NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

NCERT/CBSE Notes Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Here we are going to introduce you with all new and latest notes of NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/ chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms. This is alternative solution for those student are either week in biology or want to improve there studies and rank on better positions. This will not only help the week students, this will also help the students who score good marks but are not satisfied with there results and want to improve there studies with more concentrated and effective studies.

Chapte 7/ Diversity in living organisms: Notes

There are about 10 million species of organisms on the earth, but only one-third of them are have been identified so far. if we attempt to study such a vast variety of organisms, it will be convenient if we group them and give each of them a biological name.



Classification 

Classification means identifying similarities and dissimilarities between different kind of organisms and then placing them in groups is called classification. This type of classification is called phylogenetic classification. this type of classification was first given by Swedish Naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1735.

Basis of Classification

1. presence or absence of membrane bound nucleus:

This is the basic characteristic of classification. All Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles such as nucleus, which Prokaryotes do not have.

2. Occurrence of cells signly or in groups:

This is another characteristic that is lewd into while classifying living organisms.

Cells are classified depending on there number, i.e., They live on singly (Single cell organisms) and live as individual group.




Mode of Food Procurement 

This means organisms produce there own food through photosynthesis (Autotrops), and depend on food manufacturers by others (Hetrotrops).

Importance of classification

  1. Classification makes it easy to study a wide variety of organisms on this earth.
  2. Cassification projects a picture of all life forms at a glance.
  3. It helps us, understand the relationship between different groups of organisms.
  4. it serves as a base for the development of the other biological, Ecological and Behavioral sciences, Bio-geography, Evolution , e.t.c.
  5. It helps us in the identification and classification of different organisms such as agricultural pest, pathogens and other organisms of the ecosystem.

Classification and Evolution




  • Evolution is change in time most life forms that we see today have arisen by an accumulation of changes in a body design over a period of time for the better survival.
  • The idea of evolution was described by Charles Darwin in the year 1859, in his book ” The Origin Species ”.

Older Organisms

Organisms with primitive body design that has not changed much over a period of time are called older organisms.

Younger Organisms

There are organisms which have acquired there peculiar body design quite recently. They may be considered as the advanced or younger organisms.

Biodiversity

The diversity of life forms or variety of life forms in a particular region on the classics of rough estimation there are about 10 million species of plants and animals, out of which onlt 2 million are known.

Regions of Rich Bio diversity

The Tropical region between the tropic of cancer and topic of Capricorn are rich in bio diversity of plants and animal life. this is because afterward and humid climate the region is called the humid climate this region is called as the mega bio diversity region. More than .5% of bio diversity on the earth concentrated in a few countries like Greek, Colombia, Mexico, Australia, China, Indonesia,e.t.c.




The Hierarchy in Classification of Groups  

The largest group of organisms recognized by biologist is the Kingdom till recently there were only 2 kingdoms of classification are there. Namely, Plants and animals. This however had caused problems in classifying fungi, Bacteria and unicellular organisms which do not fit into either kingdoms.

Five Kingdom Classification

R.H Whittaker suggested the 5 kingdom classification in 1969 on the basis of:

  1. Presence or absence of the nucleus.
  2. Unicellular or multicellular organisms.
  3. Mode of nutrition.
  • 5 Kingdoms that were recognised are:
  • Monera
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

Scheme of Classification

Scheme of classification /NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Scheme of classification /NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Five Kingdoms

Kingdom- Monera

  • Monera are the most simplest, oldest and the most remorous microorganisms.
  • They are prokaryotes.
  • They are mostly unicellular but may be in the form of colonies or filaments of independent cell.
  • Some of them have a cell wall while some of them do not have a cell wall.
  • Their mode of nutrition is mainly auotropic but may be hetrotropic.
  • They are usually non-volatile, but some may have fugellus and gliding movements. Celia are absent.
  • There reproduction is asexual by fusion, like Bacteria, Blue-green algae, Cynobacteria, and Mithoplasma.
  • Examples:
Parametium/NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Parametium/NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

2.

Bacteria Cell/NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Bacteria Cell/NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Kingdom: Protista

  • They are first Eukaryotas having a well organised nucleus and complex membranous organelles.
  • They are unicellular, without distinct divisions of labor.
  • there mode of nutrition may be autotropic or hetrotropic.
  • They have there live cilia.
  • examples: Amoeba, Algae, dictosomes, Protozoans e.t.c.
  • Diagram of one of its example:
Amoeba/ NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Amoeba/ NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

 Kingdom: Fungi

  • Fungi grows in dark, damp and moist places and use dead organic matter as food and therefore called saperophytes.
  • Many of them have capacity to become multicelluar organisms at certain stages in their lives.
  • They have a definite cell wall made up of tough sugar called chitin.
  • They do not have chlorophyll, hence are hetrotropic.
  • They are usually non- motile.
  • They reproduce mostly by spore formation. However sexual reproduction may also take place.
  • Some fungi live in mutual relationships with blue-green algae. Such a relationship is called symbiotic relationships.
  • These symbiotic forms are called lichens. They are usually found growing on bark of trees.
  • Example: Yeast, Agaricus (mushroom).
Agaricus/ NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms

Agaricus/ NCERT/CBSE Notes/ Class 9/Chapter 7/ Diversity in Living Organisms





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