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BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material

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BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Dietary Nutrition Notes Study Material

Keeping healthy is very important. For this it is necessary that one should take good diet and keep his body functions running smoothly. Therefore, the main nutrients of the diet include protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral salt and water. Only with a certain proportion of these, the cycle of dietary nutrition runs smoothly. Keeping this in mind, governments make their various programs and policies. We are describing these programs here, which are made accessible to every section of the society through different mediums.

National Nutrition Mission

The Government of India is running a nutrition campaign in a phased manner by adopting a life cycle approach to eradicate malnutrition, maintain the health and nutritional level of children from 0 to 6 years and pregnant and lactating mothers. National Nutrition Mission has been formed for the improvement in a time-bound manner. Under the National Nutrition Mission, targets have been set for the next 3 years to eliminate malnutrition in a phased manner.

Objectives and Targets:

  1. To prevent stunting in children of 0 to 6 years and to reduce it at the rate of 2% per annum, to 6 percent.
  2. Prevention of under-nutrition of children of 0 to 6 years and to reduce it by 6% in total, 2% per year. To reduce the prevalence of anemia in children aged. 3.6 to 59 months by 9% per annum, by 3% per year.
  3. To reduce the prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating mothers in the age group of 15 to 49 years at the rate of 3% per year.
  4. To reduce the number of children born with low birth weight by 6%, 2% per annum.

UNICEF representative Yasmin Ali Haque praised the government’s nutrition campaign. Women suffering from malnutrition and anemia are getting benefited from this campaign. This is a big step towards ending malnutrition.

Important points of National Poshan Abhiyaan-Mizoram has the best performance in terms of utilization of funds allocated under Poshan Abhiyaan, which used about 66 percent of the total funds allocated for it. It is to be known that under the campaign, Mizoram was given Rs.1,979.03 lakh in three years, out of which it used a total of Rs.1,310.52 lakh. At the same time, Punjab was the worst performer in this case, which used only 0.45 percent of the total allocated funds.

A total of Rs.6909.84 lakh has been released to Punjab for a period of three years, out of which it has only used 30.88 lakh rupees. It is known that Odisha and West Bengal have not yet implemented this scheme in their respective states. Although the Odisha government had recently approved the implementation of the campaign within the state, the implementation of the scheme is still pending in West Bengal. Experts believe that the data presented by the Ministry on the utilization of funds presents a grim picture of the POSHAN Abhiyaan.

In December 2017, the Ministry of Women and Child Development started the POSHAN Abhiyaan to address the problem of malnutrition across the country. The objective of the campaign is to reduce malnutrition and anemia in young children, adolescent girls and women across the country in a phased manner through a result-oriented approach. To achieve this objective, all the districts of the state and union territories have been included under the campaign.

POSHAN Abhiyaan or National Nutrition Mission has been designed by NITI Aayog under the ‘National Nutrition Strategy’. The objective of this strategy is to build a “malnutrition free India” by the year 2022. The goal of this campaign is to benefit 10 crore people across the country with a budget of about Rs 9046.17 crore. 50% of the total cost of the campaign is being provided through budgetary support, while the remaining 50% is being provided by the World Bank and other multilateral development banks.

The share being given through budgetary support is divided into three parts: (1) 90:10 for Northeast and Himalayan states, in which 90 percent will be given by the Center (2) 10 percent by the states (3) In the case of other states, 60:40 will be given by the center and 40 percent by the states.

Impact of the campaign-Although the results of the POSHAN Abhiyaan can be known only after the completion of the approved duration of the programme, the data from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS) can be taken into account in this context.

According to the data of the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and UNICEF, 34.7% of children under the age of 5 are facing the problem of stunting. 33.4% of the children of the class are suffering from the problem of underweight. The data on utilization of funds allocated under the Poshan Abhiyaan clearly shows the irresponsibility of the State Governments towards this campaign.


The National Nutrition Policy was adopted by the government in the year 1993. Under this, a multi-sector plan was advocated to eradicate malnutrition and achieve the goal of optimum nutrition for all. The scheme lays emphasis on monitoring the level of nutrition across the country and sensitizing the government machinery about the need for good nutrition and the need to prevent malnutrition.


Mid-day meal program was started in the year 1995 as a centrally sponsored scheme. After this, in the year 2004, making a major change in the program, the system of providing cooked food based on the menu was started. Under this scheme, there is a provision to provide minimum 300 calories of energy and 8-12 grams of protein per day for the lower primary level and minimum 700 grams of calories of energy and 20 grams of protein for the upper primary level for a minimum of 200 days. This program comes under the Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development.


The Ministry of Women and Child Development had established the Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh (BPKK) in the year 2019. It aims to develop a multi-sectoral framework to address malnutrition under which emphasis will be given on production of diverse crops in 128 agro-climatic zones for better nutritional products.

Need for National Nutrition Policy-National Nutrition Strategy was launched with the objective of rectifying the present pathetic nutritional status of the country, especially among the weaker sections like women and children, the present nutritional status was assessed on the basis of facts given by NFHS-3 & 4. They are as follows:

  • The percentage of malnourished children under the age of 5 in 2015-16 was 38.4%.
  • The number of children with stunted growth increased from 19.8% to 21% between 2005-06 and 2015-16, with the highest numbers recorded in Punjab, Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Sikkim.
  • The number of underweight children in rural areas was 38%, while in urban areas it is 29%.
  • According to the WHO, babies weighing less than 2.5 kg are 20% more likely to die than babies who are overweight. The national average weight of about 19% of children is less than 2.5 kg.
  • According to an estimate, about 58% of children in India are anemic, due to nutritional deficiencies of vitamins, iron and other essential minerals.

Vision: Vision of the National Nutrition Strategy is to establish a Malnutrition Free India by 2022

Focus: To reduce and prevent malnutrition from the life cycle as early as possible, especially in the first three years.

Goal: To contribute to national development by reducing maternal, infant and child mortality rates for the most inclusive growth.

  • Reducing the percentage of underweight children below 5 years of age to 20.7% by 2022 from the current 35.7%.
  • Reduction in the presence of anemia in children (6-59 months) from 58.4% at present to 19.5% by 2022.
  • To reduce anemia in women and girls (15-49 years) from 53.1% to 17.7% by 2022. In the long term, the main objective of this strategy is to reduce the incidence of all forms of malnutrition by 2030.

Benefits: Through monitoring of this strategy, other achievements, such as primary education, better adult productivity, women’s empowerment and gender equality, can make a big contribution to the national development agenda, this achievement can lead to global sustainability. It will also help in the achievement of development goals. Apart from this, the following positive effects will also be seen from its implementation.

  • 1/5 of maternal mortality can be reduced by treating maternal inhibitors and the incidence of anemia.
  • By ensuring universal practice of early initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, 1/5th of neonatal mortality can be prevented.
  • Reduce child mortality (below five years) by ensuring universally exclusive breastfeeding (for breast-feeding for 2 years and above) for the first six months and appropriate complementary feeding practices after 6 months.
  • The universal practices of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months can reduce the mortality rate of children under five by 16%. Whereas through universal practice of proper complementary feeding, the mortality rate of children in other cases can be reduced by 5%.

Conclusion: Working or investing in the field of nutrition is a universal recognition for the fulfillment of human rights as well as important social development of the most vulnerable children, girls and women all over the world, in particular. It lays the cornerstone of human development by reducing the incidence of infections, susceptibility, disability and mortality, along with developing the art of enhancing lifelong learning and adult productivity.

NITI Aayog’s National Nutrition Strategy of Govt. is a worthwhile initiative in the direction of achieving development-related obligations,

Aahar Kranti Mission—The “Aahar Kranti Mission” aims to understand the need for a nutritionally balanced diet and access to all local fruits and vegetables.

Vigyan Bharati (VIBHA) and Global Indian Scientists and Technocrats Forum (GIST) have jointly started this mission with the goal of “Good Food – Good Thought”. The objective of the Diet Revolution Movement is to find a solution to the problem of hunger and many diseases in India and the whole world. Studies have found that India produces twice as many calories as it consumes, but still many people in the country are malnourished. The root of this strange issue is the lack of nutrition awareness among any section of our society. In the time of the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is an even greater need for a nutritionally balanced diet.

The United Nations has also declared 2021 as the “International Year of Fruits and Vegetables” for combating this Covid infection with a healthy body, more immunity and high stamina, which is completely in line with the Diet Revolution Mission. Vegetables are a large and integral part of our balanced diet. In addition, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, which emphasizes human well-being, states that “healthy living for all and for people of all ages,” and ensures well-being. This goal also makes the dietary revolution more meaningful, Diet and wellness are inseparable partners.

India has unique knowledge of Ayurveda. This is the time to put this rich knowledge of Ayurveda based nutrition into practice.

This movement will also work in this direction. This movement will inspire people to embrace their traditional Indian food, the healing power of local fruits and vegetables, and thus the miracle of a balanced diet, to solve the acute problem of hunger. It will focus people’s attention on local fruits and vegetables in the form of a nutritionally balanced diet – a “good and balanced diet”.

In this program teachers will be trained, who will work to spread this message to the students, through them to their families and finally to the society. A similar strategy was adopted for the eradication of polio and it was quite successful. Vigyan Bharti and Global Scientists and Technocrats Forum aims to make the diet revolution a model for the whole world. India has been a Vishwaguru or world leader since ages and has made many innovative efforts in the field of science, technology and innovation in the matter of diet and nutrition.

This new campaign is also a link in the same chain. This mission will work in different dimensions simultaneously. As an objective it will encourage better awareness, better nutrition and better agriculture. Its message will be disseminated under the curriculum in the form of “What nutrition and Why?” or will be given in sports or in the form of instruction and its content will be provided both online and offline and in all indigenous languages, so that it reaches as many people as possible.

Although this mission has been initiated by Vigyan Bharti and Global Scientists and Technocrats Forum, many other organizations have also joined hands with them and agreed to provide their expertise and resources. The Pravasi Bharatiya Academic and Scientific Sampark (PRABHASS) of CSIR working under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology is working in this direction with the Ministries and Agencies of many Central and State Governments. After this mission progresses, many other organizations will also join it.


SAARC Food Bank-In pursuance of the decision taken at the 14th SAARC summit held in New Delhi during April 3-4, 2007, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the heads of states of the countries have signed an agreement to establish a SAARC Food Bank. This food bank will complement the national efforts to provide food security to the population of the region. The Agreement on the establishment of the SAARC Food Bank has been approved by the President of India on 17th April, 2007. In accordance with this Agreement, there shall be wheat or rice or both given to the state as per the assessed share of the SAARC Food Bank.

Of the total 2,43,000 tonnes in this reserve, India’s initial estimated share was 1,53,200 tonnes. Out of the total estimated share of 4,86,000 tonnes, the present share has been kept at 3,06,400 tonnes. Some of the reserves are kept at various important places in designated godowns of the Food Corporation of India. Joint Secretary (IC), Department of Food and Public Distribution has been nominated as a member of the SAARC Food Bank Board as the representative of India.

The Board has considered and agreed to the proposal to designate the Central Grain Analysis Laboratory (CGAL) at New Delhi as the Regional Reference Laboratory for the SAARC Food Bank.

The 9th SAARC Food Bank Board (SFB) meeting was held on 21-22 September 2016 in Kathmandu, Nepal. India was represented in this meeting by the Joint Secretary (International Cooperation) of the Department as a member of the SAARC Food Bank Board. The meeting, among other things, reviewed the implementation of the decisions taken in the Eighth SAARC Food Bank Board (SFB) meeting (2-3 September 2015).

Matters relating to amendment in the agreement on setting up of SAARC Food Bank were discussed. Matters relating to coordination and cooperation with international organizations (FAO IFAD, WFP etc.) for enhancement of regional food security were also discussed.

National and International Programs and Policies Status of SAARC Food Bank Information System (SFBIS) was presented by SAARC Agriculture Centre The 10th SAARC Food Bank Board (SFB) meeting was held on 3-4 December 2018 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Eleventh SAARC Food Bank Board (SFR meeting was held on 22nd January, 2020 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)—The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is one of the largest specialized agencies of the United Nations system, established in 1945 to improve the nutritional status of the rural population by improving agricultural productivity and living conditions, with the mission to raise the standard of living. The World Food Security Committee (CFS) serves as a forum in the United Nations mechanism for the review and compliance of world food security policies, including production of food, physical and economic access to food.

India is a member of both FAO and CFS, ‘Committee on World Food Security’ CFS monitors the progress of implementation of the WFS Action Plan. The 45th session of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was held from 15 to 19 October 2017 at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy in which Mr. Kamal Dutta, Joint Secretary (Impex & IC) participated. In the said session the following issues were discussed inter alia:

  • Food Security and Nutrition Status in the World 2018
  • Status of Food and Agriculture 2018: Panel Deliberations
  • Critical and Emerging Issues on Food Security and Nutrition – Towards the Strategic Multi-Annual Program (MYPOW) 2020-2023
  • CFS Work Stream Update

(a) Confirmation of Terms of Reference for Food Systems and Nutrition

(b) CFS and 2030 Agenda: Contribution to a High Level Political Forum

  • World Thematic Program on the Right to Food Guidelines
  • High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition framework of the 2030 Agenda Report.
  • Exchange of Best Practices and Experiences

World Food Program-World Food Program is an initiative by the Government of Orissa to introduce various micronutrient elements to school meals through the Mid-Day Meal Scheme. It is reaching out to 2,00,000 lakh school children in the age group of 6-14 years every day.

In Kerala, the World Food Program is focusing on reducing micronutrient deficiency malnourishment in children under 8 years of age by ensuring fortified take-home rations provided through a government scheme. Training has been provided to Anganwadi workers regarding the means related to improved nutritional status of children, methods of feeding and cooking. The World Food Program has been working to implement end-to-end computerization of TPDS operations, also providing technical support to the Central Project Monitoring Unit of the Department of Distribution.

G20 Affairs-The meeting of Agriculture Ministers of G-20 countries in June, 2021 followed up on the initiatives outlined in the Ministerial Declaration adopted. For supervision, a steering committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of Secretary (Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Welfare) in the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.

The committee consists of representatives from various ministries. The Department of Food and Public Distribution has been made the nodal department for (i) Rapid Response Forum and (ii) Emergency Humanitarian Food Reserves. In addition, for the implementation of various mandates considered appropriate, this has been included as a member of Agricultural Marketing Information System (AMIS) under the nodal authority of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.

International Grains Council (IGC)—India is a member of International Grains Council (IGC) formerly known as International Wheat Council (till 1995) which is an inter-exporting and importing medium and provides cooperation in the matter of wheat and coarse cereals trading. It also provides services for the Food Aid Committee established under the IGC Secretariat Food Aid Convention in London since 1949. International Grain Agreements include the Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and the Food Assistance Convention (FAC). International Grain Agreement (IGA) 1995 and its Grain Trade Convention (GTC) 1995 which came into effect from 1st July, 1995.

The signatory countries of the International Grain Council have two types of members – importing members and exporting members. India was included in the category of Exporting Member in July 2003 and has been represented in the meetings/sessions of the Council held from time to time. In addition, the Department also participates in other meetings of the IGC, such as the Market Situations Committee meetings and the Executive Committee meetings. The Department of Food and Public Distribution pays the annual membership contribution to the said Council.

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