Rules for Change in Persons
- Every First Person Pronouns used in the Reported speech is changed according to the person of the Subject of the Reporting Speech:
- Direct: He said “I am doing my work.”
Indirect: He said that he was doing his work.
- Direct: You said, “I am going to Delhi to meet my uncle.”
Indirect: You said you were going to Delhi to meet your uncle.
II Every Second Person Pronoun in the Reported speech , is changed according to the Object/ Predicate of the Reporting Verb. As:
Direct: Ramesh said to him “You are not doing your work seriously.”
Indirect: Ramesh told him that he was not doing his work seriously.
Direct: He said to me, “You may go.”
Indirect: He told me that I might go.
Direct: I said to him, “You may go.”
Indirect: I told him that he might go.
Direct: Ramesh said to me, “You are not doing your work seriously.”
Indirect: Ramesh told me that I was not doing my work seriously.
III Third Person Pronouns remain unchanged.
Direct: She said, “She may go.”
Indirect: She sait that she might go.
Some typical words used in the Reported Speech are changed as listed below:
|This or These||That or those|
|Tomorrow||Next day/the following day|
|Yesterday||The previous day/ the day before|
|Last Night||The previous night|
- Direct : He said, I will do this work now.
Indirect: He said that he would do this work then.
- Direct: He said, I came to this village long ago.
Indirect: He said that he had come to that village long before.
- Direct: He said, I am glad to be here this evening.
Indirect: He said that he was glad to be there that evening.
Interrogative Sentence can begin in two ways:
- With Auxiliary or Helping Verb such as-Is , are, am, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, do, did, does, can, could.
- With Interrogative Adjective/Pronoun or Interrogative Adverb such as –who, whom, whose, which, what, when, where, why, how etc.
I We can make a change in the Reporting Verb according to the sense, but without making any change in tense. For example, in place of said, we can use asked, enquired, demanded etc.
II Connective that is not used to join any kind of Interrogative sentence.
III If the Interrogative Sentence begins with an Auxiliary or Helping Verb in the Direct Speech. It begins with If or whether in the Indirect Speech.
IV If the Interrogative Sentence begins with an Interrogative Adjective/Adverb/Pronoun in the Direct speech. It begins with the same Interrogative Adjective/Adverb/ Pronoun in the Indirect Speech also. No connective is needed to join it with the Reporting Speech.
V The Interrogative Sentence is changed into an Assertive Sentence in the Indirect Speech. In order to change an Interrogative Sentence into an Assertive one.the Subject is used before the Verb, and mark of Interrogative should be removed.
VI The Auxiliary do or does of the Reported Speech is removed and in their place the Past Indefinite Tense of the main Verb is used. As:
I Direct: He said to Sanjay, “Do you Know his name?”
Indirect: He asked Sanjay if he knew his name.
II Direct: Ram said to her, “Does Mihir go to school?”
Indirect: Ram asked her whether Mihir went to school.
VII The Auxiliary did of the Reported Speech is removed and the Past Perfect form of the main verb is used .As:
Direct: I said to him, “Did you go to school yesterday?”
Indirect: I asked him whether he had gone to school the previous day.
VIII If the Reported Speech has do not or does not in the Direct Speech, it will have did not + first form of the main verb in Indirect Speech.
- Direct : He said to Jai, “Do you not know me?”
Indirect: He asked Jai whether he did not know him.
- Direct: Sanjay said, “Does Lalit not tell a lie?”
Indirect: Sanjay asked whether Lalit did not tell a lie.
IX If the Reported Speech has did not in Direct Speech, it will had not + Part Perfect form of the Verb in Indirect Speech. As:
Direct: I said to him, Did you not promise to come?
Indirect: I asked him whether he had not promised to come.
The Sentences which carry the sense of order, request , wish, advice are called Imperative Sentences. These sentences often begin with finite Verb. Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing these sense. The Reporting Verb said is changed as order, advise, request, threaten beg, beseech, implore, purpose, forbid, urge , etc.,
According the sense of Reported Speech .As:
Direct: He said to his servants, “Go away at once.
Indirect: He ordered his servant to go away at once
Direct: Ravi said to his friend, “Work hard.”
Indirect: Ravi advised his friend to work hard.
Direct: He said to Vijay, “I will kill you.”
Indirect: He threatened Vijay to kill him.
Direct: He said to his master, “Pardon me, Sir.”
Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.
Direct: He said to me, “Kindly, help me.”
Indirect: He beseeched me to help him.
Direct: The teacher said to the student, “Do not sit here.”
Indirect: The teacher forbade the student to sit there.
Direct: He said, “Be quiet and listen to my words.”
Indirect: He urged them to be quiet and listen his words.
Direct: He said, “Let us wait for our friends.”
Indirect: He proposed that they should wait for their friends.