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Active and Passive Voice
Formation of Passive Voice
Passive Voice consists of an appropriate Tense of ‘be’ or ‘morals’ followed by the part participle or third form of the verb.
Using the Passive Voice gives us the option of not mentioning the person or thing responsible for the action often called ‘the agent’ or ‘the doer’ of the action.
- Mentioning the agent with by when we use the passive, we can of course mention the agent at the end of the sentence by using by. This puts emphasis on the agent.
- John was beaten by Suresh.
- His best friend was killed by a grenade.
- Mentioning thing or methods used : We can mention something that the agent used to perform the action after the preposition with.
- A circle was drawn in the dirt with a stick.
- Moisture must be drawn out first with salt.
- With some verbs we put at to or in depending upon nature of verbs.
- I was disappointed at her behavior.
- I am interested in this Job.
- Tenants are obliged to pay their rent on time.
- A few transitive verbs refer to states rather than action . When some of these verbs are position with . Here is a list of transitive verbs referring to states which are used with with in the passive.
Cram, decorate, ornament, crowd, fill and through
- Example : The room was filled with pleasant furniture.
- The railings were decorated with thousands of bouquets.
- Phrasal verbs which consist of a transitive verbs followed by an adverb or by an adverb and a preposition, can be used in the passive.
- I was talked into meeting with Rajiv Sharma at a posh restaurant.
- Two totally opposing views have been put forward to explain this phenomenon.
- Because of their meaning same transitive verbs are usually used in the passive. The agent of the action is usually thought to be not worth mentioning or is not known.
The following transitive verbs are usually used in the passive.
Acclaimed , alleged, annihilated, baffled, born, compressed, conditioned, constructed, couched, cremated,dazed, deafened, debased, deemed, disconcerted, dubbed, dwarfed, earmarked, empowered, fined, gutted, hearled, horrified, hospitalized, indicated, inundated, jailed, mesmerised, misdirected, overcame, paralysed, penalized, perpetrated, pilloried, populated, prized, punctuated, rationed, reconciled, reprieved, re united, rumoured, scheduled, shipped, shipwrecked, short-listed, shrouded, staffed, stranded, strewn, subsumed, suspended, swamped, and wounded.
Some phrasal verbs are also used in the passive : bowled over, caught up, handed down, pensioned off, ploughed up, rained off, scaled down, struck off, sworn in, taken aback, written into.
- He was deemed to be the guardian of the child.
- The meeting is scheduled for Nov. 23.
- They were bowled over by a number of visitors who came to the show.
- Sudhir was somewhat taken awack by his ditectress.
- A few transitive verbs are rarely used in the passive because the thing affected by the action they describe is rarely the thing we are interested.
The following transitive verbs are rarely used in the passive.
Elude. Escape, flee, get, have, let, like, race, resemble, suit , survive.
The following phrasal verbs containing a transitive rarely used in the passive.
Band together , bite back, boom out, brush up, call down on, cast back, chuck in, cry out, ease off, eke but, flick over, get back, get down, give over, have on, have out, heave up, hunt up, jab at, jack in, jerk out, let through, peace out, phone back, ring back, ring out, sit out, sob out, stand off, tide over, wait out, walk off, while away.
- In the case of di- transitive such as give , teach, and show, which can have an indirect object as well as a direct object in an active clause, either object can be the subject of passive voice.
- Active Voice: an uncle had taught her logic.
Passive Voice: She had been taught logic by an uncle.
Logic had been taught her by an uncle.
- Active Voice: I gave him some money.
Passive Voice: Some money was given by him by me.
He was given some money by me.
- There is a group of transitive verb which can have a complement after their object. When these verbs are used in the passive , the complement is put directly after the verbs.
Here is a list of verbs which can be used in this way:
Such items should be carefully packed in tea chests.
(i) Because it is obvious who or what the agent is
She found that she was not being paid the same as him.
(ii) Because the agent has already been mentioned.
Her pictures of cats were executed with tremendous humour.
Because people in general are the agents.
Both of these books can be obtained from the market.
(iii) Because we wish to coceal the agent’s identity or distance ourselves from our own action.
The original has been destroyed.
The government was forced to say that the report would be Implemented.
(iv) In accounts of processes and scientific experiments, the passive is used and no agent is mentioned because the focus is on what happen and not on what makes it happen.
Food is put in jars, the jars and their contents are heated to a temperature which is maintained long enough to ensure that all bacteria, moulds and viruses are destroyed.
(v)The passive form of a reporting verb is often used in an impersonal ‘it’ structure , when it is clear whose or thoughts you are giving, the words or thoughts of people in general.
- It was agreed that he would come and see us again the next day.
- It was rumored that he had been sentenced to life imprisonment but had escaped.
There are certain rules by which an active voice can be transformed into Passive Voice.
UPTET Paper Level 1 English Active And Passive Voice Example Wise Study Material Notes
Rule 1: Interchange of subject and object – For changing Active Voice to Passive Voice , Subject is changed to Object and Object is changed to Subject.
Active: Ram loves Shyam.
Passive: Shyam is loved by Ram.
Active: Hari is teaching the students.
Passive : The students are being taught by Hari.
Rule 2: While changing Active Voice to Passive, we do not separate articles, adjectives and adjective phrase from its Subject or Object. We put them with its Subject or Object.
Active: All the children heard an interesting story.
Passive: An interesting story was heard by all the children.
Rule 3: the object of active voice which are in the form of pronoun is changed in this way
Me changes I
Us changes to we
Him changes to He
Her changes to She
Them changes to They
Note: There are no changes in you and It. Nouns are also not changed.
Active: Ram loves her.
Passive: She is loved by Ram.
Active: Mohan hates them.
Passive: They are hated by them.
Rule 4: Changes in the Verb.
- Past Participle or Third form of the verb is always used.
- Before using the main verb,verb to be (is , are, am , was, were, be, been, being) is used in according with the number and tense of the subject.
Verb ‘to be’ + love in Passive Voice
|Present||am loved||am being loved||have been loved||No passive voice|
|Is loved||Is being loved||has been loved||No passive voice|
|are loved||are being loved||have been loved||No passive voice|
|Past||was loved||was being loved||had been loved||No passive voice|
|were loved||Were being loved||had been loved||No passive voice|
|Future||will be loved||Will have been loved||No passive voice|
|Shall be loved||Shall have been loved||No passive voice|
- Present Tense
- Present Indefinite
Active: He reads a book.
Passive: A book is written by Ram.
Active: Ram writes letters.
Passive: Letters are written by Ram.
Active:Hari follows me.
Passive: I am followed by Hari.
- Present Continuous.
Active : He is writing a letter.
Passive: a letter is being written by him.
Active: They are reading books.
Passive: Books are being read by them.
Active: Ram is helping me.
Passive:I am being helped by Ram.
- Present Perfect
Active: Ram has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Ram.
Active: Mohan has read many books.
Passive:Many books have been read by Mohan.
Active: He has helped me.
Passive: I have been helped by him.
- Past Tense
(i) Simple Past or Past Indefinite
Active : John wrote a book.
Passive: A book was written by John.
Active: Ravi gave some money.
Passive: Some money was given by Ravi.
Active: They assisted him.
Passive : He was assisted by them.
(ii) Past Continuous
Active: Subodh was reading a novel.
Passive: A novel was being read by Subodh.
Active: Garima was preparing a doll.
Passive: A doll was being prepared by Garima.
Active:Mohit was encouraging her.
Passive: She was being encouraged by Mohit.
(iii) Past Perfect
Active: The postal worker had delivered the packages.
Passive:The packages had been delivered by the postal worker.
Active: The Teacher had taught me in 1954.
Passive: I had been taught by the teacher in 1954.
Active: He had taken my house in 1947.
Passive: My house had been taken by him in 1947.
- Future Tense
- Future Indefinite
Active:Subodh will write a novel.
Passive: A novel will be written by subodh.
Active: Nita will sing a song in school function.
Passive: A song will be sung by Nita in school function.
Active: Sohan will help me in my task .
Passive: I shall be helped by Sohan in my task.
Active: Ravina will have shifted her house.
Passive: Her house will have been shifted by Ravina.
Active: Ram will have read many books.
Passive: Many books have been read by Ram.
Active: The police will have caught the thief.
PassiveThe thief will have been caught by the police.
Rule 5 : In sentences in which auxiliary verbs-may/might/can/could/should/would are used with main verbs , the auxiliary verbs are retained as they are and they are followed by be + third form (Past participle) of the verbs.
Active: He can teach you.
Passive: You can be taught by him.
Active: We should help him.
Passive: He should be helped by us.
Active: We could solve the problem.
Passive: The problem could be solved by us.
Rule 6: In some sentences Verb ‘to be’ (am, is, are, was, were) and has /have/had , which are followed by an Infinitive (to + verb), while coverting such sentences into the Passive voice. Form appropriate to its subject , after which are used to be+ verb in the third form . As:
Active: You have to help him.
Passive: He is to be helped by you.
Active: She has to do this job.
Passive: This job has to be done by her.
Active: He was to purchase an umbrella.
Passive: An umbrella was to be purchased by him.
Rule 7: Sometimes an Intransitive Verb joined with a preposition does the work of a Transitive Verb. The Active voice structures are converted into the Passive voice according to same rules , Keeping in mind that the preposition must be retained with the verb.
Active: Sunita looks after her children.
Passive: Her children are looked after by Sunita.
Active: They laughed at me.
Passive: I was laughed at by them.
Rule 8 : Some sentences have two objects-
While converting such sentences into the Passive , the Indirect or Direct object can be used as the Subject.Example:
Active: She teaches me English.
Passive: I am taught English by her.
English is taught me by her.
Active: I shall give you necessary help by me.
Necessary help will be given to you by me.
Rule 9: Some sentences having double object begin with ‘Let’ in the Active Voice. In Passive Voice, these sentences also begin with ‘Let’ and the Direct is used as the Subject. Also ‘be’ should be used before the third form of the Verb. As :
Active: Let him bring a cup of tea.
Passive: Let a cup of tea be brought by him.
Rule 10 : If the imperative Sentence carries the sense of order or command the Passive voice should begin with ‘Let’ and ‘be’ should be used before the third form of the verb.Example :
Active: Open the book.
Passive: Let the book be opened.
Active: Shut the window.
Passive: Let the window be shut.
Rule 11 : If the Imperative Sentence carries the sense of request of advice ‘should be’ must be used before the third form of the verb. Example:
Active: Help the patients.
Passive: The patients should be helped.
Active: Love animals.
Passive : Animals should be loved.