand out and be noticed.
  5. Publicity can help in the development of partnerships and strategic alliances.
  6. Publicity builds the credibility and propels us into a competitive position.
  7. Effective publicity goes beyond news releases and while news releases can help with search engine marketing

Q.20. Explain event management.

Ans. Event Management: Event management is often referred to as an event planning service and the service provided to the clients includes planning special events, designing the look and feel of the event and the execution of the event itself.

Event management is the powerful blend of the creative and technical skills that are essential for the creation and delivery of any live experience (be that a wedding, festival, sporting event, conference, management is a tool meeting). In practice, it is perhaps the most exciting and rewarding job on the planet. There is nothing like delivering a live show with no rehearsal. It is creative, energetic, intense and totally varied.

Event management is defined as ‘the application of project management to the creation and development of large scale events,

It involves studying the brand, identifying the testifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the ads and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event’s are divided into four main categories as follows:

1.Celebrations: Weddings, birthdays, parades, fairs, reunions and anniversaries,

  1. Educational: Graduations, meetings and conferences.
  2. Commemorative: Civic events and memorials.
  3. Commemorative: Civic events and memorials.

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