(5) Spiritualism and Management: The quality of work like in an organisation is greatly influenced by the spiritual and ethical values prevalent in the organisation. However, a number of business and industrial organisations, both in our country and broad, tend to disregard the importance of such spiritual values. Human happiness is the major objective for which the industrial enterprise exists. It is a fact that mankind is today in the midst of one of the greatest crisis in history. This is due to lack of adjustment of human spirit to the startling developments in science and technology, It is said that there is no clash between secularism and spiritualism. Spiritualism shows the goal and materialism supplies the tools.
Following are the few examples where both spiritualism and secularism are relevant:
Worship of Tulsi : Tulsi is a kind of plant. We do worship Tulsi by giving water or by lighting a lamp before a plant of Tulsi. Secularism believes that lighting a lamp before Tulsi kills insects. Tulsi also has medicinal value as it cures cough and cold.
Giving Argh to Sun: Argh is a respectful offering to a diety or to an honoured guest. It is spiritual value to give argh to sun in the morning because sun is God. Secular values believe that when we give argh to sun, our eyesights will also become bright and powerful.
Touching Feet of Elders : According to spirituality, we get blessing by touching feet of elders. While a secular value says that blood circulation is maintained by it.
In this way, in some situation, both secular and spiritual values are relevant.
LJUIIfl jUl M.LJ.tI.
Q.12. Write a detailed note on lessons from ancient Indian educational system.
Or Discuss the features of ancient Indian education system. What lessons can be drawn from that system for human development?
Ans. Ancient Indian Educational System : The ancient Indian education system was basically aimed at personal growth of an individual. Our education system is the oldest in the world and is having some qualities which are no where else in the world and we are proud of this. The aim of ancient Indian education system was not only to give theoretical knowledge but to make an individualhumble so that he can gain mukti. The ultimate aim of human society of that age was the achievement of absolute i.e. Brahma which was prevailing in the entire visible world. A man should engage himself in karmopasna i.e. work is worship and thus purify his inner senses and gain the absolute. The Ashramas : Ashrama Vyavastha was there under which the whole life of an individual was divided into 4 ashramas taking the average life span of 100 years:
(1) Brahmcharya Ashrama : First 25 years of age are to be spent as brahmchari.or student. The whole activity during this ashrama is restricted to the study and acquisition of knowledge.
(2) GrahasthaAshrama : After completing 25 years of age, an individual marrys and lives in the family life.
(3) Vanaprastha Ashrama : After attaining 50 years of age man enters into the ashrama. When a man finds his hair grey and his son grow adult, then he has to disown possession and go to the secluded place to pray to God and practice yoga.
(4) Sanyasa Ashrama : Man transforms into Sanyasi after attaining 75 years of age. He roamed to preach truth and teaches the people and releases them from sorrows and sufferings.
According to Altekar, there were good rise in main characteristics of education in ancient Indian system. These are:
(1) Infusion of Piety and Religiousness : This was due to the reason that religion played a very important role in the life in Ancient India and all teachers were priests. Every student had to offer daily prayers in the morning and evening. All religious festivals were celebrated in the school. The main aim of education during ancient period was to make student useful and pious member of society.
(2) Formation of Character: This was the second aim of education. This was achieved by proper development of moral feelings. It was believed that mere intellectual knowledge was not enough to become a learned fellow; in addition, the student must be pure in his deeds, thoughts and habits.
(3) Development of Personality: This was the third main characteristic of Vedic Educational System. This was realized by encouraging self-confidence, fostering self-respect and self-restraint.
(4) Inculcation of Civic and Social Duties: Graduate students were highly inspired during convocation address to become useful members of the society. A graduate student was not to lead a self-centered life, rather he was always available for serving his obligations to the society. Social life in villages was very stable and well-ordered as education transformed people and made them conscious of their socfal duties and civic responsibilities.
(5) Promotion of Social Efficiency and Happiness: During the ancient period, Aryans evolved a peculiar system for promoting the progress of different art forms and professions. In the society, a particular caste was restricted to a particular occupation. Eventually, this system has resulted in general progress and happiness of society.
(6) Preservation and Spread of National Heritage and Culture: In the ancient system of education, this was one of the most important aims. People were very much conscious of their culture. The scared Vedic texts were successfully preserved and transmitted during this period. The ancient educational system was also relevant for modern management as the moral principles of truthfulness, observance of duty, purity of self, duty towards society are still applicable in the Indian society.
Lessons from Ancient Education System of India: In the ancient education system in India, following lessons can be drawn:
(1) There should be a religious and human touch in people.
(2) There should be a feeling of social responsibility and obligations among the people.
(3) Actions should be taken to build character of the people.
(4) Development of personality through self confidence, self respect should be initiated.
(5) Ethical behaviour should be promoted by teaching of ethics.
(6) Respect for old culture and heritage should be ensured.
(7) There should be spirituality at workplace.
(8) Decision-making should be based on moral judgments and standards.
(9) Management system should be in tune with Indian ethos.
Q.13. How do the field of science
and technology and Indian ethos and values in management are related
to each other? Can this relationship help to develop an Indian thought on
Or How are the fields of science and management related to each other? Does Gita provides any scientific philosophical base to explain human behaviour? Explain by giving examples.
Ans. Introduction Science has permeated in all aspects of our life today. It has replaced the art of noble living due to transformation of spiritualistic world into a materialistic world. We have very high standard of living which is not possible without ethics and human values. From tool to machine, to automation, to chip: it has been a progress that seems to have made human race less and less human. In the masculine world of science, science has been robbing us of our feelings, removing the basic elements of our personality and character.
Relationship between Science and Human Values
1. Science Must be in Favor of Human Values for Survival and Growth: Science should have positive effect on the human values through up gradation in knowledge, skill and rights of fellow human beings. But in the present scenario, we can see some cases in which science has been misused for destructive purposes eg. missiles, damaging of websites by virus attacks, which is against the human values.
2. Science and Human Values: Two pillars of human existence, human values and science focus on overall development ounankind. What stage we are in today is in result of the proper support in terms of science and human values. A classic example of this can be seen in our educational system where in childhood one is taught basic mathematics, science concepts etc. by the teachers at the same time.
3. Science Without Human Values Would be Devasting : Any usage of science without humanity can be of abrasive effect, so it should essentially be used for positive effects only.
4. A Human Value Without Science Is of No Use: Any human value that is needed for development of mankind must take leverage of science to support development and growth. “Science
without humanity” is one ofthe seven deadly sins as defined by Mahatma Gandhi. The very purpose of scientific discoveries and creations should be to serve the humanity, leading to enhancement in the level of health, happiness and harmony amongst the various constituents of society.
According to Guru Dronacharya : He rewarded Arjun with the supreme weapon, the Brahmastra. He, however, did not give it to his own son, Ashwathama. Guru Dronacharya wa afraid that his son might misuse it as he had high skills but low human values.
According to Rabindranath Tagore : “Our scientific world is world of reasoning butthe reality of world belongs to personality of man.”
According to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan “In a technological civilization, an individual becomes a depersonalized unit in a mass society. Things or machines control life. Statistical average replaces qualitative human beings. Science has thus aggravated his mental restlessness.”
Examples of Science and Human Values
(a) Giving Argh to the Sun
Human Values: It is a human value to give argh to the sun in the morning because the sun is God and if we give argh to the sun it purifies the environment.
Science Relation. If we give avgh tu the sun, then on eyesghts ‘vvill also \3ec0me bñght When we give argh to the sun, then rays of the sun get reflected through the water and reaches our eyes which is good for health.
(b) Fasting is the Relaxation of Digestive System
Human Values: Fasting is a way of offering prayer to God.
Science Relation: It helps in relaxation of digestive system, as a person eats less than his/her normal intake of food.
(c) Wearing Silver Anklets
Human Values : Laxmi comes with the help of voice of anklets.
Science Relation: Silver is very cool in nature. So, it stops anger. Anklets also help in proper blood circulation.
(d) Doing Yagya (yajna)
Human Values: To make God happy and for gaining peace.
Science Relation : Purification of environment and killing insects.
(e) Wearing the Ring in Ringfinger
Human Values : Wearing of ring affects one’s heart.
Science Relation : Generally, we wear a ring because it acts as an acupressure and ringfinger is directly connected with the heart.
(1) Worshiping of Plants
Human Values : People worship the tree and plant because they treat flora as god.
Science Relation Trees release maximum oxygen in the morning.
Human Values: Namaskar is also a part of human values.
Science Relation : The scientific reason behind this is that it acts as a pressing of acupressure polls.
Conclusion: Science and human values are important in their own respect. It is a fact that science is a path to logic whereas value system drives us to relate each other and by the study of these concepts under management discipline, we can critically separate them.
Lessons from Gita for Modern Management: The Bhagwad-Gita is in the form of a dialogue between Arjun, a noted commander of Pandvas and Krishna, the philosopher, an earthly manifestation of God: Avtar. Their discourse took place just before the onset of a great war called ‘Mahabharat’. Gita is the spiritual guide for Indian masses. Work must be treated as worship and must be performed with great dignity and pride.
For example, a clerk’s work done with a clerical mind makes him clerk and his work small, but the same work done with a citizen mind and attitude elevates both the work and the worker. This is essentially the philosophy of Bhagwad-Gita. Bhagwad-Gita is a counselling treatise on leadership by this example. Its focus is on personal leadership transformation of self form within. The most powerful leader is the one who leads from within, the power that comes from vision, from purpose, and from qualities that reside within. It is about creating you a better and stronger fellow. It is about internal motivation striving for growth, development and perfection.