BCom 1st Year Carbohydrate Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Carbohydrate Notes Study Material
A nutrient called carbohydrate is the element that provides maximum energy or power to humans. Carbohydrates provide up to 70% of a person’s daily required energy. Green plants contain a pigment called chlorophyll. The action of sunlight, water and CO2 by chlorophyll is called photosynthesis. Carbohydrates and oxygen are obtained by this process. In plants, energy and power are obtained from these carbohydrate elements. In humans and other animals, energy is supplied by these carbs.
Carbohydrates are the combination of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen that can be converted into sugars, Chemically these are Hydroxyaldehydes or Hydroxy Ketones which are found in various plants, animal foods and microorganisms.
Generally, carbohydrates are divided into three groups according to the sugar group found in them.
Monosaccharides (Monosaccharides or Simple Sugars) Mono saccharides are the carbohydrates which are the simplest form of substances that can be digested by the body. They are sweet in flavour and soluble in water. The monosaccharides found in food are called hexoses, which are divided into two groups
(a) Aldoses: These sugars contain an aldehyde group, for example (i) glucose, (ii) galactose, (iii) fructose.
(b) Ketoses: Ketone group is found in these sugars. Examples of this are (i) fructose and (ii) sorbose.
- Glucose (C2H12O6)–Other names of glucose are dexdrose, grape sugar and corn sugar. Glucose is also called blood sugar, because it converts from carbohydrate substances into glucose by the blood to give strength / energy to the body tissues. Glucose is found in honey, sugarcane, sugar beet, maize etc. The normal amount of glucose in the blood is 80-100 mg per 100 mm. When the amount of glucose in the blood increases:
(1) The possibility of diabetes increases.
(2) Glucose converts to fat and increases body weight.
(3) The excess amount of glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. Provides energy when needed by converting it into glycogen.
- Galactose (C6H12O6)—This sugar is not found freely in food items like other sugars. Galactose is found in milk as a component of sugar and is formed after the digestion of milk.
- Fructose (Fructose C6H12O6)-Another name for fructose sugar is levulose and fruit sugar. Fructose is sweeter than other sugars and quickly meets the body’s need for energy. It is soluble in water. Fructose is found in 30-40% of fruits and in many vegetables. Fructose is obtained from the decomposition of sugar sucrose.
Disaccharides or Double Sugar or Compound Sugars-
(i) Disaccharides are the combination of two simple sugars. It is soluble in water and can be crystallized. They are less sweet. They are converted into simplest sugars by acid, enzymes and heat. These are of three types: (i) sucrose, (ii) maltose, (iii) lactose.
(i) Sucrose-It is called cane sugar. Sucrose is also made from sugar beet and other food substances. One molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose are obtained from sucrose by the action of enzymes and heat.
Glucose + fructose → sucrose + water.
C12H22O11 + H2O → C6+ H12 – O6 + C6H12O6
(ii) Maltose-Maltose is found in grains. During germination of grains, starch is decomposed by acid, heat and enzyme amylase to form maltose. On the decomposition of maltose, two molecules of glucose are obtained and when two molecules of glucose are combined, two molecules of maltose are obtained and by the condensation of two molecules of glucose, one molecule of maltose and one molecule of water are formed.
Glucose + Glucose → Maltose + Water
(iii) Lactose- Lactose is called Milk Sugar. It is found in milk. Lactose is found 4% in cow’s milk and 7% in mother’s milk. In the process of digestion of milk, lactose is decomposed in the presence of the enzyme lactose and glucose and galactose are formed. One molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose combine to form one molecule of lactose and one molecule of water.
Glucose + Galactose → Lactose Enzyme
Glucose + Galactose → Lactose + Water
Lactose is soluble in water, but it takes longer to settle. It is slightly sweeter than other sugars.
Polysaccharides-Polysaccharides are a group of complex carbohydrates which are generally insoluble in water and are not sweet in taste. Their digestion in the body is difficult and sometimes incomplete. .
- Starch-Plants store carbohydrates in the form of starch, from which they get energy when needed. 65-85% starch is found in cereals, 19.35% in seeds and tubers and 2-10% in fruits and other vegetables. Starch is insoluble in water. Two major constituents of starch are amylose 20% and amylopectin 80%. One molecule of amylose contains 50,000 -5,00,000 molecules of glucose. Both the constituents of starch absorb water by heating the starch in water to form a thick jelly. The paste made by dissolving 5% grain starch in water and boiling it freezes well. It is not possible to digest raw starch. When cooked, starch is digested to yield dextrin, maltose and glucose, respectively. Starch in nature is formed by condensation of several molecules (4,000 – 15,000) of glucose.
- Cellulose-As an element containing cellulose, it is found in the form of a covering on each fruit and seed. Cellulose is insoluble in water and is not digested in the body. From this:
(a) The diet gets bulk.
(b) The food reaches the small intestine more quickly.
(c) Staying at one place for a long time gives enough time for all the food elements to be absorbed.
(d) Stimulate contraction of the muscles of the small intestine, so that the condition of constipation does not arise and develop.
Cellulose when cooked with food becomes soft and breaks down, which facilitates the action of digestive juices on the food. Whole grains, pulses, fruit, and vegetables are high in cellulose. It is also called fiber and roughage.
- Glycogen-Glycogen is called animal starch. It is found in the body parts and organs of animals, glycogen is not found in plants. The excess amount of glucose in the body is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver in the amount of 3-7% and in the nervous system muscles in the amount of 0.5-1.0%. The body gets energy from this glycogen when needed. Glycogen is formed by the condensation of 5,000–10,000 molecules of glucose.
Apart from these, there are dextrin, pectin, galactose and hemicellulose polysaccharides.
Chemical Formulas of Carbohydrates
SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES
All types of cereals such as—Wheat, Rice, Millet, Maize, Barley some types of Pulses, Sugar, Jaggery, Honey, Root vegetables, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, arbi, beets, dried fruits; for example, raisins, figs, raisins, dates, apples, pears, mangoes, pods, cashews, khoya, cheese etc. are the best means of getting carbs.
Carbohydrate may be:
Refined means that the food is highly processed. The fiber and bran, as well as many of the vitamins and minerals they contain, have been stripped away. Thus, the body processes these carbohydrates quickly and they provide little nutrition although they contain about the same number of calories, refined products are often enriched, meaning vitamins and minerals have been added back to increase their nutritional value. A diet high in simple or refined carbohydrates tends to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes.
FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES
- Providing energy/strength—The main function of carbs is to give energy /strength/heat in the body. Four calories of energy is provided by one gram of carbs. Calories are needed for the proper functioning of the brain and nervous system, which is obtained from glucose. Therefore, in both these institutions carbs are involved in providing continuous power. Most of the body activities are related to the activities of the brain and nervous system and depend on carbohydrates for energy.
- Making glycogen-Another function of carbohydrates is to supply the required amount of glycogen in the body. When excess carbohydrate is taken in the body, it converts glycogen into glucose when the amount of glucose is reduced (i) keeps the amount of glucose in the blood normal and (ii) works to give energy/ power in the body. Normally, more than 100 grams of glycogen is stored in the liver of a healthy human. Nerves or muscles store 250 grams of glycogen.
- Protein saving action-When the body gets less amount of carbs and fat from food items – food items and protein starts working to give power/energy to the body. At this time, protein leaves its function and starts doing the work of carbs and fats, due to which the energy requirement of the body is fulfilled. As soon as the amount of carbs becomes sufficient in the food, the protein becomes free to do its own work. The work of providing strength to the body is considered to be the most important function of the food elements, after which the food elements can do other work.
- Converting to fat-When the body consumes more amount of carbs than the requirement, all the excess amount gets converted into fat and gets stored in the adipose tissue.
- Functions of Cellulose-Peristaltic movement comes in the digestive system when cellulose is in sufficient quantity in the diet. Cellulose also helps in water absorption.
- Aid in fat metabolism-Carbohydrates help in complete metabolism of fats and fatty acids in food. Due to the lack of carbohydrates, the metabolism of fats remains incomplete and the amount of acid and ketone bodies in the blood increases, which leads to diseases called acidosis and ketosis.
- Functions of Lactose-Lactose which is found in milk helps in the absorption of calcium in the small intestine. Lactose stays in the stomach for a long time. This leads to the formation of many B vitamins in the stomach. During lactation, the body’s glucose is converted into lactose and retains the lactose content of mother’s milk.
- Maintaining the normal amount of glucose in the blood-The main function of the carbohydrate substance is to maintain the normal amount of glucose in the blood. The normal amount of glucose in the blood is 80-100 mg glucose per mm of blood. This quantity increases after a meal and when there is a high amount of carbs in the food, a significant increase in the amount of glucose in the blood is seen. It decreases during fasting and disease.
- Other functions—The other functions of carbohydrates are:
(i) To manufacture some amino acids
(ii) To provide ribose, a component of nucleic acids
(iii) To make galactosides in the brain tissue
(iv) To digest food and to make flavouring
(v) To provide satisfaction/satiation from food
(vi) To produce vitamins by fermenting bacteria.
EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY OF CARBOHYDRATE
The amount of carbs in the daily diet should not be reduced. In the absence of carbs and fats, protein starts to provide energy. Due to this, the main function of protein, which is to build muscle, blood, etc., becomes secondary and the work of energy producer becomes main. Due to this the growth and development of the body stops. The following effects are caused by a lack of carbs:
(1) Loss of weight
(2) Feeling tired and weak
(3) Physical development is stunted
(4) Nervousness and irritability in nature
(5) Decreased body activity
(6) Internal body development of organs is stunted as proteins are not used for construction purposes
(7) Wrinkling of the skin
(8) Manifestations of malnutrition
(9) Disturbances in the normal functioning of the nervous system
(10) Disorders related to the digestive system.
EFFECTS OF EXCESS OF CARBOHYDRATE
(1) Excess of carbs in the daily diet leads to obesity. Obesity reduces the energy of the body. The working capacity is reduced. Fat people get tired quickly. Obesity leads to diseases like heart disease, diabetes etc.
(2) Consumption of more carbs in food leads to the formation of glucose. Excess glucose gets converted into glycogen and stored in the liver. Excess glucose gets converted into fat, which leads to obesity.
(3) The food is not digested due to the consumption of more carbs in the diet and due to indigestion vomiting, diarrhea also occur.
(4) Eating too much of sugar, jaggery, sweets or chocolate leads to tooth decay.
(5) Consumption of excessive carbs leads to the formation of more glucose. But the capacity of storing glucose in the blood is only 80 ml / 100 ml. The remaining glucose either gets converted into glycogen and goes to the liver, muscles, or in the absence of glycogen, it starts coming out with urine, which is a symptom of diabetes.
The pancreas has to work more due to the excess of carbs. A hormone called insulin is released from the ‘Islets of Langerhans’ present in the pancreas. This hormone helps in converting glucose into glycogen. The constant release of insulin hormone puts more burden on the pancreas. Therefore, the ability to produce insulin in the desired amount is destroyed, due to which the amount of glucose in the blood remains more than the prescribed amount, which is excreted out of the body through urine. The exit of glucose through urine is called Diabetes or Glucosuria.
DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATE
Digestion of carbs takes place in the duodenum and ileum part of the small intestine. Digestion of only ripe starch takes place in the mouth. In the process of taking food, when we chew the food, then saliva comes out of the mouth and mixes with the food, due to which the food becomes like sticky pulp. This makes it easier to swallow food.
Saliva contains a digestive enzyme called ptyalin. Due to the action of this enzyme, starch is converted into dextrin. But the food remains in the mouth only for a very short time thus the entire starch is not converted into dextrin.
Food reaches the stomach through the esophagus. Carbohydrates are not digested in the stomach. Gastric juice comes out from the stomach. This juice contains Hydrochloric acid (HCL), which makes food acidic. Due to its effect bacteria, viruses, germs etc. get destroyed and the food becomes pure. HCL acts on starch and dextrin and starts converting them into disaccharides.
The following three types of hormones are released from the duodenum:
(2) Pancreozymin, and
Out of which, Secretin and Pancreozymin hormones reach the pancreas through blood circulation. Pancreatic juice comes out from the pancreas. The pancreas contains amylase, which is also called amylapsin. Amylase completely converts starch into disaccharide (maltose).
Starch Amylase, Maltose The intestinal juice in the ileum of the small intestine is alkaline and contains many enzymes. From these, maltase, lactase and sucrase act on maltose, lactose and sucrose respectively and convert them into mono-saccharides.
90 to 95% of carbs are digested in the small intestine. Digestion of carbs is as follows:
(1) Maltase-It acts on maltose and converts it into glucose.
(2) Lactase-It acts on lactose and converts it into glucose and galactose.
(3) Sucrase-This enzyme acts on sucrose and converts it into glucose and fructose.
Carbohydrates are mainly absorbed in the small intestine. The juice cells present in the wall of the small intestine directly absorb glucose and fructose, from where they are transported by blood to the liver. Some amount of glucose must remain in the blood. The excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen, which is again converted into glucose when needed. Obtained from the breakdown of glycogen, energy is stored in the mitochondria which is used for various functions of the body, such as heat, muscle contraction, synthesis of other essential compounds, etc.
The main function of carbohydrates is to produce energy. The metabolism of carbs in the body is done by these methods:
- Glycolysis—By this process glucose is converted into Pyruvic Acid. Through this energy is obtained. It is also called EMP path.
- Glycogenesis-By this process glucose is converted into glycogen. This process takes place in the liver and muscles in our body.
Glucose → Glycogen
With the help of this process, it helps to stabilize the amount of glucose in the blood.
- Glycogenolysis—This process breaks down glycogen to form glucose. This process takes place in the liver. This process occurs when the level of glucose in the blood decreases.
- Gluconeogenesis—By this process, the amino acid and fat glucose is formed.
- Kreb’s Cycle-This process leads to oxidation of pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis resulting in CO2, water and energy.
This cycle is also called the Citric Acid Cycle, because the first product formed is citric acid.
- Hexose Monophosphate Shunt: This is an alternative pathway of the glycolysis process, which leads to oxidation of glucose and the formation of CO2, H2O and energy.
DAILY DEMAND OF CARBOHYDRATE
A healthy adult person should take 400–500 grams of carbs in his daily diet. 60-70% of the total body energy demand comes from carbs. Age, gender of the person and the basis of labor determines the calorie demand. If the food contains 8 parts of carbs, then at least one part should be protein and one part fat, only then the proper use of protein is done in construction work otherwise protein leaves main work of building the body and starts doing auxiliary work.
People of the rich class get 50-60% of their energy from carbs, while the poor people depend on carbs for energy up to 75-85%. In developed countries America, Japan, Canada like and Russia, people get 40-50% of their energy from carbs and the rest from fat, water (H2O).