BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material
CONCEPT OF FOOD AND NUTRITION
Food and nutrition are the modes of getting fuel, which provides energy for our bodies. We need a good supply of nutrients for our bodies on an everyday basis. Food gives us essential nutrients to live and helps in the healthy functioning of the body. Water is a very vital component of nutrition. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are all required in large quantities. The effective management of food consumption and nutrition both lead to good health. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Food is made up of macronutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, and fat. This component of diet provides calories for energy and has a definite role in maintaining health. Food also contains micronutrients like vitamins and minerals. Phytochemicals not only give calories but also serve a variety of important functions so that body operates in an optimum way.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF FOOD
Food-The primary need of human life is food. The meaning of food is explained in the Chambers dictionary as ‘what one feeds on; what when digested nourishes the body. Food is what drives growth. On the basis of the above knowledge, we can define food as-All those substances that can be absorbed and digested by the body and which are helpful in the growth and development of a person’s body is called food. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
According to Sudha Narayanan, Food is that substance (solid or liquid) that is necessary for survival, maintenance of health, maintaining cordial relations with family and society, emotional gratification, to strengthen the feeling of security and love. Food is also necessary for balancing the physical, mental and emotional capabilities of a man.
- According to Shubhangini Joshi, “Food is the basic necessity of life, most people enjoy eating foods that nourish their body.
- In Chamber’s Twenty-First Century Dictionary food means a substance taken in by a living organism that provides it with energy and materials for the growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues.
- According to Sumati Mudambi and Shalini Rao, “Food is that which nourishes the body. Only those substances which when eaten or drunk and absorbed by the body, produce energy, promote growth, repair tissues, and regulate these processes are considered food.
Therefore, food can also be defined as All solid and liquid food that when eaten or drunk by us, is easily digested by the body, gives energy heat, promotes growth, repairs tissues, and nourishes our body.
Nutrition is the biochemical and Physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, digestion, absorption assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.
Nutrition is the relationship between man and food and includes physical. social, psychological, and biological aspects as well.
The micro-chemical processes by which the food is used by the body after digestion, nutrition, and storage, is called “nutrition”.
- According to D.F. Turner, “Nutrition is the combination of processes by which the living organism receives and utilizes the materials necessary for the maintenance of its functions, growth, and renewal of its component.”
- According to Robbins WD, “Nutrition is the science in which the nutritional elements of food and other substances present in them, their actions, interactions, and mutual balance are related to the conditions of health and disease. Apart from this, nutrition is also related to food according to social, economic, cultural, and psychological needs.
- According to S. Mudambi and Shalini Rao, “The study of various nutrients, their function, food sources and their effect on human well-being is called Nutrition’.”
Nutritional status is the condition of the body which is influenced by the diet, the levels of nutrients in the body, and the ability of those levels to maintain normal metabolic integrity.
For adults, general adequacy is assessed by measuring weight and height; the result is commonly expressed as the body mass index, the ratio of weight (kg) to height. (m). Body fat may also be estimated by measuring skin fold thickness and muscle diameter.
Weight and height for age are compared with standard data for adequately nourished children. The increase in the circumference of the head and the development of bones may also be measured.
Status with respect to individual vitamins and minerals is normally determined by laboratory tests, either measuring the blood and urine concentrations of the nutrients and their metabolites or by testing for specific metabolic responses.
Nutritional surveillance involves routine collection which informs us about the nature and causes of nutritionally related diseases. Initially, these were diseases arising from nutritional deficiencies e.g. anemia, rickets, and osteoporosis but they now include a whole range of conditions e.g. obesity, hypertension, cancers, coronary heart disease, and dental caries.
The amount of food that a person consumes in a day is called the diet of that person for a day.
In a family, there may be infants, young children, and adolescents. adults, and the elderly all living under one roof. It is always a big challenge to provide a nutritious diet for each of the members, particularly when their needs and preferences vary. So what should be the guiding factor to ensure balanced meals that meet the needs of all members? Is there a Standard or a Reference that would serve as a goal for Good Nutrition?
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are the levels of intake of the essential nutrients that on the basis of scientific knowledge are judged to be adequate or sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Please note further that RDAs do not apply to people who are suffering from diseases that influence nutrient intake. They only apply to healthy people. RDAs help us plan balanced diets which include a variety of foods derived from diverse food groups which help meet the nutrient requirements. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Healthy Eating Food Pyramid
- Eat Most-Grains
- Eat more vegetables and fruits
- Eat Moderately—Meat, fish, egg, and alternatives (including dry beans) and milk and alternatives
- Eat Less-Fat/oil, salt, and sugar
- Drink an adequate amount of fluid (including water, tea, clear soup, etc) every day
Food contains many complex chemical substances, which are necessary for the growth of the body, repair of tissue wear and tear, protection from diseases and to regulate body temperature. These chemical substances are necessary for proper quantity to manage various types of activities in the body and to maintain health. Most food contains more than one nutrient e.g. mill has protein, fat, etc. These are called nutrients.
“Those Chemical Substances which are essential for different activities of the body and maintain health are called nutrients.”
Nutrients are divided into the following 6 parts:
(1) Carbohydrates-Mostly energy providing nutrients
(2) Fats-Provide energy
(3) Proteins-Body building foods
(4) Mineral Salts—Proper growth of body
(5) Vitamins-Protect body against disease
Water does not contain any nutrition, but water is necessary for all biological functions of the body. Each nutrient performs specific functions to keep the body healthy. All nutrients work together to contribute to good health. Diseases that occur due to a lack of nutrients over a long period of time are called deficiency diseases.
CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD
Our body is always in need of nutrient-rich food items. Fond items are all the things that we eat in the form of food. For example, different types of cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, ghee, milk, etc. In all these food items each nutritious element is in different quantity. Therefore, a single food item cannot be a balanced diet for anyone. For a balanced diet, many food items have to be taken together, then the food is balanced. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
In order to organize a balanced diet for human beings, thousands of food items have been divided into different food groups. Each type of food provides one or more nutrients. There are many food items included in each category.
The classification of food has been done on the following basis:
(1) CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD ON THE BASIS OF NUTRIENTS
Food performs the three main functions in the body: Body-building providing energy and providing protection. Almost every food item contains some or the other specific nutrients which are helpful in completing the above functions. The following five components are necessary for the growth, development, functioning, and health of the body.
(1) Carbohydrates, (2) Fats, (3) Proteins, (4) Vitamins, (5) Mineral salts.
On the basis of the above nutrients, the food items are divided into the following categories-
- Foods containing carbs-There are two nutrients under carbs (i) sugar, and (ii) starch. Sugary food items include sugar, jaggery, honey, sweets, marmalade, and jam-jelly, etc, and starchy foods include rice, sago, wheat, maize, jowar, millet, rye, potato, yam, sweet potato, etc.
- Fat-rich food items-Ghee, fat, butter, cream, vegetable oil, groundnut, oilseeds, dry fruits, etc. come under the food items containing fat.
- Protein-rich foods-We gets proteins from animals and plants. A protein-rich food is found in all types of meat, fish, liver, eggs, milk, milk products, pulses, soybeans, nuts, groundnuts, etc.
- Foods containing mineral salts-Meat, fish, eggs, liver, and milk are found in all cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, etc., under the category of food items containing mineral salts.
- Vitamin-rich foods-Almost all green vegetables and other foods have some or the other vitamin. But milk and its products, meat, fish, liver, egg, green vegetables, etc., contain vitamins that are found in a very large quantities.
(2) CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS
The types of food have been classified as follows:
(A) Body-building food elements- The food elements that work to build the body are called the body-building elements. Protein is the main component of body-building food. Protein helps us to grow and repair our wear and tear. Every organ such as bones, muscles, teeth, skin, hair, and blood is made up of proteins.
Minerals are the second building block after protein. Among these elements calcium, phosphorus, iron, and iodine are prominent. Calcium and phosphorus are helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. Iodine also produces the thyroid, a major gland of the body.
Water element plays an important role in the formation of the body. Various intracellular fluids and extracellular fluids are formed from water. There is also a large amount of water in the blood.
(B) Energizing or energy-providing substances-Energy is essential for the body. Different bodily functions require different amounts of energy.
Carbohydrate is the main food providing energy in the body. Sugar and starch are the two forms of carbohydrates available in the body.
Carbohydrate-It gives energy to the body. One gram of carbohydrate provides 4.2 calories of energy. Carbs are available in two forms:
(a) Sugars—Sugar, Honey, Jaggery, etc.
(b) Starch-Various grains such as wheat flour, semolina, maida, and maize. barley, millet, etc. Apart from this, starch content is found in sweet potato, potato, raw fruit, and banana.
Fat- 1 gram of fat provides 9 calories of energy. We can get fat from other food items like oil, ghee, butter, nuts, cream, etc. Hardworking people should take more amount of fat in their diet.
Protein—Most of the energy is supplied from carbs as it is found in more food items and is digestible. Protein also serves as a source of energy. Four calories of energy are obtained in one gram of protein. The main function of protein is the repair and regulation of body’s tissues. Carbohydrates and fats also help in protein utilization and metabolism. This allows the protein to perform its main function properly. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
We get protein from milk, curd, cheese, meat, fish, eggs, pulses, soybeans, dry fruits, peanuts, etc.
(C) Regulatory or protective food elements—Along with energy-giving elements and building elements, our body also needs protective elements. We are constantly getting energy from the energy-giving food elements. The biological activities of our body are controlled by protective elements so that the organs function properly. Protective elements are necessary to increase the immunity power of the body. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Vitamins, minerals, water, and proteins are the main protective elements. Vitamins regulate various body functions and keep organs healthy. Vitamin A especially keeps the skin and eyes healthy. Vitamins keep the nervous system digestive system, skin, and gums healthy. Due to a lack of vitamins, the growth of the body is affected and various types of diseases such as beriberi, scurvy, rickets, anemia, etc can be developed. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Mineral salts maintain the acid-base and water balance in the body. The function of salt is to control the activities of blood transport, heartbeat, and clotting of blood. Water also controls the fluids of the body and helps in excretion.
Trace elements (or trace metals) are minerals present in living tissues in small amounts. Trace elements refer to the human body in very small amounts, usually less than 0.1% by volume. Some of them are known to be nutritionally essential, while others might not be very essential. All trace elements can be toxic if consumed at sufficiently high levels for long enough periods.
Nutritionally essential trace elements include iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, selenium, chromium, iodine, and molybdenum. Iron plays an important role in transporting oxygen throughout the body through the blood.
Nutritionally essential trace elements are required for an individual’s nutrition. These elements contribute to vital bodily functions, including metabolic function, tissue repair, growth, and development. Because the human body cannot naturally synthesize these elements, it is essential that people consume them through their diet or by using supplements. Excessive consumption of these elements can have potentially toxic effects. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
CONCEPT OF HEALTH
Health literally means, “that state of the body and mind in which it can perform all functions properly.” According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is the simple protection of the body from diseases”. Health is not merely the absence of disease and infirmity but refers to being healthy in a complete physical, mental and social state.
Types of Health
Although there are many types of health, these three types of health are among the ones approved by WHO:
- Physical health-It means all the organs and cells of the body are functioning according to their expected capacity keeping in perfect harmony with the body. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
- Mental health—The correct harmony of man with the urban world i.e. the condition in which man can maintain harmony with himself and with the people and environment around him.
- Social health-To places oneself in society recognize society as a larger form of one’s family and create such an environment for living. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
Apart from these three main types, there are other types of health like-(1) Spiritual aspect, and (2) Emotional aspect.
Relation of Food and Health
Health depends a lot on nutrition and food is an important factor in maintaining good health. Our body is formed by the food we consume, so to clarify the relationship between food and health, it is true that health and food are two sides of the same coin. Health depends on nutrition and nutrition depends on the food.
To understand this statement, it is necessary to know the effect of food, on different dimensions of health, which are as follows:
- Physical health-Nutrients perform certain functions in the body for the growth of the body and to keep it physically active, which are the following:
(i) Building the body—The body is made up of small cells and each cell is made up of proteins, mineral salts, water, and other substances. These elements build and grow the body. From infancy to adolescence, food items are needed in large quantities, because at this stage there is a lot of constructive work in the body. Only a fully developed body is called a healthy body.
(ii) Providing energy-Energy is produced in the body through food and this energy helps in carrying out physical activities.
(iii) To keep the functional organs of the body functioning smoothly—The repair of body parts is done by nutritious elements, as well as the functioning of the organs is also maintained by nutritious elements like:
(a) Control of heartbeat.
(b) Helping in the contraction and expansion of muscles.
(c) Control of body temperature,
(d) Control over the removal of bodily toxins.
(e) Control over the balance of water.
(f) Balance of body pH.
(g) Control over coagulation of blood.
In this way, nutritious elements are helpful in keeping the person healthy by performing the above-mentioned tasks.
- Mental health—A balanced diet fulfills physical needs. Sometimes emotional satisfaction is also found in consuming food. When a person takes food in a new environment, he does not feel complete satisfaction and comfort due to the new environment and the taste may also change. These foods provide physical nourishment to the body but not mental nourishment. Unless a person is satisfied and happy, he will not be able to show signs of good mental health.
- Social health—Man is a social animal and in order to maintain good harmony in society, it is necessary that he should exchange his desires with the people in the society. Food is the medium for expressing desires, feelings, love, cooperation, friendship, etc. On some social festivals for example, on the occasion of marriage, birthday, etc. the person exhibits feelings of happiness, love, cooperation, etc. through food. Through these social activities, a person gets a special place in society, due to which the person remains socially healthy. (BCom 1st Year Concept of Food and Nutrition Notes Study Material)
It is clear from the above description that food is important in making a person physically, mentally, and socially healthy, but it is also necessary to keep in mind that if there is a mentally disturbed, anxious person, then he does not take food properly. In this way, it is clear that health has a very close relationship with nutrition and nutrition with food.