Q.11. What do you mean by piracy? How many types of computer piracy are there?
Ans. Piracy: It is a term used to describe the infringement of copyright on a commercial scale. It is an unauthorised act of copying, selling, distributing, acquiring or transferring of entities separate from the public domain by any method.
Computer piracy is mainly of two types:
1. Software Piracy: It refers to the practices that involve the unauthorised copying of computer software. It is illegal and negatively affects the economy by decreasing the profits that allow further development and growth within the software industry.
Activities included in software piracy are creating a copy and selling it or giving it to someone else or to serve as backup, buying or renting the original software, softlifting (term used to describe when a perso npurchases a single license copy of a software and loads it on several machines) or unrestricted client access infriengement that occurs when software program is copied on organisation’s servers and organisation’s network clients are allowed to access it.
2. Piracy of Intellectual Property: Intellectual proper activities in art, science and industry Its purpose is to ensure that ment encourage innovation. It is a legal property right over creations of fields of law.
Q.12. Define privacy and explain privacy issues.
Ans. Privacy: It is the degree to which private information exposed depends on how public receive this information irrespective of time and place. It and protection of information appropriately.
Privacy Issues: These are issues related to the privacy of every individual and are debated and discussed in business and government as Internet technologies accelefrate the global communication connections in business and aociety. Some of these issues are:
1.Computer Monitoring: Knowing where a person is, mobile and paging services become closely associated with people rather than places.
2. Violation of Piracy: Accessing individual’s private e-mail conversations and computer records and collecting their information.
3. Computer Matching: Using customer information gained from many sources to market additional business services.
4. Unauthorised Personal Files: Collecting telephone numbers, credit card numbers and other personal information to build customer profiles.
Q.13. Write a short note on Internet privacy.
Ans. Internet Privacy: It consists of privacy of Internet and is the ability to control what information one reveals about himself over the Internet. It consists of a number of privacy risks that are events which compromise privacy which is seen through Internet use.
Some risks to Internet privacy are:
1. Cookies: These are tools used for user tracking and is a common concern in the field of privacy. An HTTP cookie consists of a piece of information that is stored on user’s computer to facilitate web browsing.
2. ISPs: It is used to have an Internet access by the consumers. All Internet data to and from the consumer must pass through consumer’s ISP. Any ISP has the capability to observe everything about consumer’s Internet. An ISP cannot know the contents of properly encrypted data that is passing between its consumers and the Internet.
3. Data Logging: Many programs and operating systems are set-up to perform data logging of usage which include recording times when computer is in use or which websites are visited.
Q.14. Write short notes on computer libel and censorship.
Ans Computer Libel and Censorship: It is the right of people to know about matters others may want to keep private, the right of people to express their opinions and to publish them. The weapons used in this regard are:
1 Spamming: It is indiscriminate sending of e-mail messages to many of the Internet users. It has been used by cyber criminals to spread computer viruses and attack computer systems.
2 flaming: It is the practice of sending critical and vulgar e-mail messages to other users on the Internet or online services. It is mainly prevalent on Internet’s special interest newsgroups.
Q.15. What is the impact of IT on unemployment?
Ans. Impact of IT on unemployment: It is a major ethical concern and is related to the use computers to achieve automation of work activities. It can influence unemployment in the following ways:
1. Direct Impact of IT through Computer Specific Human Capital: In it, the equipment and software are difficult to learn.
2. Direct Impact of IT through General Human Capital: Equipments and software are not complex but use of computers require higher skills as they replace the demand for physical sensino replace jobs with narrow responsibilities, etc.
3. Indirect Impact of IT through General Human Capital: Computers require general skills because they increase overall quantity, variety and complexity of information for all types of jobs.
4. Indirect Impact of IT through Job Creation and Displacement: It creates more jobs at the top and in the middle of the skill hierarchy and destroy jobs at the bottom through automation.
Q.16. What are the various types of health issues?
Ans. Health Issues: These are raised with the use of IT in the workplace. Heavy use of computers cause health problems like job stress, eyestrain, damaged arms, neck muscles, etc. IT can be used to solve human and social problems through societal solutions, such as medical diagnosis, computer assisted instruction, environmental quality control and law enforcement. Computers are used to monitor the level of pollution in air and for the program planning of government agencies. Long-term viewing of video displays cause eyestrain and other health problems.
Occupational safety and health is an area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in employment. The reasons for establishing these standards are:
1. Moral: An employee should not have the risk of injury or death at work.
2. Economic: Poor health performance results in cost to the state and employing organisations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work.
3. Legal: Health requirements are also reinforced in civil law or criminal law and without the extra encouragement of regulatory action, many organisations would not act upon their moral obligations.