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BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material


Breastfeeding is when you feed your baby breast milk, usually directly from your breast. It’s also called nursing. Mother-infant contact should be established as early as possible (immediately after birth) by permitting the infant to suck at the breast.

Mothers can breastfeed from as early as 30 minutes after delivery. It is recommended to practice exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and that breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months. New-borns often want to feed every 2-3 hours. By 2 months, feeding every 3-4 hours is common, and by six months, most babies feed every 4-5 hours. A diet of exclusive breast milk is recommended for the first 6 months of life followed by the addition of solid foods plus breastmilk for up to 2 years of age.

Nutrition and ease of digestion-Often called the “perfect food” for a human baby’s digestive system, breast milk’s components—lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat are easily digested by a new born.

Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. One exception is vitamin D-all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age).

Nursing mothers usually need 300 to 500 extra calories per day, which should come from a wide variety of well-balanced foods. This introduces breastfed babies to different tastes through their mothers’ breast milk, which has different flavors depending on what their mothers have eaten.


Milk composition also varies over the course of lactation. Mature breast milk looks very different from colostrum, the milk produced in the first few days after birth. According to Hester and colleagues (2012), each 100 ml of colostrum yields approximately:

  • 53.6 calories
  • 5.6 g carbohydrates
  • 2.2 g fat
  • 2.5 g protein

Colostrum is low in fat and carbohydrates. As a result, there are fewer calories in breast milk for the first few days of a baby’s life.

Colostrum is yellow because it contains high levels of beta carotene.

Colostrum also contains elevated levels of vitamin E and zinc.

Milk composition changes rapidly during the first week, increasing in fat and lactose concentration and decreasing in protein, vitamin and mineral content.

Breastmilk is the ideal food for infants. It is safe, clean and contains antibodies which help protect against many common childhood illnesses, Breastmilk provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life, and it continues to provide up to half or more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life.


BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

Nutrients Found in Breast Milk

The following is a brief overview of the components of breastmilk and the nutrients they provide for your baby:


Human milk contains two types of proteins: whey and casein. Approximately 60% is whey, while 40% is casein. This balance of the proteins allows for quick and easy digestion. If artificial milk, also called formula, has a greater percentage of casein, it will be more difficult for the baby to digest. Approximately 60-80% of all protein in human milk is whey protein. These proteins have great infection-protection properties. Listed below are specific proteins that are found in breast milk and their benefits:

  • Lactoferrin inhibits the growth of iron-dependent bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. This inhibits certain organisms, such as coliforms and yeast, that require iron.
  • Secretory IgA also works to protect the infant from viruses and bacteria, specifically those that the baby, mom, and family are exposed to. It also helps to protect against E. Coli and possible allergies. Other immunoglobulins, including IgG and IgM, in breast milk also help protect against bacterial and viral infections. Eating fish can help increase the amount of these proteins in your breast milk.
  • Lysozyme is an enzyme that protects the infant against E. Coli and Salmonella. It also promotes the growth of healthy intestinal flora and has anti-inflammatory functions.
  • Bifidus factor supports the growth of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus is a beneficial bacteria that protect the baby against harmful bacteria by creating an acidic environment where it cannot survive.


Human milk also contains fats that are essential for the health of your baby. It is necessary for brain development, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and is a primary calorie source. Long-chain fatty acids are needed for brain, retina, and nervous system development. They are deposited in the brain during the last trimester of pregnancy and are also found in breast milk.


The amount and types of vitamins in breast milk is directly related to the mother’s vitamin intake. This is why it is essential that she gets adequate nutrition, including vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K, are all vital to the infant’s health. Water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid are also essential. Because of the need for these vitamins, many healthcare providers and lactation consultants will have nursing mothers continue on prenatal vitamins.


Lactose is the primary carbohydrate found in human milk. It accounts for proximately 40% of the total calories provided by breast milk. Lactose helps to decrease a large number of unhealthy bacteria in the stomach, which improves the absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. It helps to fight disease and promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the stomach.

Summary of difference between milks

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

Importance of breast feeding

  • Breastmilk helps keep your baby healthy.
  • It supplies all the necessary nutrients in the proper proportions.
  • It protects against allergies, sickness, and obesity.
  • Creates a bond between mother and the baby.
  • It protects against diseases, like diabetes and cancer.
  • It protects against infections, like ear infections.
  • It is easily digested-no constipation, diarrhoea or upset stomach.
  • Babies have healthier weights as they grow.
  • Breastfed babies score higher on IQ test.
  • It is available wherever and whenever your baby needs it.
  • It is always at the right temperature, clean and free.
  • No bottles to clean.
  • Breastfeeding has no waste, so it is good for the environment.


Formula is a breast milk substitute made from a special dried-milk powder. Most infant formula is made from cow’s milk, vitamins, and minerals. Formula is mixed with cooled boiled water and fed to babies in a bottle or cup.

What’s in formula milk?

Ingredients vary by brand and country, but typical baby formula milk is made of processed skimmed cow’s milk with added emulsifiers and stabilisers to help the oils and water mix when you make up the feed. It may also contain:

  • lactose (a natural sugar found in milk) and/or other sugars such as corn syrup, fructose or maltodextrin
  • plant-based oils, such as palm, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower and soybean oil
  • fatty acids, usually derived from fish oil
  • vitamins and minerals from plant and animal sources
  • a couple of enzymes and amino acids
  • probiotics (in some formulas)

Different types of baby formula, such as goat’s milk, hypoallergenic and soya formulas, may have a different mix of ingredients.

Types of formulas

  1. Milk-based formulas are prepared from cow milk with added vegetable oils, vitamins, minerals, and iron. These formulas are suitable for most healthy full-term infants and should be the feeding of choice when breastfeeding is not used, or is stopped before 1 year of age.
  2. Soy-based formulas are made from soy protein with added vegetable oils (for fat calories) and corn syrup and/or sucrose (for carbohydrate). These formulas are suitable for infants who cannot tolerate the lactose (lactose intolerant) in most milk-based formulas or who are allergic to the whole protein in cow milk and milk-based formulas.
  3. There are special formulas for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, low-sodium formulas for infants that need to restrict salt intake, and predigested protein formulas for infants who cannot tolerate or are allergic to the whole proteins (casein and whey) in cow milk and milk-based formulas.

Formula Feeding

Formula feeding is also a healthy choice for babies. If you use a formula, your baby will get the best possible alternative to breast milk. (You should not attempt to make your own formula or feed an infant cow’s milk or another kind of milk.)

Many moms choose formula for a variety of reasons:

  • It’s convenient. Formula-fed babies can be fed by anyone at any til
  • It’s flexible. You don’t have to fit pumping into your work schedule. Instead, you can simply leave formula for your babysitter or day care center.
  • Your partner can help out with night-time feedings and share that bonding experience with your baby.
  • Scheduling feedings may be easier. Formula isn’t digested as quickly as breast milk, so formula-fed babies don’t need to eat as often, especially in the first few months.
  • You don’t have to worry about what you eat. Moms who breastfeed may have to avoid certain foods that their baby can’t tolerate.
  • You can have a glass of wine or a cocktail once in a while. Alcohol is a no-no for women who breastfeed because they pass on tiny amounts of it to their babies.

What infant formula preparations are available?

Infant formulas come in three forms. The best choice depends on your budget and desire for convenience:

  • Powdered formula-Powdered formula is the least expensive. Each scoop of powdered formula must be mixed with water.
  • Concentrated liquid formula-This type of formula also must be mixed with water.
  • Ready-to-use formula—Ready-to-use formula is the most convenient type of infant formula. It doesn’t need to be mixed with water. It’s also the most expensive option.

How is formula different from breast milk?

Formula is a nutritionally complete food for babies. Many formula products contain extra ingredients so that they more closely match breast milk.

One of the main differences between formula and breast milk is that breast milk contains antibodies, which help protect the baby against a range of illnesses. The nutrition in breast milk adapts over the baby’s lifespan, unlike formula whose nutritional content stays the same.

Breast milk also has less protein than formula. Choosing a formula with less protein will reduce your baby’s risk of becoming overweight or obese as they get older.

Supplemental Feeding

Your doctor may recommend that you both breastfeed and give your baby formula, or that you add powdered or liquid fortifiers to pumped breast milk. That may be needed if:

  • Your baby was born premature or with a very low birth weight and needs extra calories and nutrients.
  • Your baby has trouble latching on to breast
  • Your body isn’t making enough breast milk
  • Your baby is dehydrated, has serious jaundice or low blood sugar

While your baby is getting supplemental feedings, it’s a good idea to pump your breast milk so you can start nursing as soon as baby is ready. Once their growth has caught up, you may be able to switch them exclusively to breast milk if you choose.

Whichever way you choose to feed your baby-breast milk, formula, or a combination of both the most important thing is that your baby is well fed, well cared for, and loved.


(1) While breastfeeding, the mother should be stress-free and happy. This increases the production of milk.

(2) Before breastfeeding, your breasts should be cleaned thoroughly.

(3) Provide the mother with an adequate amount of fluid drinks before breastfeeding; For example, soup, fruit juice, buttermilk etc. should be consumed.

(4) The infant should be breastfed in a loving, happy posture by taking it in the lap.

(5) While breastfeeding, the mother should lift the baby’s head with the support of her arm, so that the child’s mouth reaches the breast. Then supporting the breast with the other hand should be applied to the baby’s mouth.

(6) Never breastfeed while lying down. This adversely affects the health of the baby. The baby’s ears start running after feeding while lying down.

(7) While feeding, the infant should be breastfed with both breasts alternately for 8 minutes.

(8) The infant should be breastfed until he stops drinking milk on his own.

(9) After breastfeeding, the mouth of the baby should be washed and wiped with clean water.

(10) It is necessary to burp the baby after breastfeeding. For this, the mother should put the baby on the shoulder and lightly pat the baby on the back for 10-15 minutes, by doing this the baby will burp and the air will come out from his stomach.

Water—Till a few years ago, people knew that there is no need to give water to the baby. The water in the body of the infant is supplied by the mother’s milk. But today it has been proved by scientific research that the baby should also be given water. The baby should be fed only after the water is first filtered, boiled and cooled.

Cows’ Milk-We know that there is no substitute for mother’s milk. Until the age of 6 months, the baby should not be given any other milk other than mother’s milk. But in special circumstances, when the infant does not get mother’s milk, then pure cow’s milk should be given. Cow’s milk is not the same as mother’s milk. It lacks many nutrients. Mother’s milk has three times more protein than cow’s milk.

Hence mother’s milk is easily digested. The other milk which is fed to the infant in addition to or in place of mother’s milk is called ‘Formula’.

When cow’s milk is not available, the infant is also reared on the milk of other animals (goat, camel, buffalo). But buffalo milk contains 19 times more fat than cow’s. Also, it has a high amount of casein. It also contains less lactose than cow’s milk. The composition of cow’s and goat’s milk is almost the same.

Comparison of the Composition of Mother, Cow, Goat and buffalo milk

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material


(1) Breastfeeding gives mental satisfaction to the mother.

(2) The emotional bond between mother and child is strengthened.

(3) Lactating mothers tend to get pregnant late, because breastfeeding acts as a good contraceptive.

(4) The uterus acquires its earlier shape by breastfeeding.

(5) Mother can breastfeed whenever she wants.


(1) Mother’s milk is digestible.

(2) The child’s jaw is exercised.

(3) The child is less likely to get infectious disease.

(4) In the early days of breastfeeding, a thick yellow colored fluid comes from the breasts out which is called colostrum. It has a high proportion of mineral salts, fat and protein, it is necessary for the nutrition of the baby. This increases the immunity against the disease.

(5) Children fed on mother’s milk are healthy.

(6) According to breastfeeding, the organization of mother’s milk is done.

(7) Mother’s milk is available in every season at proper temperature.

(8) Mother’s milk is clean, healthy, germ-free.


(1) Protein -1.25 grams

(2) Carbohydrates 7.20 grams

(3) Fat—3.10 grams

(4) Iron salts-0.12 mg gm

(5) Vitamins-C 3 min. grams

(6) Water-88 grams

(7) Calories received—70 Cal.


The milk (cow, buffalo, goat, powdered milk) given to the infant in addition to or in place of mother’s milk is called formula. Three basic principles should be followed while formulating the formula.

(1) Milk should be clean, hygienic and free from germs,

(2) It should be digestible,

(3) It should provide energy to the child as required so that the infant can be fully nourished.


(1) The vessel in which the milk is kept should be neat, clean and sterilized.

(2) Milk should be boiled well before feeding.

(3) Milk should not be given from a bottle.

(4) Before feeding the baby, the hands and the utensils should be cleaned.

(5) Water should not be mixed with milk.


The baby should be fed milk at an interval of every two and a half to three hours.

Supplementary Foods-Milk is the main food of the baby. But when the baby becomes 6-7 months old, then his appetite cannot be fulfilled by milk, so he should be given complementary food.

Complementary diets are divided into three categories—(1) liquid dietary supplements, (2) semi-solid dietary supplements, (3) solid dietary supplements.

  1. Liquid dietary supplements-

(i) Fresh Fruit Juice-Fresh fruit juices should be given to supplement vitamin-C and mineral salts. Orange juice should also be given for Vitamin-C supplementation.

(ii) Soup of vegetables and pulses—If fruits are not available, the baby should be fed soup made of green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, carrots, gourds, beetroot, parwal etc.

  1. Semi-Solid Complementary Food—The baby of 5-6 months should be given semi-solid complementary food, because by this stage his digestive system is developed. Ghuti dal, thin khichdi, porridge, seralak, boiled potato, semolina kheer, sago pudding, mashed fruits etc. semi-solid food can be given.
  2. Solid Complementary Food—6-7 months old baby can be fed solid food, it is of two types:

(i) Mashed solid food-It includes foods such as yellow part of boiled egg, boiled potato, gourd, carrot, lentil rice, lentils etc. Mashed food can also be fed to the baby by mashing bread in milk or by mashing banana in milk.

(ii) Unpasteurized Solid Complementary Food—When the baby’s teeth are about to erupt, solid complementary foods can be given without being mashed. In such a situation, hard fruits and vegetables should be given to the baby to eat. Apart from this, carrot, guava, apple, cucumber, cucumber etc. can be given.

Weaning-This is the process in which the mother’s milk is gradually weaned and the baby’s physiological demands are met by feeding semi-solid food.


(1) The process of weaning should be started at the age of 6 months.

(2) Water and liquid food should be given with a bowl and spoon, so that the baby gradually becomes accustomed to it.

(3) Breastfeeding should be weaned gradually, not abruptly. In the beginning, along with breastfeeding, the habit of complementary feeding should be introduced, then gradually ending the breastfeeding.

(4) Breastfeeding should not be weaned during the summer season, because the baby’s digestive capacity is less in summer.

(5) In the beginning, when the infant shows disinterest in drinking cow’s or buffalo’s milk, the mother should extract milk from her breasts and feed the baby with a bowl and spoon.

BCom 1st Year Breast Feeding and Formula Feeding Notes Study Material
1 Day feeding time for 6 month old baby

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