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BCom 1st Year Common Diseases Prevalent in the Society Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Common Diseases Prevalent in the Society Notes Study Material

Prevention of disease

(i) On detection of disease, the concerned officer should be informed immediately.

(ii) The patient should be isolated. It would be better if the patient is immediately admitted to the hospital.

(iii) Arrangements should be made to disinfect the house immediately. For this, formalin solution can be used. Disinfection of the patient’s bed, used clothes and utensils etc is also necessary.

(iv) Public should be made aware of the consequences of diphtheria.

(v) Anti-disease vaccine should be given.

(4) Whooping cough-Whooping cough is an infectious disease, which occurs repeatedly in childhood. Most of the children suffer more due to this disease, the bacterium causing this disease is called Bacillus pertussis.

This usually happens in winter. Its maturity ranges from 4 to 14 days.

Symptoms—This disease has the following symptoms:

(i) There is pain in the throat of the child.

(ii) Fever also occurs.

(iii) There is restlessness.

(iv) Water comes in the eyes.

(v) When coughing, the mouth becomes red.

Infection-While the patient is talking or coughing and sneezing, the bacteria of the disease get mixed in the air, and by breathing, it reaches the body of other healthy child and makes the body diseased.

Measures to avoid-Following are the measures to avoid this disease

(i) Healthy children should be kept separate from the patient.

(ii) Other children should be vaccinated against this disease.

(iii) After the patient is cured, the objects and rooms used by him should be disinfected freely.

(5) Tetanus— This is a fatal disease in which most of the people die. This disease is caused by the entry of a bacterium Clostridium tetani into the body. The pathogens of tetanus are found mainly in horse dung, rusted iron and manure, and rapidly multiply and cause severe symptoms very quickly.

Symptoms—Tension and stiffness arise in the muscles of the body of the person suffering from this disease. The jaws are tightly clenched and the neck is pulled to one side.

Treatment–The patient should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible, where systematic treatment can be done.

Preventive Measures-Immediately after the injury, a good medicine like tincture of iodine should be applied. At the time of birth, it is very important to have clean and germ-free tools like scissors used to cut their cord. To protect children from the disease, anti-tetanus injections should be given. Tetvac injection should be given in case of injury.

(6) Polio—This is also an infectious disease. Efforts are being made on a large scale by the Government of India and the World Health Organization (WHO) to eradicate this disease. Polio occurs only in children under the age of five. The name of this disease is poliomyelitis. It is spread by virus. This virus first affects the digestive system of children and then affects the nervous system.

The attack of the virus on the nervous system can cause paralysis in any part of the child. Polio affects the feet of the child. Poliovirus is found in most countries, but polio is controlled by giving medicine. In India also, efforts are being made to eradicate these diseases under the Pulse Polio campaign. Following are the details of various facts of the disease called poliomyelitis.

The cause and spread of the disease-The disease of polio is caused due to infection of a virus. There are three types of this virus which are known as I, II and III. Of these, type I virus is more harmful, because there is a greater risk of stroke due to its attack. The poliovirus is mainly found in the nasal secretions and faeces of the sick child. The carrier of this virus is flies. Food and water are infected by flies and the disease spreads rapidly through them.

Incubation period-The symptoms of polio become apparent within 7 to 14 days after the virus enters the body. There is a risk of infection even a week after the disease has ended.

Symptoms of the disease—The symptoms of polio start appearing within 1 to 14 days after infection with the poliovirus. It causes cold, headache and back pain. It is usually accompanied by fever. As the disease progresses, there is pain in the joints of the bones and the neck becomes stiff. If this virus infection and attack happens on the nervous system, then any part of the body can also suffer a stroke. Due to this the affected organ starts becoming weak and its activities start slowing down. This disease causes amputation in 50 to 60 percent of the patients. The mortality rate ranges from 2 to 10%.

Prevention of disease—There is a vaccine available to prevent the disease called polio. Its medicine is available. Usually three doses are given to the child between the age of 6 months or the period of 9 months. After this, a booster dose is given between one and two years. Now children of five years old are given additional doses. The sick child should be kept separate from the healthy child. It is necessary to disinfect the patient’s room, clothes, bedding and utensils properly.

(7) Hepatitis-Hepatitis is also called jaundice. It is of many types such as Hepatitis A, B, C. It is a disease spread by contaminated water. This is a long-lasting liver disease. It is spread by a virus. The medicine which is given to it is given to cure increase the disease-fighting capacity of the body. Its vaccin is given in 3 doses.

There are mainly two types of hepatitis A and B.

‘A’ Virus Hepatitis

Incubation period- Usually 30 days, minimum 10 days and maximum 40 days. It can happen to anyone, young or old. Its bacteria are spread through the stool of the patient.


(i) Loss of appetite, aversion to food

(ii) Abdominal pain and heaviness in the stomach

(iii) Constipation and vomiting

(iv) Headache

(v) Fever is cured in two to three days.

(vi) The color of the skin and eyes becomes yellow and the color of urine also becomes yellow.

(vii) Swelling of the liver and enlargement of the liver, which affects the gall bladder.

(viii) Irritability in nature.

(ix) Feeling weak.


(i) Keep the patient in a separate clean room.

(ii) Use boiled water.

(ii) Dissolve glucose in water and give it in maximum quantity.

(iv) Give sugarcane juice and seasonal juice.

(v) Do not give greasy food.

(vi) Give complete rest.

‘B’ Virus Hepatitis

‘B’ Virus Hepatitis— It is also called Serum Hepatitis. This is a dangerous disease. Without proper treatment, the liver stops working. The body gets filled with water, which is called liver cirrhosis, and if it is not cured, it eventually leads to death.

Incubation period—Three months; whether it is a child, elder or old person. It is a long-lasting disease.


(i) Nausea.

(ii) High fever.

(iii) Inflammation of the liver or enlargement of the liver.


(i) Complete rest.

(ii) Do not give greasy food.

(iii) Give boiled potatoes to eat.

(iv) Reduce the use of salt.

Measures to avoid-Like other infectious diseases, in a healthy condition, one must get a preventive vaccine for its prevention.

(8) Tuberculosis-It is an acute infectious disease. In this disease, the patient’s body gradually decays and eventually he dies. According to a survey, India has 1/3 of the world’s total tuberculosis patients. Despite the substantial spread of medical science, this disease could not be controlled and its patients are increasing continuously.

Due to outbreak-The disease is caused by a bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium thrives in dirt and dark places. This disease can flourish in the body of any healthy person due to the following reasons:

(i) If there are dirty places to live.

(ii) There is a lack of nutritious food.

(iii) The person has physical infirmity.

(iv) Healthy people should live near sick people.

(v) The object used by the patient is used by a healthy person.

Type – This disease usually occurs in the lungs. Sometimes this disease also occurs in the intestines, glands and bones. The bacteria of this disease can affect any part of the body.

Symptoms—The following are the symptoms of Tuberculosis:

(i) As soon as this disease occurs, fatigue is experienced in the beginning.

(ii) Gradually the appetite of the patient decreases.

(iii) Frequent cold and cough. Mucus comes out in large quantities.

(iv) Sweating comes very quickly. The breathing rate increases.

(v) There is a shortage of blood in the body.

(vi) There is pain in the chest.

(vii) Blood also comes with mucus or phlegm.

(viii) Lungs begin to rot due to the activity of bacteria.

(ix) The body becomes weaker.

In many people, this disease occurs in childhood. The pathogens of the disease reach the lungs through the breath and when the immunity decreases, the symptoms of the disease begin to emerge in the person. Sometimes these germs also cause disease in other organs, especially in the lymph nodes present in the bone or bone joints, along with the blood.

Measures to avoid—The following measures should be taken to avoid tuberculosis:

(i) B.C.G. vaccination should be given.

(ii) Should not come in contact with a T.B. patient.

(iii) Items should be kept separate from the patient’s spit, clothes, utensils, bedding etc.

(iv) Treatment of the patient in government hospitals, must be done by the department. In this, doctors come regularly at home and give medicines, This is the plan of the World Health Organization (WHO). This is called DOTS.

(v) Exercise should be done regularly.

(vi) Walk in the open air in the morning and evening,

(vii) Spit should be done in a spittoon.

(viii) Special attention should be paid to cleanliness,

(ix) TB clinics should be established in towns and villages,

Treatment of disease-The following things should be taken care of during the treatment of this disease:

(i) The best treatment in this disease is to consume pure air, pure water and sunlight and to provide nutritious food to the patient.

(ii) Many useful medicines have been known for this disease nowadays, they should be consumed under the guidance of a qualified doctor. The disease of TB lasts for a long time. As many days as the doctor tells you to take the medicine, it must be taken. If the medicine is left in the middle, the disease becomes fatal.

(ii) Very cold or hot climate is not good for TB disease.

(iv) For the treatment of the patient, he should be admitted to the medical home (Sanatorium), because in these, efforts are made to make the patient healthy by taking care of daily routine, pure air, sunlight and food.

(9) Malaria-Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes. It spreads from time to time in almost all the countries of the world. But it spreads more in hot countries and places with moisture like some parts of India such as South Bengal, Assam and the whole area of Terai. There are many types of malaria, because its pathogens are also of many types.

Reason–Usually, people get Malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria, and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken from an infected person.

Symptoms—Headache, nausea, vomiting, and severe fever with cold and tremors are its main symptoms. The cold feels so strong that the whole body trembles. The shivering lasts for half an hour or so. Afterwards, due to high fever, the shivering stops and the patient sweats more. The patient feels more weakness. There is a decrease in blood and the spleen enlarges.

Care and Treatment—The patient should be given complete rest. There are many medicines available for malaria, which should be taken after consulting a doctor.

Measures to avoid

(i) Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes. Therefore it is necessary to destroy mosquitoes. Kerosene oil should be sprinkled in dirty drains, garbage houses and pits (where mosquitoes lay eggs) so that the mosquito and its eggs should be destroyed, DDT should be sprayed at the place where mosquitoes live.

(ii) Sleeping with mosquito net at night. Neem leaves and mosquito coils should be burnt in homes. Anti-mosquito cream should be applied. The doors of the houses should have mesh so that the entry of mosquitoes should be minimized.

(10) Cholera-Cholera is a terrible and rapidly spreading disease. It spreads more during summer and rainy season. Fetes and places of pilgrimage where more people gather, the risk of spreading this disease is high. Thousands of people die every year from this disease.

Cause of Disease Spread-Cholera is spread by a bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This germ is very small and its shape is like a comma (,). These bacteria grow more in water, and they cannot survive in more heat and more cold, these bacteria reach from one place to another mainly by flies. They cling to their legs and wings. After this, these flies fly and sit on our food and food material, then leave the bacteria. Consuming such food causes infection of the disease. Apart from flies, this disease is also transmitted by contact with the patient or by using his objects.

Incubation period—This disease can take a severe form within a few hours from the time of infection, but sometimes it takes two to three days for the symptoms of the patient to appear.

Symptoms of the disease- As soon as the effect of cholera takes place, the person starts vomiting and gets diarrhoea. Diarrhoea in cholera patient is white and thin like rice flakes. Due to diarrhoea and vomiting, the patient soon becomes weak and his body becomes convulsive. There are dark spots under the eyes. If proper treatment is not given and medicine is not given, the patient may die.

Initial treatment- In the beginning, only medicine like onion extract and Amritdhara (Nectar) was given to the cholera patient. The patient should get complete rest. Also, there should be no shortage of water in his body. This should also be taken into account. After getting some rest, orange juice, barley water and cow’s milk and water should be given. Proper treatment must be done after consulting an experienced doctor. If the patient’s condition becomes serious, the patient should be immediately admitted to the hospital.

Measures to prevent disease—To avoid cholera, the following measures should be taken:

(i) Cholera vaccines must be administered regularly. All persons should be vaccinated against cholera while visiting fetes and places of pilgrimage.

(ii) If a person becomes a victim of this disease, then arrangements should be made to keep him isolated as soon as possible.

(iii) As soon as cholera spreads, the water of pond, river and well should be boiled and filtered before drinking.

(iv) Avoidance of flies is necessary to avoid cholera. Therefore, measures should be taken to eliminate or avoid flies.

(v) Putting the patient’s feces, urine, vomit and sputum in an earthen pot and then it should be buried in the ground.

(vi) During the outbreak of the disease, sliced fruits, uncovered sweets etc. available in the market should not be consumed at all.

(vii) During the outbreak of cholera, one should not go to crowded places, railway stations, cinema halls and fairs.

(viii) Milk and water should be boiled.

(11) Typhoid-Typhoid is one of the main infectious diseases among diseases spread through unclean water and food cooked in this water. This disease is also called Motijhara. Usually this disease lasts for a certain period.

Causes of disease-It is an infectious disease. This disease is caused by a special type of bacterium Salmonella typhi. The germs of this bacterium reach me intestines of the person and grow rapidly and the person becomes the victim of the disease.

Incubation period—After entering the body, the bacteria of the disease become successful in causing symptoms of the disease within a period of 14 days. Thus it is clear that the incubation period of typhoid disease is from 4 to 10 days.

Symptoms of the disease-The symptoms of the disease start appearing soon as the bacteria are active in the person’s body. In the first stage, the patient has severe headache and the person starts feeling more restless. After the headache, the body temperature of the patient starts increasing rapidly. In typhoid, small white-colored pearl-like spots come out on the body of some patients, hence it is also called Motijhara. The effect of this disease also affects the intestines. This causes inflammation and sores in the intestines.

Measures to prevent disease—Typhoid is a contagious disease. To avoid this disease, the following precautions should be taken:

(i) The typhoid vaccine (TAB) should be administered.

(ii) All persons should take special care of the cleanliness of their hands. Fingernails should be cut regularly and hands should be washed thoroughly with soap before eating anything.

(iii) The patient of typhoid should avoid contact with other persons.

(iv) All the items of the sick person, i.e. eating utensils, bedding and clothes etc should be kept separately. When the patient is fully recovered, the items used by him should be thoroughly disinfected.

(v) The excreta of a patient suffering from typhoid disease should not be left open. It should be completely immersed or destroyed as the germs of the disease remain in the feces of the patient in maximum number.

(vi) Boiled milk should be drunk to avoid typhoid disease.

Treatment-As soon as the symptoms of the disease become clear, treatment should be done by a qualified doctor. Along with the treatment, special care should also be taken for the patient’s rest. As far as possible, the patient should rest for most of the time. The diet of the patient should also be taken care of. Milk and fruit juice should be given to the patient. Apart from this, a light digestible diet can also be given. After the disease is cured, one should avoid spicy and rich food for sone time.

(12) AIDS—This is a very dangerous and deadly disease. In AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) disease, the immune system of the patient is completely destroyed. Viruses attack the white blood cells in the blood and destroy them, due to which the immunity of the patient is destroyed and the patient dies. The first correct knowledge of AIDS disease was given by Michael Gottlieb, a doctor from Los Angeles (USA) in the year 1981.

Since that time, scientists have been able to find out that this disease is caused by a special type of virus (HIV). These viruses destroy the white blood cells, the immunity of such a person is destroyed and he easily becomes a victim of various diseases.

Reason-Despite many efforts, scientists have not yet discovered the medicine for this disease.

Prevention and remedy of the disease—The disease of AIDS virus is mainly sexual, so following measures should be taken:

  1. To begin a sexual relationship with another woman.
  2. Never use a needle injected into another person when receiving an injection.
  3. If the patient needs to transfuse the blood of another person, get the other person’s blood thoroughly tested for the virus of AIDS disease.

Symptoms of the disease

  1. Weight loss.
  2. Mild fever persisting for a long period.
  3. Complaints of persistent diarrhoea.
  4. Skin diseases, swelling of the glands etc.

Ear Infection (Otitis Media)

Ear infection, an infection that occurs in the space behind the eardrum, is a common reason why your child may have to see a healthcare provider. Ear infections happen when bacteria or viruses infect and trap fluid behind the eardrum, causing pain and swelling/bulging of the eardrum. Treatments include antibiotics, pain-relieving medications and placement of ear tubes.

Non-communicable conditions

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are health conditions that are not caused by any infection and therefore are not communicable from person to person. They are chronic in nature. If untreated, they can lead to further health complications and even early death, Common NCDs include cardiovascular disease (disease of the heart and blood vessels), stroke, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to pollution indoor and outside) and mental health disorders, including common mental disorders (anxiety and depression).

Today, half of India’s deaths are due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancers, mental health disorders and injuries. There is an alarming acceleration in the prevalence of these chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Maternal and perinatal conditions

Fetal deaths (stillbirth): It is when a child whose heart has not beaten after it has been completely expelled or extracted from its mother and who is either not less than 20 weeks or of not less than 400g by weight at birth.

Live births: It is when a child whose heart has beaten after it has been completely expelled or extracted from its mother.

Maternal death: A maternal death is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management. This definition excludes deaths from accidental or incidental causes. The definitions used in this report include, in addition to the WHO definition, incidental deaths and deaths occurring more than 42 days after termination of the pregnancy, when their origin and illness is also related to the pregnancy.

Maternal mortality ratio: The maternal mortality ratio is defined as the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 1,00,000 live births during the same time period.

Classification of maternal deaths: Direct deaths are those which result from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, labour and puerperium) including deaths from interventions, miscarriage, inappropriate treatment, or from a chain of events resulting from any of the above. They are complications of the pregnancy itself.

Indirect deaths are those which result from pre-existing disease or disease that developed during pregnancy and was not due to direct obstetric causes, but which may have been aggravated by physiological effects of pregnancy.

Incidental deaths are those due to conditions occurring during pregnancy, where the pregnancy is unlikely to have contributed significantly to the death, although it is sometimes possible to postulate a distant association.

Cancers: Cancers refer to a group of diseases associated with uncontrolled cell growth that can affect normal body functions, often with fatal outcomes. Many of the common risk factors for cancers, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, continue to become more prevalent in India. Maternal cancer diagnosed during or slightly after pregnancy may hinder fetal growth, thereby increasing the risk of neonatal mortality, stillbirth and infants being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA).

Diabetes: During pregnancy, both pregestational and gestational, there is an increase in the rates of pre-eclampsia, pre-term labor and operative delivery due to which diabetes-related complications including hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis may also arise.

Hypertensive pregnancy disorders, namely pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are a major cause of maternal and paternal deaths, preterm births and low birth weight births. These conditions are also associated with higher risks of chronic NCDs later in life.

Overweight and obese pregnant women face an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, rate of caesarean section delivery and increased length of hospital stay at the time of birth. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers are also more likely to be born preterm, be born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and require intensive hospital care at birth. As the global prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, the burden of these NCDs continues to grow.

Mental illness: Perinatal mental health issues can persist through all stages of pregnancy and delivery and adversely affect maternal relationships with their infants and partners. In extreme cases, they may also lead to self-harm, a significant contributor to women’s deaths globally. Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of preterm labor and birth, intrauterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia.

Cardiovascular diseases: Diagnosis can be challenging because cardiovascular disease is relatively rare in women of child bearing age and the index of suspicion may be low when young women have common symptoms such as chest pain, palpitations, syncope and shortness of breath. Furthermore, some of these symptoms, such as isolated palpitations and mild shortness of breath are common during normal pregnancy.

Childhood Asthma

Childhood asthma is the same lung disease adults get, but kids often have different symptoms. Doctors also call this pediatric asthma.

If your child has asthma, their lungs and airways can easily get inflamed when they have a cold or are around things like pollen. The symptoms may make it hard for your child to do everyday activities or sleep. Sometimes, an asthma attack can result in a trip to the hospital.

There’s no cure for asthma in children, but you can work with your child’s doctor to treat it and prevent damage to their growing lungs.

Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Asthma

Not all children have the same asthma symptoms. A child may even have different symptoms from one episode to the next. Signs and symptoms of asthma in children include:

  • A cough that doesn’t go away (which may be the only symptom)
  • Coughing spells that happen often, especially during play or exercise, at night, in cold air, or while laughing or crying.
  • A cough that gets worse after a viral infection.
  • Less energy during play and stopping to catch their breath during activities.
  • Avoiding sports or social activities.
  • Trouble sleeping because of coughing or breathing problems.
  • Rapid breathing.
  • Chest tightness or pain.
  • Wheezing, a whistling sound when breathing in or out.
  • Seesaw motions in their chest (retractions).
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tight neck and chest muscles.
  • Feeling weak or tired.
  • Trouble eating or grunting while eating (in infants).

Oral diseases

Common Kids Dental Problems

  • Tooth Decay: Tooth decay is one of the most common chronic childhood conditions across the United States.
  • Bad Breath: Also known as halitosis, bad breath can affect anyone, regardless of their age.
  • Sensitive Teeth.
  • Thumb-Sucking.
  • Gum Disease.
  • Grinding.
  • Canker Sores.
  • Baby Teeth Loss.

What are the causes of Pediatric Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

Child is more at risk for developing COPD later in life if they are exposed to cigarette smoke, or they smoke cigarettes themselves. There is some research that shows children with asthma or other lung problems may be at an increased risk of developing COPD later in life.

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