BCom 1st Year Balanced Diet and Factors Affecting Balanced Diet Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Balanced Diet and Factors Affecting Balanced Diet Notes Study Material
Food is consumed not only to satisfy hunger but also to control the functioning of the body properly and to protect the body from diseases. Today most people have a misconception that a balanced diet means expensive food items, but that is not true.
A balanced diet can be consumed every day even with cheap diets. But for this, it is necessary to have knowledge about diet, proper knowledge of cooking methods, etc. Carbohydrates are high in the diet of most Indians and there is a lack of other nutritious elements like proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. This type of food is called an unbalanced diet.
The problem of unbalanced diet is not only of the middle economic class people, laborers or farmers, but due to ignorance and illiteracy, even in the wealthy families of the upper economic class, their nutrition is imbalanced even after taking expensive fruits, milk, fats, because there is an excess or deficiency of some or the other nutrients in the food. A balanced diet is necessary for health, freshness, vigor, activity, etc. A balanced diet can be defined as follows:
“Balanced diet is that food in which all the nutritious elements are present in proper quantity and proportion according to the physical demand, age, weight, activity, etc.”
A balanced diet should contain a sufficient amount of calories, fat, protein, mineral salts, vitamins, and water. Both excess and deficiency of nutrients are harmful to health.
A balanced diet is different for each person. A diet that is balanced for one person becomes unbalanced for another person, for example, a balanced diet given to a pregnant mother during pregnancy will become an unbalanced diet for a normal adult woman. Although the food items remain the same, there is a difference in the quantity and proportion of the food items.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A BALANCED DIET
The characteristics of a balanced diet are as follows:
1. Balanced diet should include the amounts of nutrients according to individual needs.
2. All nutrients should have a place in a balanced diet.
3. Balanced diet should be such that special nutrients are together, such as proteins and fats, proteins and carbohydrates, etc.
4. Balanced diet should contain all the nutrients in proper proportion.
5. The diet should be sufficient to provide energy.
6. The number of nutrients stored in the body should be high in the diet.
7. A balanced diet should include foods from all the food groups.
8. Food should be attractive, aromatic, and tasty.
9. It is low in highly processed foods.
10. A balanced diet typically contains 50-60% carbohydrates, 12-20% protein, and 30% fat.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE BALANCED DIET
The nutritional requirements of a balanced diet vary from person to person. A diet can be the ideal diet for a person. But the same diet may be less or more than the requirement of another person. The dietary requirements of individuals of different ages, genders, and body sizes are different. Generally, a balanced diet is affected by the following factors:
1. Gender (Sex)—There is a natural difference in the physical structure of women and men since birth. Also, there is a difference in size, weight, activity, etc. Due to these reasons, there is a difference in the food demands of both.
It has been proved from scientific research that the growth of boys and girls is the same till the age of 10 to 12 years. But after that, there is a huge difference in the physical structure. There is a difference in the height, weight, activity, etc. of the child. For these reasons, the demand for nutrients also varies greatly.
In adulthood, the body weight of a man, length, body area, size, activity, etc. is more than that of a woman. For this reason, men require more nutrients than women.
Till now it is believed that women need more iron. But it is clear from the chart given by ICMR in 1993 that men also need more iron salts because scientists believe that the main function of iron salts is to receive oxygen and oxygen is required according to the area of the body. When the size and weight of the male are more, they need more oxygen. Therefore, they also need more iron salts.
2. Age-Infants and children require more nutritious elements than adolescents and adults, mainly because of the rapid pace of their physical development compared to adolescents and adults. If we look at the sequence of physical growth, then till the age of 0-5, the physical growth is at a fast pace, after that the rate of growth of the body slows down and it increases again in adolescence. It stops in adulthood and old age. Due to the growth in the body of children, the body-building speed is rapid.
Therefore body building elements such as protein, and mineral salts are required. More energy-producing elements such as fats and carbs are necessary for energy storage in newly formed cells. In adulthood, the body does not grow, but the wear and tear in the body have to be rebuilt. Therefore body building elements are needed. Energy is required to co-work. With age, the body becomes weaker. Diseases are easily transmitted. Therefore, in old age, there is a greater need for protective elements.
3. Physical Activity-The demand for nutritious elements depends on the physical activity of the person. On the basis of physical exertion, the activity is divided into the following three parts:
(i) Heavy Worker-Persons falling under this category do a lot of physical work. Therefore, they require more energy-producing food elements. Laborers, farmers, porters, rickshaw pullers, miners, etc. come under this category.
(ii) Moderate Worker-Persons falling under this category do manual labor of the middle class. Therefore, they require more energy-producing food elements but in less quantity as compared to heavy workers. For example teachers, housewives, postmen, clerks, women, etc.
(iii) Sedentary Worker-Persons who do only mental work on light duty work and do not do domestic work. They are doctors, managers, professors IAS officers and they come under this category. They require less energy. producing food elements than a more active person.
4. Health-The demand for nutritious elements in the body also depends on health. In the state of illness, the activity of the body decreases. But in some diseases the demand for some nutrients increases and the demand for some elements decreases. Earlier people believed that a person needs less energy in a state of disease.
But in the case of many diseases, the BMR increases (for example in fever) and there is more wear and tear in the cells and tissues of the body. (BCom 1st Year Balanced Diet and Factors Affecting Balanced Diet Notes Study Material)
Therefore, there is a need for more bodybuilding and protective elements. There is a difference in the nature of food, such as a semi-liquid or liquid diet given in place of solid food. The condition of the disease determines the requirement for the nutritional element.
5. Climate and Season- People living in cold regions need more energy than people living in hot regions because, in cold weather, they need to protect the body from cold and increase body temperature. Energy is required for this.
Therefore, people living in cold regions need more fat and carbs as compared to people living in warm regions who need less energy.
6. Specific Physical Condition-In some special conditions like pregnancy, lactating state, the accident, and after surgery, the demand for nutritious elements in the body increases from the normal state.
(i) Pregnancy Period—The development of the fetus takes place only from the food taken by the mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the mother and her fetus are nourished.
Hence the demand for nutrients increases. If a woman does not eat a balanced diet during pregnancy, then the baby in her womb does not develop properly. The weight of the child decreases due to lack of blood. Therefore, the demand for nutrition increases during pregnancy. (BCom 1st Year Balanced Diet and Factors Affecting Balanced Diet Notes Study Material)
(ii) Lactation Period-After birth, the baby is nourished by the mother’s milk. Every day 500-1000 ml of milk is produced in the breasts of a healthy mother. (BCom 1st Year Balanced Diet and Factors Affecting Balanced Diet Notes Study Material)
Therefore, nutritious elements are needed to make milk. In case of surgery, chronic fever, tuberculosis, accident, lack of blood in the body, malnutrition, etc., nutritious food is always needed.
For a balanced diet, the food should contain carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water in proper proportion and quantity so that proper nutrition of the body can be done.
Keeping in mind which food items should be included in the diet of Indians, food experts of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1993 recommended the daily requirements of food elements for Indians. It is shown in the following table: