BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material
Obesity is a disease in which an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. It increases your susceptibility to other health issues such as various cancers, hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. It is a chronic health condition and can be diagnosed using a person’s body mass index (BMI).
Obesity is a disorder which is caused due to overeating, frequent eating, less or lack of physical work or exercises and other disorders. In obesity, a person becomes very fat (obese) and faces problems in doing physical work. If a person’s bodyweight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered obese. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water.
Obesity often results from taking in more calories than are burned by exercise and normal daily activities.
In this condition, excess fat gets stored, because there is an imbalance in the supply and expenditure of calories in the body. The factors related to its development are as follows:
- Age-Obesity is most prevalent in middle-age people, but it can happen at any stage of life. If obesity occurs in childhood and adolescence, then it is more likely to occur in adulthood.
- Inheritance—In many families, the tendency of obesity is found in the lineage. The pattern of eating and drinking and physical activities is more influenced by social and cultural factors and is transmitted from one generation to another.
- Endocrine factors–Endocrine effects on body fat can be observed on both normal physiological and pathological conditions. A young adult female has twice the amount of fat than a young male. Its quantity increases during pregnancy. The increase in obesity in women can begin during adolescence, pregnancy or at the end of menstruation.
- Calorie supply-If a person becomes used to taking more amounts of calories, then more fat gets stored in the body.
- Energy (calorie) expenditure-Physical inactivity plays an important role in the development of obesity.
- Drugs-steroids—Taking drugs and using insulin leads to obesity, because its use increases appetite.
- Symptoms of Obesity-One of the most obvious signs and symptoms of obesity is of course excess weight and large waist circumference. There are also a number of other signs and symptoms of obesity in children and adults, which can be used in conjunction with an individual’s BMI to identify obesity.
- Shortness of breath
- Joint pain and backaches
- Unable to cope with physical activity
- Increased perspiration
- Feeling lethargic every day
These obesity symptoms in children and adults stem from the effect of excess weight on the body. If the condition is left ignored, it will lead to several other conditions like osteoarthritis, gout, gallbladder disease, depression, dementia, kidney disease and asthma. Other serious health issues which stem from obesity include cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Being obese is also linked to premature death. Hence, the treatment of morbid obesity and the treatment of childhood obesity is crucial.
- Diseases-Certain diseases contribute to obesity, such as Cushing’s Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, Prader-Willi syndrome, or hypothyroidism.
- Age—The likelihood of an increase in mortality increases with an increase in weight at all age levels. Thus a 30% increase in weight increases the mortality rate by 30% and a 35 to 40% increase in weight increases the mortality rate by 50%.
- Psychological reasons-One of the most common reasons for putting on weight is ‘emotional eating’ out of anger, stress, sadness, or plain boredom. Many people who have weight issues often complain of their struggle with binge-eating. For these individuals, consuming food can trigger happy emotions and therefore, eating becomes a coping mechanism. This is another way in which food and obesity are interlinked. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material)
- Social problems-In Western countries, obesity is closely linked to family income as most healthy foods tend to be very expensive, while junk food is much cheaper. In India, it’s the exact opposite scenario. With globalization making fast food more accessible, middle to upper income groups are more prone to obesity than rural and lower-income groups. The other social issue one can face in India is the lack of safe walking places or access to gyms and workout areas – all this can enhance the risk of obesity in India.
- Giving up smoking-Giving up smoking can sometimes result in excessive weight gain. This frequently happens when people turn to food to combat smoking withdrawal symptoms. Quitting smoking is an extremely positive life decision, but make sure you don’t replace it with other unhealthy habits.
- Disturbed sleep-Lack of sleep is amongst the causes of obesity in adults in India. Sleep can affect the weight of an individual in a number of ways. Lack of a regular sleep cycle can disturb the balance of hormones produced and lead to an increase in appetite. There is also research on the link between sleep and obesity which shows that accumulation of fat around the neck can lead to sleep apnea. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material)
Treatment-Whatever may be the ultimate cause of obesity of a person, but its real reason is the imbalance of calories. It means changes should be made in the lifestyle of the person.
Obesity is caused due to excessive nutrition which itself is not the direct disease, but it is the main cause of many serious and dangerous diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, artery disease etc. Obesity causes the body to become gross, due to which one cannot walk. There is more trouble in walking fast, running, climbing stairs etc and the person starts panting.
Therefore obesity is the root of many diseases.
Effects of obesity
As we saw earlier, obesity can lead to a number of other health concerns, ranging from mild to severe. The extra weight can affect almost all parts of the body, including vital organs.
- Stroke and heart disease-Obesity puts a person at a higher risk for high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke in Indians.
- Various kinds of cancers- Obesity places women at a higher risk for breast cancer and cancers of the ovary, cervix and uterus. Excess weight also increases the susceptibility of contracting cancer of the colon, liver, oesophagus, rectum, pancreas, prostate, gallbladder and kidney amongst both men and women in India. It’s essential to get regular breast cancer screenings to catch any signs early on.
- Type 2 diabetes-Obesity can impact how insulin is released by our body to keep the blood sugar levels under control. The risk of insulin resistance can result in type 2 diabetes. Patients who have type-2 diabetes have to follow a diet chart to normalise insulin levels. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material)
- Osteoarthritis-Carrying excess weight places undue stress on weight -bearing joints, such as the knees, resulting in inflammation in these regions. This can lead to osteoarthritis. It is among the most common effects of obesity on the body.
- Digestive issues-Heartburn, liver issues and gallbladder disease are the side effects of obesity on health,
- Sleep apnea-Overweight people are more likely to have a serious disorder called ‘sleep apnea’, where breathing stops during sleep. This is because the excess fat around the neck and lungs can put pressure on the airways and lowers lung capacity, which causes issues with breathing. This is one of the dangerous effects of obesity on the body.
- Sexual and gynaecological issues-Wondering how obesity affects fertility? Being extremely overweight can result in an irregular menstruation cycle due to an imbalance in hormones. Overweight men can experience erectile dysfunction. This is one of the ways how obesity affects fertility. (BCom 1st Year Diet in Obesity Notes Study Material)
- Reduced quality of life-Obese people find it difficult to do tasks that they could earlier enjoy. This causes them to avoid social events and thus, impacts their quality of life.
- Psychological concerns-Obesity can result in depression that emanates from social isolation and brings feeling of guilt and shame.
The effects of obesity on health are quite serious.
The points mentioned above should be monitored and professional advice should be sought.
Pro Tips from Dieticians
Creating an obesity food chart and diet plan on your own can be a daunting process. A dietician can be one of your most powerful allies when it comes to weight loss. A dietician will conduct a full analysis of your medical records, understand your calorie requirements and construct a diet plan specifically for you.
The tips provided by dieticians will vary depending upon your body makeup and other factors. In general, however, these are some of the tips dieticians often recommend for weight loss:
- Intermittent fasting- This involves an eating pattern with short-term fasting, where meals have to be eaten within a shorter time window during the day.
- Proper fibre intake-Helps in the digestion process and creates a feeling of fullness. Some low fat Indian food recipes include lentil chaats, oats idli, steamed dhokla, khichdi, upma and more. These food items are not only rich in fibre and protein but are also low-fat foods to lose weight. Just like fruits, vegetables too have a lot of fibre along with essential minerals and vitamins. Consuming a good amount of vegetables can keep you healthy without adding to your calorie count. Some of the vegetables that can help you lose weight are spinach, mushrooms, broccoli, cauliflower, green chillies, carrots and cucumbers. Eating fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, pulses, low fat and low carb food can help you lose weight.
- Maintaining good gut bacteria–Healthy gut microbiome can improve digestion and aid weight loss. Probiotic and prebiotic foods can aid the growth of healthy gut bacteria.
- Stress management-Helps to suppress hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol that can promote emotional eating.