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BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

Key features that usually define constipation include:

  • Your stools are dry and hard.
  • Your bowel movement is painful and stools are difficult to pass.
  • You have a feeling that you have not fully emptied your bowels.

In the condition of constipation, the stool is very hard and it comes out with difficulty. There is a lot of difficulty in passing stool. Sometimes blood also starts coming out of the mucous membrane of the anus, due to which the excretion of stool becomes very painful.

Today the biggest enemy of a person’s good health is unhealthy food. Many diseases are caused due to this.

Therefore, regular bowel movement must be done. It is absolutely necessary for good health.

Constipation happens because your colon absorbs too much water from waste (stool/poop), which dries out the stool making it hard in consistency and difficult to push out of the body.

BCom 1st Year Constipation Notes Study Material

Food normally moves through the digestive tract and nutrients are absorbed. The partially digested food (waste) that remains moves from the small intestine to the large intestine, also called the colon. The colon absorbs water from this waste which creates a solid matter called stool. If you have constipation, food may move too zlowly through the digestive tract. This gives the colon more time to absorb water from the waste. The stool becomes dry, hard and difficult to push out.

Types of Constipation

There are mainly three types of Constipation:

  1. Atonic Constipation
  2. Obstructive Constipation
  3. Spastic Constipation

(1) Atonic Constipation

Most people have this type of constipation. Atonic means expansion and contraction of muscles.

In this type of constipation, there is lack of flexibility in the intestinal muscles.

Main causes of atonic constipation-The main causes of atonic constipation are as follows:

  1. Lack of Fibre in Diet-This constipation is mainly due to the lack of fibrous material in the food. Fibre helps in peristaltic movement of the intestines and pushes the food forward and at the same time, it absorbs water and loosens the stool, which makes bowel movement easier. Due to lack of fibre in the diet, stool becomes hard. Hence constipation occurs and there is difficulty in passing stool.
  2. Inadequate intake of water by not drinking enough water-8-10 glasses of water or liquids should be taken daily for good health. In hot areas where there is excessive sweating and the person does not drink enough water, constipation can occur.
  3. Irregular Habits of Defecation—The main reason for most of the people having constipation is not going to defecation on time.
  4. Lack of Physical Exercise-Exercising regularly is very important for good health and prevention of constipation. Due to lack of exercise, there is a decrease in the activity of the intestinal muscles and the stool is not able to come out. Therefore, the patients of constipation should go for a walk.
  5. Excessive use of Laxative and Enema: Excessive use of laxatives over a long period of time can lead to constipation. Same goes with enema. Both laxatives and enema hamper the productivity of intestinal muscles and obstruct normal bowel movement.
  6. Lack of Vitamin ‘B’ in Diet—Due to deficiency of Vitamin ‘B’, the muscles of the intestinal walls become inactive, hence constipation occurs.
  7. Imbalance Diet-Constipation is also caused by the consumption of an unbalanced diet. Therefore proteins, carbs, fats, vitamins and minerals in the diet should be adequate and balanced.
  8. Deficiency of Potassium-Due to the excessive excretion of potassium (K) with stool, there is a deficiency of potassium in the body. If it is not supplied by the diet, then the condition of constipation arises.

(2) Obstructive Constipation

This constipation occurs due to obstruction in the colon. The last part of the large intestine is called the colon, when the muscles of the colon become weak, then there is a decrease in its ability to expand and contract. Therefore, the stool cannot move forward. This condition arises when due to irritation in large intestine, the muscles become swollen and red and there are wounds (inflammation and ulceration) in them. Due to this, blood and mucus also starts coming along with the stool. This constipation is mainly due to infection.

Causes of Obstructive Constipation–The following are the reasons for its occurrence:

  1. Due to the growth of harmful bacteria in the colon.
  2. Due to prolonged illness, sometimes the muscles of the intestine become weak due to which there is obstruction in the contraction and transmission action.
  3. Due to excessive consumption of spicy food.
  4. By eating stale and rotten food.
  5. Excessive consumption of tea, coffee.
  6. Not getting enough sleep due to smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol.

Causes of spastic constipation—The following are the causes of spastic constipation:

  1. Drinking too much of irritating substances, such as alcohol, tea, coffee etc.
  2. Due to excessive consumption of spices.
  3. Due to reasons of mental agitation, anxiety, stress etc.

Symptoms of Constipation

  1. Restlessness, headache, dizziness etc.
  2. Disinterest in working.
  3. Gas formation in the stomach.
  4. Loss of appetite.
  5. Bloating of the stomach.
  6. Solidification of white coating on the tongue.

Treatment of Constipation

The main purpose of the treatment of all three types of constipation is that the patient should not have trouble in passing stool, the stool should be loose so that it can be easily excreted.

Treatment of atonic constipation

  1. Water should be consumed more and more.
  2. Bread made of flour with bran should be eaten.
  3. The patient must exercise regularly.
  4. The patient must take a walk in the open and breathe fresh air in the morning.
  5. Consumption of fibrous foods, such as oatmeal, whole grains, lentils with peel, green leafy vegetables, fruits should be done.
  6. Regular defecation should be done.
  7. Beverages, such as vegetable soup, fruit juice, buttermilk, lassi etc. should be consumed.
  8. Isabgol husk should be taken with water.
  9. After waking up in the morning, 1-2 glasses of water should be drunk.

Treatment of obstructive constipation

  1. The patient should stay away from mental anxiety, agitation, stress etc.
  2. The use of enema should be considered strictly prohibited.
  3. Chilli-Spices should be used.
  4. Do not eat more fried and stale food.

Treatment of spastic constipation: Its main purpose is to improve the condition which is causing irritation in the large intestine, for this the following remedies should be done:

  1. One tablespoon of lactose fruit juice should be given two to three times a day.
  2. Chilly and spicy food should not be eaten.
  3. Intoxicants, such as alcohol, etc. should be completely prohibited.
  4. Adequate amount of solid food should be taken. This allows food to pass through the intestines easily.
  5. To overcome the deficiency of vitamin B, fruit juices, rice water, lentil soup etc. should be consumed in sufficient quantity.
  6. Regular exercise should be done.
  7. Adequate amount of water should be consumed.
  8. Taking Isabgol etc increases the inhibited activity of the intestines. These medicines loosen the stool by absorbing the intestinal pressure.

Requirement of food elements in the condition of constipation

  1. Carbohydrates—There should be a sufficient amount of fibrous substances in the food, therefore whole grains, pulses with peel, flour bread with bran, salad, fruits etc. should be consumed.
  2. Energy–The amount of calories should be determined according to the patient’s age, gender, activity etc.
  3. Protein—There should be protein in the diet up to 60-80 grams every day.
  4. Vitamins- The amount of vitamin B and C should be increased in the diet.
  5. Fats—There should be a sufficient amount of fat, because fat helps in increasing intestinal motility in the digestive system. It helps in the excretion of stool.
  6. Mineral salts—The condition of constipation also arises due to deficiency of potassium. Therefore, fruits and vegetables should be used to supply potassium in the diet.
  7. Water and Drinking Items—Water should be consumed in more quantity. At least 8-10 glasses of water should be drunk in a day. Squeezing lemon in lukewarm water and drinking it after getting up in the morning is beneficial in constipation. Tea and coffee should be taken in minimum quantities.

Complications of chronic constipation include:

  • Swollen veins in your anus (Hemorrhoids): Straining to have a bowel movement may cause swelling in the veins in and around your anus.
  • Torn skin in your anus (Anal fissure): A large or hard stool can cause tiny tears in the anus.
  • Stool that can’t be expelled (Fecal impaction): Chronic constipation may cause an accumulation of hardened stool that gets stuck in your intestines.
  • Intestine that protrudes from the anus (Rectal prolapse): Straining to have a bowel movement can cause a small amount of the rectum to stretch and protrude form the anus.

Which Foods have fibre?

You should eat foods that are high in fibre for overall health. You can find fibre in most plant-based foods. These include:

  • Vegetables and fruits including dried fruits.
  • Whole grain and whole wheat products, such as breads, cereals, pasta, brown rice, oats, oat bran, barley and quinoa.
  • Dried beans, split peas and lentils.
  • Nuts and seeds.

Cooking, blending, or pureeing food does not decrease the amount of fibre.

Do not skip meals.

Avoid processed or fast food, such as white breads, pastries, doughnuts, sausage, fast-foods burgers, potato chips, and french fries.

Do’s and Don’ts


  1. Drink enough amount of water in a day at least 8-10 glasses (2 litres)
  2. Do take fibre rich foods like whole-grain cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables.
  3. Do exercise regularly.
  4. Do take probiotics regularly as they promote healthy bacteria in your gut.


  1. Avoid refined foods and their products like white rice, maida, white bread.
  2. Avoid caffeine and alcohol as they make you dehydrated.
  3. Avoid frozen and processed foods.
  4. Avoid red meat, oily and fat foods.
  5. Don’t overload yourself of milk.
  6. Never overuse laxatives.

Food Items You Can Easily Consume

  1. Cereal: brown rice, whole wheat, oats, jowar, bajra, ragi
  2. Pulses: red gram, green gram, black gram, bengal gram
  3. Vegetables: all gourds-bitter gourd, snake gourd, ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ivy gourd, ladies finger, round gaurd, green leafy vegetables : spinach, kale, fenugreek, drumstick leaves, indian spinach, pumpkin leaves.
  4. Fruits: small banana, citrus fruits-orange, mousambi, grapefruit, lemon; berries-strawberry, blueberry, blackberry; cranberry, cherries, papaya, guava.
  5. Milk and milk products: low fat milk, low fat curd.
  6. Meat, fish & egg: skin out chicken, egg white, fishes like salmon, sardines, trout, mackerel, tuna.
  7. Oil: 2 tsp (10 ml)
  8. Sugar: 2 tsp (10 gm)

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