(b) How are values formed/developed within individuals? We like to think that our values are unique to us and an essential part of who we are. The critical question here is, how much of our values are derived from our reference group affiliation? We find that for most people, their values are generally consistent with the values of the reference group in which they were socialised. There are two kinds of values:
(I) Instrumental values which represent the “means” an individual prefers for achieving important “ends.”
(ii) Terminal values are preferences concerning “ends” to be achieved.
When an individual can no long answer the question of these components of culture have a well, defined linkage with each other which binds a culture and makes change in any one of the components difficult. However, change in any one of these components causes chain reactions amongst others.
Culture is a very powerful force at the workplace, which is consciously and deliberately cultivated and is passed on to the incoming employees. It reflects the true nature and personality of an organisation.
Q.6. “Total Quality Management (TQM) is the need of modern competitive industrial organisations.” Examine the statement.
Or Explain the concept of “Total Quality Management (TQM)”. What lessons can be drawn from
Indian ethos and values with regard to TQM?
Ans. “Total Quaiity Management (TQM) : Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to business which looks critically at the products and services of a company in order to obtain complete customer satisfaction. The approach is called ‘Total’ because it involves everything the company does. All its PossesSions of resources and all of its employees at every level in the company all the time.
TQM is the sum of three attributes, namely:
1. T ——- Total
– 2. Q —— Quality
3. M Management
(1) Total : Any decision or action taking place in a particular department is not only confined to that departnent but influences the whole system of the organisation. Hence every matter should be studied as a whole.
(2) Quality: Quality is the integration of quality in production, quality in services and quality in management process.
(3) Management: Management is an art of getting things done through others.
TQM isa Continuous improvement approach and it is based on the concept that quality can be managed and that it is a process. Quality is a way of managing and is, not a technical activity. Quality means something more than just the basics outlined in ISO 9000 or ISI.
Purpose of TQM : The purpose of TQM is to set up a system and management discipline that prevents unnecessary losses in company’s performance cycle. The basic objective of a company is to integrate all the functions and processes within an organisation in order to achieve continuous improvement in quality of goods and services and people business processes, quality is the single greatest factor in achieving market success for any company. TQM primarily focus on total satisfaction.
Total — Quality involves everyone and all processes.
Quality — Meeting customer requirement.
Management — Quality is a way of managing.
Facts related to TQM: QM is the basis for activities to achieve defect for work most of the time. The assertion is expressed in various ways, as things done right for the first time result in zero defects. The idea is to strive for perfection in the work. Zero defect is the result of an emphasis on prevention and the careful use of measurement, process controls and elimination of waste and error. It serves as a goal for continuous improvement. Some points related to TQM are as follows: