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BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

Exclusive breastfeeding is adequate for baby till 6 months of life. After the age of 6 months, breastfeeding alone is no longer enough for optimal growth and development of the child. Hence, it is necessary to start complementary feeding along with breast milk. The word “weaning” is now replaced by complementary feeding the process of introduction of suitable semi-sold food at the right age.


Complementary foods are defined by the WHO as any food or liquid other than breast milk. WHO recommends that infants start receiving complementary foods at 6 months of age in addition to breast milk. Initially, they should receive complementary foods 2-3 times a day between 6-8 months and increase to 3-4 times daily between 9-11 months and 12-24 months.

Complementary food and/or supplementary food refers to the food that is used to complement breast milk or the food that complements and / or supplements other foods used during the weaning period. Good complementary foods are rich in energy, protein and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and folate) and they are not spicy or salty. The basic ingredient of complementary foods is usually the local staple.

Ensuring that infants nutritional needs are met requires that complementary foods be:

  • Timely- meaning that they are introduced when the need for energy and nutrients exceeds what can be provided through exclusive breastfeeding; Adequate meaning that they provide sufficient energy, protein and micronutrients to meet a growing child’s nutritional needs;
  • Safe – meaning that they are hygienically stored and prepared, and fed with clean hands using clean utensils and not bottles;
  • Properly fed-meaning that they are given consistently with a child’s signals of appetite and satiety, and that meal frequency and feeding are suitable for age.

Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding practices such as untimely introduction (too early or too late) of complementary foods, improper feeding frequency, low dietary diversity and less nutrient dense complementary foods and unhygienic feeding practices can have severe detrimental threats to the health and nutritional status of the children.

Ready for eating

Complementary feeding must begin soon after completing 6 months of age. Moreover, the jaw movement appears around 5 months of age. Around 6-7 months, swallowing of solid foods occurs. The introduction of complementary feeding around 6 months is the ideal time or “sensitive period”.

If the introduction of complementary feeding is delayed, then the child may enter a “critical period” after which the infant may always be a poor chewer and may be poor in eating solids later. The other reasons for complementary feeding at 6 months of age are:

  • Child develops neck/head control and hand-to-mouth coordination,
  • Child starts enjoying chewing and biting. The intestines are mature and ready to digest pulses and cereals.
  • Body likes chewing semisolids as there is hardening of gums and eruption of teeth.
  • Tendency to push solids out of mouth decreases.

Staple Food

A staple food is a food that makes up the dominant part of a population’s diet. Food staples are eaten regularly, even daily and supply a major proportion of a person’s energy and nutritional needs.

Food staples vary from place to place, depending on the food sources available. Most food staples are inexpensive, plant-based foods. They are usually full of calories for energy. Cereal grains and tubers are the most common food staples.

According to the age of the children, food items for 0-6 months- According to experts, water is also prohibited for babies from birth to six months. They believe that mother’s milk contains sufficient amount of water which can meet the needs of the baby. So only breastfeeding should be done. When a mother is unable to breastfeed for some reason, formula milk can be given to babies as it is easier for babies to digest. Formula milk is not as nutritious as breast milk, but it does not have any bad effect on the health of babies.


This sample menu might guide you when starting your baby on solid food. This is a guide only. How much babies eat each day varies depending on growth and activity.


  • Baby cereal (1 tablespoon) mixed with breastmilk or formula
  • Mashed fruit (1/2 tablespoon)
  • Yogurt (1/2 tablespoon)
  • Beastmilk or 100 ml infant formula


  • Breastmilk or 150 ml infant formula


  • Blended/mashed meat (1 tablespoon)
  • Blended/mashed vegetable (1 tablespoon)
  • Bread cut into pieces (1/2 slice) or pasta/rice (1/4 cup)
  • Breastmilk or 100 ml infant formula


  • Breastmilk or 150 ml infant formula


  • Blended/mashed meat (1 tablespoon)
  • Blended/mashed vegetables (1 tablespoon)
  • Pasta/rice (1/2 cup)
  • Breastmilk or 100 ml infant formula

Practical guidance on the quality, frequency and amount of food to offer children between 6-23 months of age is very important.

Complementary Diet-Up to about 7 to 8 months of age, the main diet of the infant is milk, whether from mother, cow or formula, but after 4 to 5 months of age, his needs increase. In addition to milk, semi-liquid and soft foods such as fruit juices, pulp of ripe fruits, vegetable soups, boiled and cooked vegetables are given, these are called complementary foods.

Supplements are essential for balanced nutrition. For example, there is always a deficiency of vitamin ‘C’ and ‘D’ in milk, which needs to be filled with orange, tomato, cod liver oil. Only by giving ‘dalia’ or cornflakes in milk, the child can get complete nutrition. Apart from milk, the food which is given to the infant is also called complementary food. The following nutrients can be obtained by giving supplements:

  1. Vitamin ‘C’ from oranges and tomatoes.
  2. Thiamine and iron from vegetables.
  3. Protein, iron and thiamine from egg yolk.
  4. Thiamine, protein and calories, etc from cereals (oatmeal, cornflour).

Method of Complementary Diet Feeding

It is considered appropriate to start supplementary diet between four and six months. If there is a long delay in starting the supplementary diet, then there is a fear of malnutrition. According to the age of the infant, the composition and fluidity of complementary foods can be changed as follows:

  1. At 4-6 months, liquid complementary foods such as fruit juices, vegetable soups, thin lentil soups, etc. Initially, 2-4 teaspoons should be given. Gradually its quantity can be increased.
  2. In 6-8 months, semi-solid to solid complementary food (which is well cooked and mashed) should be given. For example, porridge, semolina pudding, sago, mashed potatoes, sweet potato, a little salt, sugar can be given. In fruits, banana, papaya, mango etc. can be given by mashing it in the same way, but pineapple, apple, pear should be given in the form of juice after adding sugar.
  3. After 8 months, crumbled and condensed solid foods should be started. Around eight months, teeth begin to develop in the child, so giving biscuits, toasts, rusks and pieces of fruit is beneficial. These foods are chewable and chewing is good for the baby. These foods aid in tooth extraction and also exercise the gums.
  4. At the age of 1 year, the child can eat all solid food. At this age, the infant becomes capable of eating all the foods that are cooked for the family, such as rice, lentils, vegetables, roti, fish. The child should gradually try to inculcate the habit of eating according to the family diet, because by the age of one year the child is able to eat and digest many foods.


When the baby turns 6-7 months old, breast milk is not sufficient to meet his nutritional needs. His growing body requires many other nutrients.

Vitamin ‘C’-containing substances-After the baby is two to three months old, to maintain the strength of teeth and gums and to avoid diseases like scurvy and for the healthy development of the body, the need for vitamin ‘C’ arises. Therefore, juice of such fruits should be given, in which the amount of vitamin ‘C’ is sufficient.

Obtaining vitamin ‘D’ from sunlight-Vitamin ‘D’ has a very important place in the baby’s diet. Due to its deficiency, calcium and phosphorous absorption is not possible in the body. The simple and natural means of obtaining vitamin ‘D’ is ‘sunlight’. This element is produced in abundance by the rays of the sun. Therefore, every day in the morning expose the baby to sun’s rays for some time. It will prove useful.

The baby should be made to lie in the sun in such a way that the sunlight does not fall on his head and eyes. If the weather is fine, keep at least one piece of clothing on his body. Massaging olive oil on the body while lying in the sun is very beneficial. The child should be made to lie in the sun according to the season. In winter, the baby can be made to lie in the sun for an hour.

Vitamins ‘A’ and ‘D’ containing substances-Vitamin ‘A’ and ‘D’ are found in mother’s milk and cow’s milk. But for the proper growth of the body, more quantity has to be consumed. Therefore, it is necessary to consume a few drops of fish oil daily. In the case of giving cow’s milk, its need increases even more. Eggs also contain good quality proteins and vitamins ‘A’ and ‘D’.

Iron-rich substances-Iron is very necessary to keep the blood healthy, Iron is also found in egg.

The method of preparing and feeding complementary food is as follows:

Orange juice-Vitamin ‘C’ is in sufficient quantity in orange juice. Therefore, as soon as the baby is three months old, orange juice must be included in his diet. After consulting the doctor, its quantity can be increased gradually starting from one ounce initially. If the baby is drinking milk from the beginning, then it can be started from the second month itself.

Orange juice should be given twice a day, one and a half hour before feeding. In place of orange, tomato juice can also be filtered and given. Tomato juice can be given up to two tablespoons twice a day from the beginning of the third month.

Solid foods should be given to the baby in the sixth or seventh month, gradually, little by little. It will be beneficial that when an attempt is made to wean the baby in the eighth or ninth month, there will be no particular difficulty, because by then he will have become used to the consumption of other substances.

Vegetables – General methods of cooking vegetables – (1) Cut small pieces of vegetables and wash them, then keep them covered in some water in a clean vessel. Cook on fire. Filter the broth and give it to the baby. A little salt can also be added.

(2) Wash the vegetable thoroughly and let it cook for ten to fifteen minutes without adding water. Keep stirring it in between so that it does not get stuck at the bottom. Then crush it and filter it in a clean sieve. If the vegetable does not melt, then add water and cook it for thirty to forty minutes.

Fish Oil (Cod liver Oil)-Vitamin ‘D’ is very much needed for the growth of the baby. Fish oil is the best for its fulfillment. It prevents osteoporosis and rickets. Initially, less than half a teaspoon of tea should be given to a one month old baby but, at the age of three months, a full teaspoon can be given. According to the opinion of doctors, it would be appropriate to give it twice a day from a few days after birth.

Green Leafy Vegetables—Various types of nutrients enter the child’s body through green vegetables. Beetroot, carrot, parbal, bottle gourd etc. are benefit and the best is spinach. Therefore, it should be given at least thrice a week.

Change the vegetables daily. From the seventh month, vegetable broth or cooked vegetables can be given by filtering it.

Egg yolk-If there is no restriction of eating eggs, then it is better to consume eggs from the fourth to fifth month. Boil the egg lightly. In the beginning, only one-fourth teaspoon is sufficient.

Potatoes- Mostly green vegetables should be given to the child, but when the child becomes ten months old, he can be given two tablespoons full of potatoes after roasting and crushing them three or four times a week. Potatoes are not a replacement for green vegetables. If the child stops eating green vegetables then even potato should not be given so that he himself will start taking green vegetables again. It would be appropriate to give potatoes after feeding green vegetables.

Fruits- Apple juice and roasted apples can be crushed and given in the tenth month. It is best to feed fruits like apples, apricots, figs etc. by dissolving them in a little water on low heat and adding sugar as needed. One or two spoons of pulp of ripe banana can also be given.

Water-A few years ago, it was not a practice to give water to the baby in the initial months. Even though he was crying of thirst, but he was fed only mother’s milk. But scientific discoveries have proved that for the health of the baby:

  1. Milk should be given on regular time.
  2. Water has the same importance for an infant as it has for an adult.

Therefore, by giving fruit juice and water occasionally during the day, the needs of the child continue to be fulfilled.

Note-At present, doctors have forbidden to give water to infants due to water pollution. The need of water is fulfilled only by the mother’s milk.

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

Complementary foods or mixture of foods should be given to the baby after 6 months. They are made from the following foods.

  1. Cereals + Pulses + Green Vegetables


  1. Cereals + Pulses + Vegetables + Curd


  1. Cereals + Milk + Fruits + Kernels (finely ground)


  1. Cereals + Animal Food + Green leafy vegetables


  1. Cereals + Animal Foods + Red Orange Vegetable

Advantages of complementary Food

Adequate complementary foods introduced and consumed by a child at 6 months of age provide energy, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. These help in meeting the needs of the growing baby with breast milk and formula. According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is responsible, directly or indirectly, for more than half of all child deaths.

A child’s dietary supplement should be provided by a parent or caregiver. It promotes healthy interactions and stimulation, which are important for a baby’s brain development.

Disadvantages of Complementary Food

Although table foods become important at 6 months of age, they are often introduced too soon or too late. Amount of food sufficient to sustain the normal growth of the child or the consistency may be inappropriate for their age rendering them unable to consume them. Poor food choices also contribute to the loss of nutritive value of foods.

A 2002 survey conducted by Mathematica Policy Research Inc. and funded by Gerber found that french fries is the most commonly consumed dish by the youngest children between the ages of 15 to 24 months. An excess of complementary foods reduces the nutritional properties of breast milk and formula in the baby’s diet.

Early Diet

Domestic staple food should be used to prepare the initial diet for the baby. Porridge can be made by using little water or milk in semolina, wheat flour, rice, ragi, millet etc. The above cereal grains can be prepared by roasting, grinding and cooking them well with water, with the addition of sugar and a little fat; and feeding can be started when the baby is six months old.

It is necessary to add sugar or jaggery and ghee, as it increases the energy power. Initially, porridge can be made thin, but as the child grows, it should be thickened, as it is more nutritious. After soaking half chapati pieces in half cup of milk or boiled water, mashing it well and adding sugar and fat, it should be fed to the baby.

Sieve the soaked and mashed chapati through a sieve to get soft semi-solid food for the baby. Fruits like banana, papaya, chikoo, mango etc. can also be mashed. You do not need to prepare special food for the baby after one year. Whatever the rest of your family eats, they can also be fed the same. You should try to use less salt, sugar and chili as much as possible in the food and gradually inculcate the habit of eating all the food in the children.

Main initial diet for children

  1. Lentil water- You can give lentil water to children. Lentil water is rich in protein as well as fills the stomach of the child. For this, you boil lentils water and filter its water and give it to the baby. If you want, you can also m the lentils and give them with water, but here keep in mind that you have a pinch of salt in the dal for a child younger than one year. Kids don’t need anyway. You can also add a little ghee to the lentil water.
  2. Ragi porridge-You can also give porridge as an initial food baby. You feed them by making thin porridge, so that their stomach w full and will remain clean. You can choose ragi porridge, however make very thin for a child of six to eight months. After that give as you wish. Ragi porridge is also very easy to make.
  3. Rice Water- Rice water is a good initial food for babies. It is very easy to digest. Along with being easy to digest, it is also rich in nutrients. To make rice water, boil two spoons of rice in a cup of water. When the rice is cooked, filter the water and mash some rice grains in it and feed it to the baby.
  4. Carrot puree-You can give puree to your baby by boiling vegetables, making their soup or mashing them. After six months, you can give carrot puree to the baby. While mashing the vegetables, keep in mind that there are no lumps or other things in it. It should be completely soft and mashed well. You can give them mashed carrots, pumpkin and vegetables rich in fiber like potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc. To make carrot puree, first boil the carrots well and then mash the carrots. It is good for the eyes.
  5. Banana Puree- Banana puree is also something that you can feed to a six month old baby. Banana is rich in potassium and iron. You mix milk in banana and mash it and then feed the baby with a spoon. You can also add dry fruit powder to this puree.

Here are some foods that should not be given to babies —

  1. Do not give honey to your baby before the age of one year, as honey may contain bacteria that can cause many diseases in babies.
  2. Avoid giving cow’s milk to children before the age of one year, as babies cannot digest it.
  3. Giving unpasteurized beverages and food such as juice, milk, curd and cheese are more likely to cause infections in babies and can lead to diseases like diarrhoea.
  4. Some solid foods that can cause obstruction in respiration such as solid candy, popcorn, grapes etc.

Ensuring the safety of infant food- It is very important to carefully prepare and store complementary foods. Personal hygiene plays an important role in the diet of babies. If hygiene is not maintained, complementary feeding can harm the baby by spreading the infection. Therefore, it is important that all foods prepared for babies are kept in such a way that they are free from germs.

Some things to keep in mind while preparing food for babies are as follows:

  1. Before preparing food, hands should be washed with soap and water, because the germs in dirty hands are not visible and reach the food.
  2. Make sure that the utensils used are clean and washed.
  3. Food should be cooked properly, as most of the germs are killed by cooking the food.
  4. After cooking food, don’t touch it with your hands and keep it covered to protect it from dust and flies.

Why is a nutritious diet important for your child?- The early years of life are crucial for the development of nutritious food habits in children. When you introduce your child to nutritious food habits in the early years, these habits are likely to stick with them for the rest of their lives. This will prevent such things as disputes over diet and distaste for healthy food as they grow up.

It will also make it easier for you while travelling or eating out. Whether they get the habit of eating junk food or fruits and salads, you have to decide at this time Apart from eating nutritious food, you also have to make sure that your kids stay active, play and jump and spend enough time in the sunlight. It helps to increase their immunity, so that you will have to go to the doctor less.


  1. Breastfeed first, then solids—Your baby should be completely breastfed or formula dependent before going on solids so that he gets all the necessary and health-giving nutrients before eating solid foods. Around nine months it becomes opposite and food comes first.
  2. From Liquid to Puree then Lumps and Bumps—The transition from a regular taste of full liquid to solid food can be quite difficult. The “food” also varies in color with a thicker taste and texture. It is essential to ensure that all foods are either cooked or ground (by hand, by blender or baby food equipment) into a smooth liquid paste similar to thin curd (breast milk or formula is used to change the food texture). You can introduce a new type of food every 3-5 days to understand your baby’s reactions
  3. Ensure Consistency-Your baby may only have a spoonful of food, therefore it is necessary that you maintain the quality and consistency. Always choose a nutrient-dense diet and a non-adulterated diet, the quality of your baby’s diet cannot be compromised. This is also true for young children, who have a high appetite but relatively small stomachs. As your child becomes more independent, the amount of food she gets matters, as you may have less control over what will actually be eaten. Be persistent and take care not to lose your patience when your baby is feeding, no matter how frustrating the experience may be. Being a good source of inspiration for them at this time can help your baby with mealtimes.
  4. Do not leave gaps between meals—It can be quite frustrating to see your baby getting angry. Forgetting, skipping or delaying a diet can put you in trouble as a parent. A regular supply of nutrients throughout the day ensures that your baby is getting all the necessary strength as well as building a better foundation for a growing mind and body.
  5. Good iron intake-Around 6 months, your baby may have low iron levels. A good supply of iron is essential for healthy growth. Most baby cereals contain iron so make sure you invest in the right one. Talk to your doctor about adding foods that are rich in iron to your baby’s diet.
  6. Make the process of eating food a positive and enjoyable experience for your baby-No matter what you think, let them get messy and play with the food, let them explore by touching and feeling the texture. Most parents will scold their baby for messing up, but learn not to do so. This will help make the routine as exciting as your baby wants it to be. A bib and some baby wipes are handy for times like these.
  7. Take your time-Introduce one new diet at a time and try different options over the course of 3-5 days. This will make it easier to find out the cause if your baby has a reaction/allergy to a food. You will also be able to know which foods your baby likes and which are his favorite.
  8. Hot or cold- Most babies have a normal temperature of feeding, yet prefer it slightly warmer, eg body temperature (breast milk is about this temperature). Place your baby’s bowl in a pot of hot water and let it heat up to the desired temperature and of course, avoid using microwaves to heat your baby’s food.
  9. Importance of Water Consumption–The kidneys of infants are not as adept at handling the waste products after the digestion of food as adults. When your baby starts on solids, it becomes more important that you keep track of the amount of water your baby drinks, especially when solids are given instead of breastmilk. It is important that you keep giving water to your baby at regular intervals. Make sure that babies’ bottle-sucking cups are kept in an easily visible place and check their contents throughout the day.
  10. Fruit juice-Usually parents give fruit juice to children to meet their vitamin C requirement. Although milk, fruit juice and water are preferred up to the age of less than one year, and are three important fluids for babies, yet water is more important. Although some amount of fruit juice is safe (in moderation), an overdose can cause problems such as stomach disorders, thin stools, affect your child’s appetite and in severe cases may affect their physical development.

Feeding Tips for Babies:

  • They should not be given any fruit juice before 6 months.
  • They should not be given juice in a bottle or vessel from which the juice comes out easily, as babies can consume it throughout the day.
  • They should not be given juice while sleeping.
  1. Right Time to Introduce Cow’s Milk-Generally, cow’s milk should not be given to your baby until he is around one year old, to reduce the risk of allergy and to ensure there is no effect on breastfeeding, formula and diet.
  2. Milk Alternatives—After a year, other milk substitutes can prove to be good. Many foods are rich in calcium; there are many calcium-rich foods to make up for any deficiency. Such drinks provide a variety of fluids as well as nutrition and may also benefit infants with lactose intolerance or allergies and sensitivities.


The important attributes of foods for complementary feeding

  • Easy availability of clean and safe ingredients for foods.
  • Simple and less time-consuming method to prepare/cook the foods.
  • Affordability by the family.
  • Prefer the regular family food that is locally available and culturally acceptable rather than cooking special foods. The recent concept “Baby-led weaning”, i.e., feed as per baby’s choice shall be practiced.
  • Nutritive value of the food as per the requirement of growing infant.
  • Easily digestible and nourishing food.
  • Taste and palatability of food for the infant.
  • Start feeding with small amounts and gradually increase the quantity with the increasing age of the child.
  • The consistency, frequency and variety should change as the infant grows depending upon the requirements and the feeding abilities.
  • A variety of nutrient-rich foods shall be offered to ensure the body requirements are met.
  • During illness, the principle of more fluids including frequent breast feeding and encouragement to eat soft foods must be practiced.
BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material
Appropriate food consistency

Snacks are ready to eat foods like banana, and other fruits or especially prepared foods for the child (like panjeeri, laddoo, halwa, upma, idli, poha etc). Family foods can also be given as snacks in small quantities. These are given in between meals. Snacks are not a replacement of meals.

Complementary foods as meals are those that are especially prepared for the child. These are soft, easy to digest in a semi-solid form and nutritious. These can also be family foods that are made suitable for the consumption the young child. Examples includes dal with rice or crushed bread (chapati), boiled vegetables with butter or ghee as thick soup, or mixed with crushed bread (chapati), There should be no spices in the child’s food.

BCom 1st Year Complementary and Early Diet Notes Study Material

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