UPTET Paper Level 1 English Direct And Indirect Speech Rules Tenses Verb Sentences Notes : UPTET Paper Level 1 English UPTET Paper Level 1 English Direct And Indirect Speech Rules Tenses Verb Sentences Notes On Our Website you will find UPTET Paper Lavel 1 In Objective General English. this Website is very helpful for All Students, Here you will find all the Formation Of Passive Voice with Example. All notes on our Site a2znotes.com Study Material Practice Papers have been Provided for you, by which you can increase the maximum.
Direct And Indirect Speech
There are two main ways of reporting peoples thought, words, beliefs etc.
We can repeat or quote the exact words spoken. This kind of reporting is called Direct Speech or Narration.
He said, “I have lost my umbrella”.
She said, “I am going.”
He said, “I want to go home.”
Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a comma or colon is placed immediately before the remark. Direct Speech is found in conversation in books, in plays and in quotations.
Indirect ( reported) Speech:
We can make a speaker’s words or thoughts part of our sentences using conjunctions (e.g., that) and changing pronouns tenses and other words when necessary. This kind of reporting is called Indirect Speech or Narration.
She said, “I am bring a friend to the party.”
She said that she might bring a friend to the party.
When we turn Direct Speech into Indirect some changes are usually necessary. These are easily studied by considering statements, questions and commands seperately.
Rules for Changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech
The Rules for changing the Direct Speech into Indirect speech may be divided into four groups.
- Rules for Connectives.
- Rules for change of Tenses.
- Rule for Change of Persons.
- Other Rules for Miscellaneous Changes.
Rules for Connectives:
The whole sentence in the Direct Speech consists two parts. The first part is outside the Inverted Commas which is called Reporting Speech. When the whole sentences is required to be changed from Direct into Indirect Speech, two parts of sentence are joined by some connectives. The following are these Rules-
- For Assertive Sentences– If the Reported Speech is in the form of assertive sentences, the connectives used to join it with the Reporting Speech is ‘that’. As:
Direct: She said, “She is going theatre.”
Indirect : She said that she was going theatre.
- For Interrogative Sentences – If the Reported Speech is in the form of an Interrogative Sentence,it can be connected in two ways according to the structure of interrogative sentence.
If the Interrogative sentence begin with an Interrogative Adverb (Where. When, How, Why, many etc.) or with an Interrogative Pronouns / Adjective ( Who, Whose, Whom, Which, What etc.); no connective is required to join it.
Direct: He said, “Where are going ?”
Indirect : He asked (me) Where I was going?
Direct: He said, “Who is my friend?”
Indirect: He asked who my friend was.
(B) If the Interrogative Sentence begins with ab Auxiliary Verb the connective whether or if is used to join it.
Direct: He said, “Is he a lawyer?”
Indirect: He asked whether (or if) he was a lawyer ?
Direct: I said, “Do you smoke?”
Indirect: I asked whether (or if) you smoked.
- Imperative Sentences– If the Reported Speech is in the form of an Imperative Sentence (indicating command or request ), no connective is needed but the main verb of the Imperative Sentence is converted into an infinitive . As:
Direct: He said to the servant, “Close the door.”
Indirect: He ordered the servant to close the door.
Direct: Ratan said, “Please give me a glass of water.”
Indirect: Ratan requested to give him a glass of water.( Here ‘Please’ is omitted)
- Exclamatory Sentences– If the Reported Speech is in the form of an Exclamatory Sentence (indicating surprise, fear , contempt, sorrow or wish) it is change into an Assertive Sentence in the Indirect Speech form and connective ‘that’ is used to with the Reporting Sentence. As:
Direct: He said, “May you live long.”
Indirect: He wished that he might lived long.
Direct: He said, “What a horrible scene !”
Indirect: He observed that it was a horrible scene.
UPTET Paper Level 1 English Direct And Indirect Speech Rules Tenses Verb Sentences Notes
Rules for Change in Tenses:
- It should first be remembered that no change is ever made in the Tense of the Reporting Verb. But of course without changing the tense, the verbs can be changed according to the sense of the Reported Speech. For example in place of say or said, we can use tell or told or we can use replied, remarked, asked, observed, declared etc., according to the sense . But in no case there should be a change in the Tense of the Reporting Verb.
- If the Reporting Verb is in Present or Future Tense, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed at all. As:
- Direct: Albert says, “He is going.”
Indirect : Albert says that he is going.
- Direct: Lalit says, “Mahesh was going.”
Indirect: Lalit says that Mahesh was going.
- Direct: Sudhakar will say, “Sneh will come.”
Indirect: Sudhakar will say that Sneh will come.
(III) If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the tense of the Reported Verb is changed according to the following rules-
- Present Indefinite-is changed into Past Indefinite Tense.As:
Direct: He said, “John is unwell.”
Indirect: He said that John was unwell
- Present Continuous –is changed into Past Continuous Tense. As:
Direct: He said. “Sarita is reading her book.”
Indirect: He said that Sarita was reading her book.
- Present Perfect- is changed into Past perfect Tense. As:
Direct: Sumer said, “Neha has passed the examination.”
Indirect: Sumer said that Neha has passed the examination.
- Present Perfect Continuous– is changed into Past Perfect Continuous Tense. As:
Direct: Mohan said, “They have been working hard since July.”
Indirect: Mohan said that they had been working since July.
- Ordinarily no change is made in the Past Indefinite tense, but sometimes it is changed into Past Perfect Tense. As:
- Direct: Vicky said, “They visited Delhi last year.”
Indirect: Vicky said that they visited Delhi last year.
- Direct: She said, “The horse died last night.”
Indirect: She said that the horse had died last night.
- Will and shall of the Future Tense are changed into Would and Should respectively As:
Direct: Mahima said , “Babita will definitely do this work.”
Indirect: Mahima said that Babita would definitely do this work.
Direct: I said, “I shall go.”
Indirect: I said that I should go.
- May is changed into might and can into could As:
- Direct: He said , “She can do her work.”
Indirect: He said that she could do her work.
- Direct: The teacher said, “He may be allowed to go.”
Indirect: The teacher said that he might be allowed to go.
- There is no change in Must. As:
Direct: He said, “she must go to at once.”
Indirect: He said that she must to go at once.
If the Reported Speech refers to some Universal Truth or Habitual Action, no change is made in the Tense of the Reported Verb even if the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense. As:
Direct : The teacher said in the class “The Sun rises in the east.”
Indirect: The teacher said in the class that the rises in the east.
Direct: He said, “Man lives by bread.”
Indirect: He said that man lives by bread.