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BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material

Blood Pressure-This is the pressure on the walls of the arteries known as blood pressure. Pressure is essential for blood to flow. If the blood pressure is not correct, then the blood flow in the arteries will decrease. As a result, the process of blood circulation will stop and the person will die. Blood pressure increases with the contraction of the heart and decreases with the expansion of the heart, so the blood pressure in the arteries does not remain the same.

When the left ventricle of the heart is constricted, blood flows from the ventricle to the arteries, at that time, the blood pressure is highest, and this blood pressure is called systolic blood pressure, that is, at that time it falls on the walls of the arteries. High blood pressure is an indicator of excessive stress. But when the ventricles dilate and receive blood from the auricle of the heart, the blood remains lowest at that time, which is called diastolic blood pressure. During this time the blood pressure during the heartbeat is minimal.

The third type of arc is called pulse pressure. It is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. If this difference increases too much and the increased difference remains, then it is called high blood pressure.

The systolic blood pressure of a normal healthy person is 110-145 mm Hg in its natural state and the diastolic blood pressure is 70-90 mm Hg. Therefore, the pulse pressure is 40-45 mm Hg.

The blood pressure of a healthy person is 120/80 mm Hg. The top number is called the systolic blood pressure and the bottom number is the diastolic blood pressure. If the blood pressure is higher than this, it indicates high blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer.

The following table presents the normal blood pressure in people of different ages.

BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material
Normal Blood Pressure at Different Stages

But in case of hypertension, the systolic pressure is more than 150 mm Hg and diastolic pressure is more than 90 mm Hg. There are three types of high blood pressure on the basis of dissipation pressure-Mild, moderate and high blood pressure. When the blood diastolic pressure exceeds 105 mm Hg, it should be considered as the beginning of the risk of hypertension. If it exceeds 115 mm Hg, then the person’s condition becomes serious.

Types of High Blood Pressure                            Diastolic Blood Pressure

  1. Mild Hypertension                                       90-105 mm Hg
  2. Moderate Hypertension                              105-120 mm Hg
  3. Severe Hypertension                                   More than 170 mm Hg

In the case of anemia, pregnancy and atherosclerosis, only the systolic pressure increases and it is not too dangerous. Due to this there is no adverse effect on kidney, eye and heart. But when the diastolic blood pressure increases, then the heart, kidney, eyes, liver etc. get affected. Disorders arise in the heart, kidney and liver of the patient. The patient becomes unconscious. The patient can even die due to high blood pressure. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material)


High blood pressure has many risk factors, including:

  • Age. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Until about age 64, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after age 65.
  • Race. High blood pressure is particularly common among people of African heritage, often developing at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure, also are more common in people of African heritage.
  • Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in families.
  • Being overweight or obese. The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the amount of blood flow through your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your artery walls.
  • Not being physically active. People who are inactive tend to have higher heart rates. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction and the stronger the force on your arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material)
  • Using tobacco. Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. This can cause your arteries to narrow and increase your risk of heart disease. Second-hand smoke also can increase your heart disease risk.
  • Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. Too much sodium in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure.
  • Too little potassium in your diet. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. A proper balance of potassium is critical for good heart health. If you don’t get enough potassium in your diet, or you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health conditions, sodium can build up in your blood.
  • Drinking too much alcohol. Over time, heavy drinking can damage your heart. Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men may affect your blood pressure.

If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. One drink equals 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.

  • Stress. High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. Stress-related habits such as eating more, using tobacco or drinking alcohol can lead to further increases in blood pressure.
  • Certain chronic conditions. Certain chronic conditions also may increase your risk of high blood pressure, including kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Sometimes pregnancy contributes to high blood pressure as well.

Nutritional requirements in Hypertension

Sodium intake

  • Higher sodium intake has been associated with higher risk of incident stroke, fatal stroke and fatal coronary heart disease.
  • Reduction in dietary sodium intake will reduce the blood pressure, as well as the prevalence of hypertension.
  • A decrease in salt consumption of 3 grams per day would result in a reduction in blood pressure which in turn would lead to a reduction of 22% and 16% in stroke and ischaemic heart disease deaths, respectively.
  • Even in hot, humid climates, there are only minimal loses of sodium through faeces and sweat. Acclimation to heat occurs rapidly; thus, within a few days of exposure to hot and humid conditions, individuals lose only small amounts of sodium through sweat.
  • WHO recommends a reduction in sodium intake to less than 2 grams per day of sodium (5 grams per day of salt) in order to reduce blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and coronary heart disease in adults (individuals 16 years of age and older). Intake levels should be adjusted downward based on the energy requirements of children relative to those of adults. Each country should determine the energy requirements of various age groups, especially within the paediatric population, relative to the recommended maximum intake value of 2 grams per day for adults.

Effective treatment will reduce overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Non-Drug therapy consists of

(1) Relief of stress,

(2) Dietary management (restricted intake of salt, calories, cholesterol, and saturated fats; sufficient intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C),

(3) Regular aerobic exercise,

(4) Weight reduction,

(5) Smoking cessation and

(6) Reduced intake of alcohol and caffeine.


A person suffering from hypertension should be treated as follows:

  1. Rest-The patient should be given adequate physical and mental rest. High blood pressure is caused by extra workload and mental stress.
  2. Medicines-Tranquilizers and sedatives are given to relieve mental tensions. By using these, the patient is asleep soon, mental worries are removed.

Medicines should be used under the supervision of a physician:

  1. Use of Beta-Blockers-Nowadays, to control blood pressure, doctors are adopting a process called Beta-Blockers. This is such a process that stops any such activity of the nervous system, due to which the heart does its work smoothly. In case of exacerbation of the disease, along with Beta-Blockers, vasodilator drugs are also used. Due to their use, blood arteries dilate and blood flow starts properly. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material)
  2. Diet- The disease can be controlled by making small changes in the diet. The reduction in weight also reduces the number of cells that need to pump blood. Due to this , the blood pressure automatically decreases. Do not consume too much tea, as there beverages contain caffeine and it increases blood pressure. Cigarettes, tobacco, bidi etc should not be smoked, as they contain nicotine which increases blood pressure.
  3. Freedom from mental stress- To get control over high blood pressure, the patient should avoid mental stress, worry, fear etc.
BCom 1st Year Diet in Hypertension Notes Study Material
Dietary Organization of Hypertensive Patient


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