(3) Values are Internal : There can’t be external ethics. Ethics are internal character traits such loyalty, sensitivity, justice, compassion and honesty which may be reinforced in an academic nurse but they actually do not originate there.
Q.5 What do you mean by the term “ethics”? Also discuss its nature.
Ans. Ethics : The word ‘Ethics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Ethos’ which means character. thics concerns attempt to distinguish ‘right’ from ‘wrong’, ‘good’ from ‘bad’ and what constitutes lesirable conduct in a particular set of social circumstances.
Nature of Ethics : The nature of ethics is as follows:
(1) A Normative Science : Ethics is said to be a normative science because it deals with ideals. Ethics is concerned with the ideals of good. A normative science determines norms, ideals, standards or values. Ethics is not a natural or positive science like physics and chemistry.
(2) Self-imposed: Ethical principles are self-imposed. The laws of the state are externally imposed on the individual by the state. Incompliance of laws may lead to punishment. We follow a moral principle not because of the hope of reward or fear of punishment but because we think that it is our duty.
(3) Morality: Morality is an essence for ethical behaviour, it should be reflective. Any conduct based on hard social rules totally fails the conventional morality. In cases where there is a conflict of duties, conventional morality ensures well-being and survival of society. it is true that conventional morality serves the majority of people in most cases, but it fails in complex cases.
(4) Discipline: Ethics follows the rule of discipline. Discipline is necessal’Y for ethics and it plays a vital role in ethics. Ethics contains principles, rules and regulations.
Q.6. Write a brief note on arguments against business ethics. (2011)
Or Explain arguments against busineS ethics. (2012)
Ans. The various arguments against business ethics are as follows:
Arguments Against Business Ethics
- The pursuit of profit will itself ensure social resporsible behaviour in perfectly competitive markets.
(2) Managers are loyal agents and they should pursue the interests of their firms and should ignore ethical consideratiqfls
(3) It is sufficient if business firms obey law.
Arguments for Expecting Ethical Behavior from Business Concerns
- Businesses Jannot survive unless moral standards exist in business concerns and outside.
- Ethical concerns are consistent with profits of businesses.
- Analogy to Prisoners’ dilemma reveals that in repeated interactions, cooperation is a better solution while ethical behaviour iS the best solution.
- Most people value ethical behavior and punish businessmen and organiSations that are not ethical. In organisations where people feel there is no fair play, there is more absenteeism, avoidance of work and lack of respect. In organisatiofls where people feel there is fair play, there is enthusiasm, cooperation and trust.