BCom 1st Year Common Diseases Prevalent in the Society Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Common Diseases Prevalent in the Society Notes Study Material
Community health problems in India
India was one of the pioneers in health service planning with a focus on community health care. In 1946, the Health Survey and Development Committee, headed by Sir Joseph Bhore recommended establishment of a well structured and comprehensive health service with a sound community health care infrastructure.
However, the quality of Indian healthcare is varied. In major urban areas, healthcare is of adequate quality, approaching and occasionally meeting western standards. However, access to quality medical care is limited or unavailable in most rural areas, although rural medical practitioners are highly sought after by residents of rural areas as they are more financially affordable and geographically accessible than practitioners working in the formal public health care sector.
Community health is the state of wellbeing of a group of individuals who share common attitudes, beliefs, interests, histories and/or goals.
The health of a community is influenced by a variety of factors that are internal to the community itself, including the interactions, contributions and health of individuals in the community, as well as those factors external to the community over which the community has less control.
The term “community health” refers to the health status of a defined group of people or community and the actions and conditions that protect and improve the health of the community. Those individuals who make up a community live in a somewhat localized area under the same general regulations, norms, values and organizations. For example, the health status of the people living in a particular town and the actions taken to protect and improve the health of these residents, would constitute community health.
Community health is a medical specialty that focuses on the physical and mental well-being of the people in a specific geographic region. This important subsection of public health includes initiatives to help community members maintain and improve their health, prevent the spread of infectious diseases and prepare for natural disasters.
Community health impacts everything-educational achievement, safety ad crime, people’s ability to work and be financially healthy, life expectancy, happiness and more. Health impacts every other facet of life, from a child’s ability to learn to an adult’s ability to work, so health is critical for education and financial well-being.
In the past, most individuals could be identified with a community in either a geographical or an organizational sense. Today however with expanding global economies, rapid transportation and instant communication, communities alone no longer have the resources to control or look after all the needs of their residents or constituents. Thus the term “population health” has emerged.
Population health differs from community health only in the scope of people it might address, People who are not organized or have no identity as a group or locality may constitute a population, but not necessarily a community. Women over fifty, adolescents, adults twenty-five to forty-four years of age, seniors living in public housing, prisoners and blue-collar workers are all examples of populations.
As noted in these examples, a population could be a segment of a community, a category of people in several communities of a region, or workers in various industries. The health status of these populations and the actions and conditions needed to protect and improve the health of a population constitute population health.
The actions and conditions that protect and improve community or population health can be organized into three areas:
- Health promotion
- Health protection and
- Health services.
This breakdown emphasizes the collaborative efforts of various public and private sectors in relation to community health.
Services are delivered in a wide range of settings-including in people’s own homes as well as in community clinics, community centres and schools.
Community health services provide support across a range of needs and age groups but are most often used by children, older people, those living with frailty or chronic conditions and people who are near the end of their life. Community services often support people with multiple, complex health needs who depend on many health and social care services to meet those needs.
They therefore work closely with other parts of the health and care system, such as GPs, hospitals, pharmacies and care homes. The increasing numbers of people living with long-term conditions means that more people are likely to need support from community health services in the future.
Four core areas of implementation under community health are:
General health awareness: Informatory events and awareness programmes are conducted on general health, nutrition, hygiene and sanitation as well as vulnerability and prevention from serious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes and tuberculosis.
Health check-up camps and clinics: Regular health camps along with mobile and stationary clinics are organised to screen adults and children for various diseases and provide a forum where community members can clear their enquiries and doubts about their own health.
Mother and child health care: Women and adolescent girls’ self help groups are trained in maternal & child health issues and participate in different health activities like sessions on pre and postnatal care regimes, benefits of institutionalised delivery and infant care.
Water and sanitation: Works to ensure and promote clean drinking water and improving sanitary conditions through installation of key water points, toilets construction, revamping drainage systems and mobilising local residents for appropriate garbage disposal.
Public health initiatives that affect people in all states, such as the National Health Mission, Ayushman Bharat, National Mental Health Program, are initiated by Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. There are multiple systems set up in rural and urban areas of India including Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, Sub Centres and Government Hospitals. These programmes must follow the standards set by Indian Public Health Standards Documents that are revised when needed.
Impact of diseases
Communicable diseases remain a major threat to public health mainly because of how quickly they can spread in the community without proper awareness and containment. Factors like climate change and rapidly developing microbial resistance also play a role. However, public health funding and government interventions tend to focus on such diseases, meaning that effective prevention or treatment is often easier to access.
On the other hand, non-communicable diseases are often chronic and expensive, so on going treatment can quickly drain household resources. They can alter personal and family lifestyles over the long term.
Ensuring that services reach everyone in a community requires a greater focus on facilities like mobile health centres that can provide testing facilities and medication without requiring people to travel long distances. If these measures are in place, individuals can educate and better serve the more vulnerable among them.
Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased resistance to drugs. In 2011, India developed a totally drug-resistant form of tuberculosis. India is ranked 3rd highest among countries with the amount of HIV-infected patients. Diarrheal diseases are the primary causes of early childhood mortality. These diseases can be attributed to poor sanitation and inadequate safe drinking water in India. India also has the world’s highest incidence of Rabies.
However in 2012 India was polio-free for the first time in its history. This was achieved because of the Pulse Polio Programme started in 1995-96 by the government of India.
Those diseases which spread due to urine are called infectious diseases. When the disease is transmitted from one person to another by other indirect medium (eg – air, water, food or other medium) without coming in direct or indirect contact with a patient, then such diseases are also called infectious diseases. Sometimes an infectious disease takes the form of an epidemic on a large scale. These diseases mainly include cholera, plague, smallpox etc. Infectious diseases are divided into two parts: (1) Contagious Diseases (2) Infectious Diseases
SOURCES OF INFECTION
Infectious diseases in the body can be spread by the following methods:
(1) By Skin-The main diseases spread by the skin are herpes, itching etc. Ringworm, scabies, etc. are such diseases which are caused by coming in contact with patients infected with these diseases or by using their infected clothes, towels, handkerchiefs etc.
(2) By air-By- breathing in contaminated and infected air, or by breathing from crowded places, dusty places, cinema halls, crowded buses or trains etc., the pathogen bacteria of various diseases enter the body through respiration, infecting even a healthy person. Diseases like whooping cough, TB etc, mainly spread through infected air.
(3) By insects—Insects like female mosquito, cockroach etc. also spread infection. Fly that sits on our food and drink, is often a carrier of infectious diseases like dysentery, cholera, tuberculosis etc.
(4) By animals-For Instance the disease of rabies is spread by a mad dog. When a mad dog bites a healthy person, the rabies bacteria reach the body of the bitten person along with his saliva and infect him.
(5) By ingestion-Most often by eating infected food or drinking infected beverages, diseases like Cholera, dysentery etc can occur.
(6) Flies and food items—Insects that carry germs here and there spread infection through drinks and food items. If flies containing germs settle on the food of a healthy person, then the food becomes contaminated with the germ of the disease.
(7) Sexually transmitted diseases-Diseases like Syphilis etc. are transmitted only by the genitals. In this disease, there are granules on the genital organs, these grains grow and leak out, the fluid coming out of these grains causes the disease.
NORMAL SYMPTOMS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Each disease has its own specific symptoms, but still, there are some symptoms which are common to all, they are of the following types:
(1) With the infection of the patient, the body temperature of the person increases. The root cause of this is that some kind of poison is produced in the body.
(2) In the case of most infectious diseases, the person feels cold and starts shivering.
(3) In the event of infection of any infectious disease, pain starts in different parts of the body.
(4) In some infectious diseases, rash also comes out on the body.
CONTROL MEASURES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The World Health Organization is always aware of the prevention of infectious diseases. Some of the main measures for the prevention of infectious diseases are as follows:
(1) Informing the Health Department— If any person has any infectious disease, then the concerned persons should immediately inform the local health officer or the chief doctor so that the health officer or doctor can take necessary measures in time.
(2) Segregation of sick person— To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, the sick person should be kept in isolation from other healthy persons, especially children. In some infectious diseases, the patient is admitted to a special hospital for treatment. Due to this, proper treatment of the patient is also done and other people are saved from infection.
(3) Measures of immunity- All possible measures of immunity should be taken as soon as there is a possibility of spreading of infectious disease. Now vaccines have been discovered to avoid most infectious diseases and to develop immunity. If these types of vaccines are administered by healthy people, then there is no possibility of spreading the related infectious disease more.
(4) Disinfection related measures-When infectious diseases are spread due to pathogen, if adequate measures are taken to destroy the associated pathogen, then the spread of infectious disease can be prevented from spreading further.
Pregnancy and Child Birth
Many factors can affect pregnancy and childbirth, including:
- Preconception health status
- Access to appropriate preconception, prenatal and interconnection health care
The terms maternal and perinatal encompass a continuum of health states- from the most positive (complete physical, mental and social well-being) to the most negative-a huge number of clinical conditions.
Infant and child health are similarly influenced by socio-demographic and behavioural factors, such as education, family income and breastfeeding, but are also linked to the physical and mental health of parents and caregivers.
Government of India adopted the Reproductive, Maternal, New-born, Child and Adolescent Health framework in 2013. It essentially aims to address the major causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children.
For the mother, these conditions are hemorrhage, sepsis, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, obstructed labor and unsafe abortion. For the baby, they are low birth weight, birth asphyxia and same infections.
Disease/health condition-Communicable diseases
- Incubation Period—Time it takes to start having symptoms after contact with infection.
- Contagious Period—Time during which a sick child’s disease can spread to others. Sometimes, children can return to school before this period is over.
An infectious disease is any disease caused by the direct effect of a pathogen. A pathogen may be cellular (bacteria, parasites and fungi) or acellular (viruses, viroids and prions). Some infectious diseases are also communicable, meaning they are capable of being spread from person to person through either direct or indirect mechanisms. Some infectious communicable diseases are also considered contagious diseases, meaning they are easily spread from person to person.
Not all contagious diseases are equally so; the degree to which a disease is contagious usually depends on how the pathogen is transmitted. For example, measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can be transmitted when an infected person coughs or sneezes and an uninfected person breathes in droplets containing the virus. Gonorrhoea is not as contagious as measles because transmission of the pathogen (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) requires close intimate contact (usually sexual) between an infected person and an uninfected person.
Diarrhoeal diseases-Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. It is both preventable and treatable. A significant proportion of diarrhoeal disease can be prevented through safe drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene. Diarrhoea is a leading cause of malnutrition in children under five years old.
Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea is usually a symptom of an infection in the intestinal tract, which can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking water, or from person-to-person because of poor hygiene. Diarrhoea should be treated with oral rehydration solution (ORS), a solution of clean water, sugar and salt.
There are three clinical types of diarrhoea:
- Acute watery diarrhoea-lasts several hours or days and includes cholera
- Acute bloody diarrhoea-also called dysentery and
- Persistent diarrhoea-lasts 14 days or longer.
The most severe threat posed by diarrhoea is dehydration. During diarrhoeal episode, water and electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate) are lost through liquid stools, vomit, sweat, urine and breathing. Dehydration occurs when these losses are not replaced.
The degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three.
- Severe dehydration (at least two of the following signs):
- Sunken eyes
- Unable to drink or drink poorly
- Skin pinch goes back very slowly ( 2 seconds)
- Some dehydration (two or more of the following signs):
- Restlessness, irritability
- Sunken eyes
- Drinks eagerly, thirsty
- No dehydration (not enough signs to classify as some or severe dehydration).
Infection: Diarrhoea is a symptom of infections caused by a host of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms, most of which are spread by faeces-contaminated water. Infection is more common when there is a shortage of adequate sanitation and hygiene and safe water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. Rotavirus and Escherichia coli, are the two most common etiological agents of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in low-income countries. Other pathogens such as cryptosporidium and shigella species may also be important. Location-specific etiologic patterns also need to be considered.
Malnutrition: Children who die from diarrhoea often suffer from underlying malnutrition, which makes them more vulnerable to diarrhoea. Each diarrhoeal episode, in turn, makes their malnutrition even worse. Diarrhoea is a leading cause of malnutrition in children under five years old.
Source: Water contaminated with human faeces, for example, from sewage, septic tanks and latrines is of particular concern. Animal faeces also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea.
Other causes: Diarrhoeal disease can also spread from person to person, aggravated by poor personal hygiene. Food is another major cause of diarrhoea when it is prepared or stored in unhygienic conditions. Unsafe domestic water storage and handling is also an important risk factor. Fish and seafood from polluted water may also contribute to the disease.
Prevention and treatment
Key measures to prevent diarrhoea include:
- Access to safe drinking-water;
- Use of improved sanitation;
- Handwashing with soap;
- Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life:
- Good personal and food hygiene:
- Health education about how infections spread and
- Rotavirus vaccination.
Key measures to treat diarrhoea include the following:
- Rehydration: With oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution. ORS is a mixture of clean water, salt and sugar. It costs a few cents per treatment. ORS is absorbed in the small intestine and replaces the water and electrolytes lost in the faeces.
- Zinc supplements: Zinc supplements reduce the duration of a diarrhoea episode by 25% and are associated with a 30% reduction in stool volume.
- Rehydration: With intravenous fluids in case of severe dehydration or shock.
- Nutrient-rich foods: The vicious circle of malnutrition and diarrhoea can be broken by continuing to give nutrient-rich foods including milk during an episode and by giving a nutritious diet including exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life to children when they are well.
- Consulting a health professional, in particular for management of persistent diarrhoea or when there is blood in stool or if there are signs of dehydration.
CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND PREVENTION OF SOME DISEASES
(1) Measles—This is also an infectious disease but not as dangerous as smallpox. It happens more in children. If there is an infected child in the house, then all the children of the house get infected one after the other.
Symptoms of its disease- First the patient gets cold and headache, then gradually the fever increases and along with it cough also starts. After four, five days, the rash begins to appear on the back of the mouth or temple, then gradually spread to the whole body and the whole body becomes red. Water starts flowing in the eyes and sneezing starts. After a day or two, the rash starts to fade and the fever also subsides. The spots dry up and the crust starts coming off them. In 8 to 10 days, the body is completely clean.
Prevention and remedy of the disease- The patient should be kept in a completely separate room. The patient should be protected from cold air. Fruit juice and boiled water should be given to the patient. On the advice of the doctor, the body should be wiped with lukewarm water. In short, the measures to avoid this disease are as follows:
(i) A child with measles should be kept in a ventilated room separate from other people in the house.
(ii) Wipe the discharge from the patient’s nose and mouth with an old but clean cloth and burn it.
(iii) Put disinfectant in the patient’s spitting vessel.
(iv) Clean the toys, clothes and utensils of the sick child with any disinfectant.
(v) The family members of the patient should inform the municipality as soon as the disease arises.
Information-If the treatment of measles is not done properly, then there is a fear of getting pneumonia. This disease is caused by virus.
Immunity-Very few babies have the ability to have natural immunity against this disease. Once the measles is cleared, immunity is created. Children are 2-3 times more likely to get measles. To avoid this, a new vaccine has been discovered.
(2) Chicken Pox-This is an infectious disease spread through the air. It is similar to smallpox. Generally this disease occurs only in children. Virus is the cause of disease. These viruses are present in large quantities in the patient’s sputum, feces, sneeze and nasal secretions.
Symptoms and preventive measures-At the very beginning of this disease, a person gets fever, body aches and runny nose. Gradually small pimples appear all over the body. These pimples dry up within a few days. These rash are not as painful as smallpox and they do not have any signs. The patient should be kept in a separate room for rest and should be given light food without salt.
Other persons should neither come in contact with the patient nor use his objects. This disease is neither more terrible nor is it found in large quantities It can sometimes result in death of the patient.
(3) Diphtheria—This disease is caused by the bacterium Klebs-Loffler Bacillus or Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is a rapidly spreading bacterial-borne acute infectious disease of the throat. Its bacteria grow in the larynx. This is a fatal disease and its treatment is very urgent. This is a contagious disease.
Symptoms of the disease
(i) The lymph glands near the throat become swollen.
(ii) The patient’s trachea becomes swollen and a web is formed at its entrance, which stops breathing due to excessive expansion of the membrane. This makes it difficult for the patient to breathe.
(iii) Difficulty in swallowing food or drinking water.
(iv) The bacteria of the disease produce a special type of toxin which starts affecting the nervous system and heart.
(v) There is a high fever in this disease.
(vi) This disease starts with cold and sore throat.
Spread of disease
(i) This disease is spread by nasal carriers.
(ii) It is transmitted to a healthy person by coughing, sneezing or spitting.
(iii) It is also spread by coming in contact with an infected patient or objects infected by him.