(2) Impact of Spiritual Consideration: In early times, there was coordination between Artha (money) and Karma (desire). During that time, wealth creation was important but was not the focus, so the focus was on striking a proper balance between the amount of efforts and the amount of remuneration attached to it.
(3) Role of Great Economists: Role of great economists in terms of their thought on production and consumption cannot be ignored. Vedic Rishi Manu dealt with the life and conduct of a man. A gready king was condemned there. Shukra Niti by Shukracharya was a great testament of Vedic heritage. Swami Dayananda gave the ideology of Swadesh which means adopting foreign goods
to suit our national convenience. Great intellectual gurus like Mahatma Gandhi, Vivekananda and Buddha believed in one principle of ‘more of giving and less of grabbing’
(4) Increase in Per Capita Income A performance of the plan is judged by the criteria of how quickly a country is able to increase its per capita income. Indian heritage system did not pay much attention to increase in per capita income and the prime focus was on spiritual growth.
(5) Use of Resources: Indian heritage advocates the prudent and economic use of resources in the development of man but does not advocate the irresponsible and indiscriminate use of resources. It prefers the optimum use of resources and conservation of natural resources because they are available in limited quantity.
Q.2. What are the salient features of Indian socio-political environment? Suggest a suitable Indian model management that may work better in current environment.
Ans. Indian Socio-political Environment: Indian socio-political environment is complex in nature. There is a great diversity of culture, religion and customers and rituals among people from Kashmir to Kanniyakümari. India is famous for unity in diversity. Two most important tenets of Indian model of management are Human Values and Holism. Human values refer to spiritual, ethical and moral values while Holism is based on wholism which has a philosophical concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Indian model of management is a spiritualistic model.
Features : Salient features of Indian socio-political environment are as follows:
(1) Focus on Life Style: Management in the Indian social environment defines a standard of living and maximizing quality of life. Here quality of life not only means quality of consumer goods and services but also enrichment in quality of life in the society and the environment. Total quality of life is a function of the way one thinks, speaks and behaves.
(2) Focus Towards Business Policy : Every political party makes its own policies and businesses have to follow these policies. Policies are made in accordance with current business situations. But sometimes these policies are not favourable to the then existing business environment. Since every political party has its own ideology. They make the policies according to their own benefits and interests.
(3) Lack of National Pride and Commitment: Most of our employees working in different organisations merely work for themselves and do not have national pride and commitment. A clerk’s work done with a mind of clerk makes that clerk but same work done with a good citizen’s mind and attitude elevates both the work and the worker.
(4) Existence of Human Orientation and Values : There are many components of national development activities which require human orientation and values. Human values like hard work, truthfulness, obedience, good manners, peace and harmony are part of Indian Social and political environment.
(5) Simple Living, High Thinking: The essence of Indian way of living is simple living and high thinking. They prefer to live a plain life so that they can give more energy and thought to the development of spiritualism. Here mind is more important than materials, ethics is more important than economics.
Indian Model of Management : There are two important principles of Indian model of management:
(1) Human Values: Human values refer to spiritual, ethical and moral values. These values form a base for thoughts, actions, skills and behaviour and eventually lead to formation of a good character. These values will make good man, good manager and a good organisation and ultimately remove pollution from the minds of the people.
(2) Holism: It means oneness or unity. The holism is wider than systems approach to western model of management. A human being has a soul, body, mind and intellect. It is emphasized that all
the above components of our personality must be developed. Holism is unity, the absence of duality, hence the absence of confhct and disharmony. Thus the Indian model of management is a value driven holistic approach and much better than western model of management.