(3) Culture is Same as Organisation : Culture is a result of sustained interaction among people in an organisation and exists commonly in thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of people. organisations on the other hand, consists of a set of expectations and a system of reward and punishment sustained by rules, regulations, and norms of behaviour.
(4) Culture is a Social Structure: Social structures in various collectives exhibit tangible and specific ways in which people relate to one another overtly. However, culture operates on a system of unseen, abstract, and emotionally loaded forms which guide organisational members to deal with their physical and social needs.
Q.12. What do you understand by strong and weak cultures? Also discuss about group think,
Ans. Strong Culture: Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organisational values. In such environments, strong cultures help firms operate like well-oiled machines, cruising along with outstanding execution and perhaps minor tweaking of existing procedures here and there.
Weak Culture : Conversely, there is weak culture where there is little alignment of staff with organisational values, and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy.
Research shows that organisations that foster strong cultures have clear values that give employees a reason to embrace this culture. A “strong” culture may be especially beneficial to firms operating in the service sector, since members of these organisations are responsible for delivering the service and for evaluations important constituents make about firms. Research indicates that organisations may derive the following benefits from developing strong and productive cultures:
(1) Better alignment of the company towards achieving its vision, mission, and goals.
(2) High employee motivation and loyalty towards the organisation.
(3) Increased team cohesiveness among the company’s various departments and divisicrns.
(4) Promoting consistency and encouraging coordination and control within the company.
(5) Shaping employee behaviour at work, enabling the organisation to be more efficient.
Where culture is strong—people do things because they believe it is the right thing to do— there is a risk of another phenomenon, groupthink.
Groupthink; “Groupthink” was described by Irving L. Janis. He defined it as “…a quick and easy way to refer to a mode ofthinking that people engaged in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members’ strive for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternatives of action.” This is a state where people, even if they have different ideas, do not challenge organisational thinking, and therefore there is a reduced capacity for innovative thoughts. This could occur, for example, where there is heavy reliance on a central charismatic figure in the organisation, or where there is an evangelical belief in the organisation’s values, or also in groups where a friendly climate is at the base of their identity, (avoidance of conflict). In fact, group think is very common, it happens all the time in almost every group. Members that are defiant are often turned down or seen as a negative influence by the rest of the group, because they bring conflict.
Innovative organisations need individuals who are prepared to challenge the status quo—be it groupthink or bureaucracy, and also need procedures to implement new ideas effectively.
Q.13. What are the characteristics of a healthy organisational culture?
Ans. Characteristics of a Healthy Organisational Culture: Organisations should strive for what is considered a “healthy” organisational culture in order to increase productivity, growth, efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other counterproductive behaviour. Various characteristics describe a healthy organisational culture, including: