Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE

Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE

As you all know that 9th standard is the base of the board class or we can say class 10. So only scoring good marks should not be the main aim of the student, understanding the concepts is also very important. In our post Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE will provide a properly guide the student. This will help the student not only in scoring marks it will also help in understanding the concepts properly which will make the proper base of the Board Class i.e. class 10.




Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9

For existence, all living organisms essentially require food. Early human beings started hunting animals and collecting fruits, flowers and roots of requirements.By: Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE.

Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources Notes

Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources Notes/ Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE

Improvement of Crop Yields

Agriculture is the science and practice of farming, which mainly involves rearing of live stocks, cultivating land, raising of crops, harvesting and marketing the produce. It is further subdivided into many categories:

  • Agronomy
  • Horticulture
  • Olericulture
  • Aquaculture

Crop Seasons

  • In India there are 2 main types of seasons, namely
  1. Kharif crops
  2. Rabi crops

Kharif Crops




These crops grow during rainy se4ason (June to October). They are also known as summer season crops. The chief crops are: Paddy, Maize, Millet, e.t.c.

Rabi Crop

These crops grow from November to April. Rabi crops are also called winter crops. The important rabi crops are: Cabbage, Cauliflower, Carrot, Radish, e.t.c.

Crop Production Management

India is an agriculture based country. In this country agriculture sector engages about 70% of its population and accounts for 40% of the Gross National Product (GNP) crop production management refers to conduct the various aspects of crop production, to obtain the maximum and best yield. It has following 3 components:

  • Nutrition management
  • Irrigation
  • Cropping pattern

 

Nutrient Management

Nutrient management means controlling the selection, timing and amount of the nutrient supply to the crops. Like other organism plants also require inorganic elements for building there structure and maintaining their structure and maintaining their metabolic processes.

Manures




Manures are natural fertilisers. They are bulky source of organic matter which supply nutrients in small quantities and organic matter in large quantities. Manures include Farm Yard Manures (FYM), compost, green manures, and vermin compost, e.t.c.

Advantages:

Manures enrich the soil with minerals and nutrients.

Manures add organic matter to the soil which restores the soil texture.

The organic matter in manures to provide food for the soil organism which help in providing nutrients.

Irrigation

The process of supplying water to crop plants by means of canals, wells, reservoirs, tube wells, e.t.c. is known as irrigation.

Factors Controlling Irrigation

The irrigation or water requirements of crop Plant depends on the following 2 factors

  • Nature of the crop plant.
  • Nature of the soil of crop feids.

Water Augmentation

Water availability for irrigation can be assured by augmentation ground water. It carried out by following 2 methods:

  • Rain Water Harvesting: it collects used for recharging ground water by shrinking deep drain pipes.
  • Water Shed Management: small check dams are built UP in water shed areas to increase. Percolation of water into ground, reduce flow of rain water and prevents solid erosion.

Cropping Patterns

  1. Mixed Cropping: Farming is an agricultural process of harnessing solar energy in the form of economic produce of plants and animals.




Advantages:

  • Reducing risk in uncertain monsoon.
  • Fertility of solid is improved.
  • Chances of pest’s infection are reduced.
  1. Inter Cropping: Inter cropping is a practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in a same field in definite row patterns with the objective to increase the productivity per unit area.

Advantages:

  • It makes better resource of the natural resource of sunlight, land and water.
  • Soil erosion is affectively arrested.

Crop Rotation

Crop Rotation/ IMprovement in Food Resources Class 9 Chapter wise Notes

Crop Rotation/ Notes of Chapter: Improvement in Food Resources Class 9/ NCERT/CBSE

If we grow a same crop continuously in a same field, it results into the lack of minerals and nitrogen. To fix this problem we have resulted to plant different crops on a piece of land pre-planned succession is called crop rotation.

Crop Variety Improvement

The art of recognising the valuable traits and incorporating them into future generation is very important in plant breeding. Breeders search for individual plants that exhibit desirable taints. The two most desirable qualities of food plants are: 1) High yields and 2) Natural resistance to disease. Such traits occasionally arise simultaneously through a process called Mutation, but the rate of mutation is too slow and undesirable to produce all the plants that breeders would like to see.

Hybridisation




The crossing between the genetic un-similar plants to produce a new kind is known as hybridisation. Crossing may be between two different types of species of the same genus and between different genuses. This method incorporates the desired (Good) characteristics of both parents in one variety. The most common type of breeding is inter-varietal.

Crop Production Management

Field crops are infested with a variety of pests.  A pest is any destructive organism which cause great economic loss by destroying crop plants or products obtained from them. Pests of crop plants include weeds, insects, millets, nematodes, rodents, fungi, bacteria and viruses.

Some Preventive Measures of Pests Are The Following

  • Use of resistive varieties of crops.
  • Selection of optimum time of sowing the seeds.
  • Crop rotation and multiple cropping.
  • Clean cultivating.
  • Summer ploughing.

Storage of Grains

Storage of Food Grains/ Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources Notes

Storage of Food Grains/ Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources Notes

Most crops are harvested only once in a year. Thus, they are available in plenty during a selective time for getting seasonal food regularly throughout the year; they are stored in safe storage. Cereals or food grains are stored at following three levels:

  1. At producer level.
  2. At traders level.
  3. At FCL level. (Food Corporation of India)

Factors Affecting Storage of Grains




  • Biotic Factors

Biotic factors, such as insects to dents, house rat, house mouse, birds, mites and bacteria.

  • Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors, such as moisture contents and temperature.

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry is the scientific management of animal live stock. It includes various aspects such as feeding, breeding and disease control. As population increases and as milk, eggs and meat is also growing awareness of the need of human treatment of live-stocks has brought in new limitations in live-stock farming. Thus, live-stock production also needs to be improved.

Poultry Farming

Poultry Farming/ Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources/ a2znotes.com

Poultry Farming/ Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources/ a2znotes.com

poultry farming is undertaken to raise domestic fowl. For example: egg production and chicken meat. Therefore, improved poultry breeds for variety of the following desirable taints:

  • Number and quality of chicks.
  • Awaken broiler chick production.
  • Summer adaptation capacity/ tolerance to high temperature.
  • Low maintenance requirements.
  • Reduction is the size of the egg laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous cheap diets formulated using agriculture by products.





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