(1) Prevention is the aim of all quality assurance.
(2) Quality is the single greatest factor in achieving market success for the company.
(3) Reducing products and services cost.
(4) Following ‘Just in Time’ management.
(5) Customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal.
(6) Processes, not people is the chief problem.
(7) Quality improvement must be continuous.
(8) Quality can and must be managed at all stages in all departments.
(9) Reduce variation and achieve standardisation.
Indian Insight into TQM In Indian context, TQM indicates that mind is the key factor of total excellent-performance in any organisation. It gives the direction to the management to establish vision, mission, business definitions. It is the intellectual strength of human beings which control the quality of human resources and processes. Quality of mind is related to thought process, perception, attitude and implementation activity which maintain the quality of products and services. A perfect human being is one who accepts everyone as a part of himself/herself as an individual. Such a quality person in any organisation can best establish TQM. There are some factors discussed here for quality in person:
(1) Possitive attitude of a person towards work.
(2) Cooperation from peers, seniors and subordinates.
(3) His leadership skill.
(4) Top management.
(5) His family, mentor and ideals.
(6) Teachers and Gurus influence.
The Indian insight indicates that ‘Mind’ is the master boy for improving the performance in any field of activity. Quality of mind improves the quality of products and services.
We have “7m” framework in which the first element is mind:
Principles of TQM in Indian Context:
(a) Follow the divine principle “Work is Worship”
(b) Work is supreme that can lead to total quality.
(c) Commitment for action.
(d) Sense of belongingness to the organisation.
(e) Focus towards each and every activity for betterment.
(tJ Selfless actions towards work.
(g) Total perfection and quality must be the objective of each and every employee.
Q.7. “TQM as a philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products.” Highlight the importance and need of TQM.
Ans. Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. It is used around the world.
TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved in the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organisation. in other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce,
suppliers and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations from the product. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies, Cua, McKone and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices— cross-functional product design, process management, supplier quality management, Customer involvement, information and feedback, committed leadership, strategic planning, cross-functional training and employee involvement.
History of Quality: The roots of Total Quality Management (TQM) can be traced back to early 1920s when statistical theory was first applied to product quality control. This concept was further developed in Japan in the 40s led by Americans, such as Deming, Juran and Feigenbaum. The focus widened from quality of products to quality of all issues within an organisation, which was the start of TQM.
The following factors show the history of Total Quality Management (TQM), from inspection to business excellence:
(1) Inspection : Inspection involves measuring, examining, and testing products, process and services against specified requirements to determine conformity to the set standards. The use of inspection has been evident throughout the history of organised production. In the late middle ages, special measures were taken to inspect the work of apprentices and journeymen in order to guard the Guild againstdaj ofmakeshiftorshoddywork Duringthe earlyyears of manufacturing, inspector used to decide whether a worker’s job or a product met the requirements; therefore, acceptable. It was not done in a systematic way, but worked well when the volume of production was reasonably low. However, as organisatjons became larger, the need for more effective operations became apparent.
In 1911, Freden& W. Taylor helped in fulfilling this need. He published ‘The Principles of Scientific Mana!e,nent’ which provided a framework for the effective use of people in industrial organisatio ie of Taylor’s concepts was clearly defined tasks performed under standard conditions. Inspection was one of these tasks and was intended to ensure that no faulty product left the factory or workshop; focuses on the product and the detection of problems in the product; involves testing every item to ensure that it complies with product specifications; is carried out at the end of the production process; and relies on specially trained inspectors.