(1) Six sigma techniques
(ii) Quality certification i.e. ISI, ISO 9001-2000.
(iii) Emphasis on Total Quality Management (TQM).
(iv) Emphasis on Kaizan (Japanese technique of production).
4. Newer Organisatjon Design: Over the period of time, there are many changes in dynamic organisational structure. Now demand for part time and temporary workers is increasing i.e. workforce is hired for accomplishment of certain projects. When that project is finished, the team disbands. Use of Computer, cell phones, modems, internet, intranet that allow people to work for multiple employers at the same time.
5. Emphasis Knowledge Management: In recent years, more emphasis has been put on Management Information System (MIS). MIS has become most important resource for the organisation. It is used by the relevant organisation members at different levels.
6. Changing Workforce Profile: With the increased competition, demand of educated and skilled workforce has increased. Earlier our labour force was considered to be illiterate and all human resource activities used to be geared to meet job demand and expectation based on that illiteracy. But today, they are more educated and skill oriented.
Holistic Approach: It means everything is inter-related. Decisions taken in one department would affect other departments also. Managers should keep in mind the whole organisation while taking any decision because his decision would affect the interest of all these stakéholders of the business. In other words, managers should make decisions keeping in view the various interest groups such as interest of workers, customers, suppliers etc.
Those decisions should be taken that
do not harm the interest of any group, society, workers, Customers, management
The holistic approach is based on the principle of unity or non-duality. Under the principle of unity, the universe is an undivided whole where every particle is connected with another particle.
The necessitiesof a good decision making are as follows:
1. Decision should leave the manager in healthy state of mind, it means the decisions made by the manager should not only solve the problem but also provide a sort of satisfaction.
2. The backward and forward linkages of problem should be clearly understood.
3. Managers should receive the information related with the problem not only from his subordinates but also make efforts at his level to collect facts related with the problem.
4. Managers must not involve the personal evaluation in decision making.
5. Decision must bring unity and cooperation in the organisation.
Q.11. What is the difference between secular and spiritual values in management? Discuss situation when each one is relevant, with suitable examples.
Ans. Secular and Spiritual Values in Management: In managing a business concern, secular and spiritual values play an important role:
Therefore, one should have knowledge about the secular and spiritual values. These have been defined as under:
Secular Values : Secularism is a doctrine that morality should be based solely with regard to the well-being of mankind in the present life excluding all considerations drawn from belief in God. Indian conception of secularism required that there shailbe no state religion and the state shall treat all religions equally. Secularism means non-religious policy. The secular values are based on facts and science. Secularism means being materialism and task oriented for managers. Secularism is a professional value which completely ignores the difference of caste, colour, religion, culture etc. In Indian context of secularism, there shall be no state religion and the state shall treat all religions equally. As an alternative this quality of secularism turns an individual into a professional.