BCom 1st Year Fats or Lipids Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Fats or Lipids Notes Study Material
According to W.R. Bloor a fat substance is a food element which is:
- Insoluble in water and organic solutions.
- They are esters that can be formed from fatty acids or glycerols.
- Fat provides the highest amount of energy/calories that can be used by humans. Fats provide 9 calories per gram and 25-40 percent of the total energy requirement comes from aliphatic substances. Fats are found in two forms:
(1) Fats which are solid at normal temperature (20°C) like-Ghee, Vegetable Ghee etc.
(2) Oils which remain in liquid form at normal temperature—such as groundnut/sesame oil.
Lipids-Lipids are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. The name lipid is given to the following substances such as fatty acids, fatty oils, phospholipids, sterols, etc.
Chemical Position—The chemical name of fat is triglyceride. After digestion, the fat breaks down to give one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
Glycerol—It is a type of alcohol. It has 3 carbon molecules. Its alcohol is liberated and combines with three fatty acids. It is found in all the fatty foods that are eaten. This fat is present in simple lipids, its general formula is
Fatty Acids-Fatty acids also have a carbon chain. The carbon chain is up to (4-22). There is a difference between fatty acids. Due to the difference in the position of hydrogen molecules joining with its main carbon, there is a change in the nature, taste, aroma, composition etc. of fatty acids. There are two types of fatty acids:
- Saturated Fatty Acid-Saturated fatty acids have two hydrogen atoms attached to the starting carbon atom. Saturated fatty acids have one methyl group (-CH3) from the starting carbon atom and to the last carbon atom, a carboxyl group (-COOH) is attached.
Fatty acids are solid at normal temperature. The saturated acids that are found in food are:
(1) Butyric Acid- it is found in butter. It is because of this acid that the aroma of butter remains.
(2) Caprylic Acid- This fatty acid is found in butter and coconut oil. Its formula is
(3) Palmitic Acid—It is found mainly in vegetable oils. Its formula is
(4) Stearic Acid—This fatty acid is mainly found in animal kingdom and vegetable oils. Its chemical formula is the following
- Unsaturated fatty acid—In these fatty acids, there is disparity in the number of carbon and hydrogen molecules. The number of hydrogen molecules in them is less than that of carbon, so Hydrogen atoms are attached to carbon atoms by double bonds. Two or more double bonds are found in some fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly of two types.
(1) Monounsaturated fatty acids—In such fatty acids, two hydrogen molecules are found less in comparison to carbon. Therefore, hydrogen atoms are linked to carbon atoms by double bonds. Its example are:
(i) Oleic acid-its chemical formula is C18H34O2. It is found in oils and fats.
(ii) Palmitoleic Acid—It is mainly found in butter and bean oils. Its chemical formula is C16H30O2.
(2) Polyunsaturated fatty acids—Such fatty acids lack two or more hydrogen molecules as compared to carbon molecules.
(i) Linoleic acid-Its formula is C18H32O2. It is found in oils.
(ii) alpha-Eleostearic acid-Its formula is C16H30O2. Fat is high in saturated fatty acids hence they are in a solid state at a normal temperature 20 °C. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil is high. Therefore, oils remain in liquid form at normal temperature.
Essential Fatty Acids- Essential fatty acids are required for the growth and development of the body. Essential fatty acids are not manufactured in the body. Therefore, it is necessary to take them through food items. Linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids come under essential fatty acids.
Linoleic acid is very important from the nutritional point of view. It is found in large quantities in oils. Linoleic acid makes blood vessels semipermeable and due to this, the sweat coming out of the body in the summer season is controlled. Linoleic acid proves helpful in the treatment of many skin related diseases. The excess amount of linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid. Essential fatty acids have an important role in the synthesis of lipids in the body.
Hydrogenation- Hydrogenation is the process by which unsaturated acids are converted into saturated acids. By this process, vegetable oils can be converted into vegetable ghee. On heating the oils, the unsaturated acids combine with hydrogen to turn into saturated acids, and the oil takes a solid form at low temperature and turns into ghee.
Oleic fatty acid → Stearic acid
Linoleic acid → Oleic acid → stearic acid
There are three types of lipids-(1) simple lipids, (2) derived lipids, (3) compound lipids.
- Simple Lipids—They are also called simple or neutral lipids. Simple lipids are the esters of acids formed with different alcohols. These are also of two types:
(i) Fats or Oils-Esters made with glycerol of fatty acids fall in this class. The solid state at normal temperature (20 °C) is called fat and the liquid state is called oil.
(ii) Wax-Wax esters of fatty acids with monohydric and dihydric alcohols are called waxes. The molecular weight of wax is very high.
- Compound Lipids-When other substances are present along with fat, it is called compound lipids such as phospholipids and glycolipids.
(i) Phospholipids-Phospholipids are formed by the combination of fatty acids, alcohol, phosphoric acid and nitrogenous bases; e.g. Lecithins, Cephalins etc.
(ii) Glycolipids–These are sugary lipids. In these, galactose sugar is found with fatty acids. For example, keresin and sericin.
- Derived Lipids-Substances formed after hydrolysis of simple and compound lipids come in this group; for example, fatty acids, nitrogenous bases (Glyceroids) etc.
- Sterols—The organic compound related to hydrophenanthrene on the compound cyclic structure cyclopentanone belongs to this group. Cholesterol and ergosterol etc. are the main members of this group and they have an important place in nutrition. There are two types of sterols:
(i) Cholesterol—it is the main sterol of fat in living beings. Cholesterol is not found in plant fats. Sterols are important physiological products; For example, affects bile acids, some sex hormones and vitamin D.
(ii) Ergosterol—It is obtained from plants. It helps a lot in the metabolism of Vitamin ‘D’.
Place of fat in nutrition-Fat represents the largest stored site of energy gain from food. Collection of fat is very necessary and beneficial in any emergency. It contains more than twice the caloric value of proteins and carbohydrates. Properties of Lipids
(1) Fats are insoluble in water.
(2) Fats are soluble in soluble substances (ether, chloroform, benzene, alcohol, acetone and petroleum).
(3) If the fat or oil is heated for a long time, it splits into its minimum units-glycerol and fatty acids. During this splitting process, acrolein substance with strong odor is formed. This is what causes strong smoke when heated. Acrolein is injurious to health.
(4) It is harmful to keep the fat loose, because its taste becomes different which is harmful to the body.
(5) Animals that are in the sea, their fat is more hard.
(6) Oleic acid is high in fish fat.
(7) Coconut oil is found in solid form in vegetable fats, while the saturated acids found in it are of short chain.
- Emulsification-If fat is mixed with water and dispersed, the fat particles split into very fine particles and float in water and the fat broken into these fine particles is called emulsified fat. It is found in milk, curd and eggs, Digestion and absorption of emulsified fat is faster than other fats.
- Saponification-When fat mixes with an alkaline substance, soap is formed. Digestion takes place in the alkaline medium in the small intestine, so here sometimes free fatty acids in the presence of calcium salts combine with alkali to form soap which is excreted along with feces. The process of saponification takes place until the fat is not properly adsorbed. (Based on this action, soap is made.)
- Fat has the ability to dissolve vitamins ‘A’, ‘D’, ‘E’ and ‘K’. These vitamins are also absorbed in the presence of fat.
FUNCTIONS OF FATS
Fat performs the following functions in the body:
- Providing energy–A lot of energy is released from fat. Usually 9 calories of energy is released from one gram of fat.
- Storage of energy-The amount of excess fat in the body is present in the form of adipose tissue below the skin in the form of a layer. At the time of need, this stored fat is used for energy production and when energy is not needed then this fat keeps on accumulating in the fatty fibres, due to which the person becomes fat.
- Regulating body temperature-A normal layer of fat remains under the skin which acts as a bad conductor of heat in the body. Being an insulator, the temperature of the body remains regulated by the environmental influence.
- Obtaining fat soluble vitamins-Fat is necessary for the absorption of vitamins A, D, E, K. If the amount of fat in the diet is low, these vitamins will not be able to accumulate, and various deficiency diseases will occur.
- Providing essential fatty acids—Some essential fatty acids are not synthesized by the body, it is necessary to supply them through food. The deficiency of essential fatty acids synthesis leads to various skin diseases. It is necessary to take them in good quantity to keep the body healthy.
- To protect the soft parts of the body-Some essential fatty acids protects soft organs like the kidney, the heart and nervous system from external shocks by forming a deep structure. The highly sensitive organs are also covered with a double layer of fat to protect the soft organs from external shocks.
- Prolonged satisfaction-Fat slows down the secretion of digestive juices. If the digestive juices are secreted late, then the process of digestion will take time. Therefore, food will remain in the digestive organs for a long time, due to which the person feels the satisfaction of food for a longer time and does not feel hungry.
- Saving protein-If energy is not supplied by carbohydrates, then protein also does the work of energy production leaving its main building work. In such a situation, if the amount of fat is present in the body, the fat prevents the protein from being used for energy production, thus saving the protein.
- To make food tasty-Fat imparts distinctive taste and smell to food elements. Food is prepared and served in the form of various dishes using fat.
- Lubricates the gastric and intestinal tract-Fat keeps the muscles of the stomach and intestinal tract lubricated (in the form of lubricant) which helps in contraction and release of muscles, conduction of nerve sensations and blood pressure control.
SOURCES OF FAT
Fats and oils can be obtained naturally from both animals and plants. Fats are also present in invisible form in some food items, such as cereals, pulses, flour, semolina, fruits, vegetables etc. Fats are also present in milk, ghee, butter, groundnut, curd, soybean, mustard seeds etc. The fat in the egg yolk is present in the form of phospholipids. The following table presents the amount of fat in different food items.
It is clear from the above table that ghee, oil and vegetable ghee are the best sources of fat. Vitamin ‘E’ is also obtained from the oil. Along with fat, vitamin ‘A’ is also present in ghee, butter and vegetable ghee. Along with fat and proteins, vitamins and minerals are also present in different quantities in milk and khoya.
EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY OF FAT
Due to which the normal growth and development of the body stops:
- Normal Growth Stunted-Deficiency of fats affect activity of amino acids in the body.
- Skin Becomes Dry Rough and Lustreless-Oily glands are present in the dermis layer of the skin. These glands secrete oil continuously, due to which the skin looks smooth and glowing. In the absence of fat, these glands do not secrete sufficient amount of sebum (oil), due to which the skin becomes dry, rough and shineless.
- Phrynoderma-Deficiency of fat causes phrynoderma disease in children and adults. In this disease, sharp pimples appear on the skin of the back, abdomen, thighs and hips.
- Decrease in the Capacity of Cells—The water balance in the body gets disturbed. There is an imbalance in the processes of some enzymes, due to which the speed of cholesterol digestion decreases. Due to this, the amount of cholesterol in the blood increases. Heart diseases occur due to the increase in the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
- Essential for Reproduction-It has been proved by scientific research that Vitamin ‘E’ is necessary for reproduction. This vitamin is also transported through fat. Due to the lack of fat in the diet, the transport and absorption of vitamin E is not fully done, due to which disturbances in the process of childbirth arise.
EFFECTS OF EXCESS OF FAT
The following side effects are seen due to excess of fat:
- Increase in Obesity-Consumption of more fatty food than necessary leads to the formation of adipose fibers in excess, due to which a layer of fat accumulates under the skin in other soft organs like lungs, heart, testes, liver etc and other places of the body. Due to the accumulation of fat layer, obesity increases. Obesity causes many other diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease etc.
- Diabetes-Excess intake of fats and carbs leads to the formation of excessive amount of glucose. Only a limited amount of glucose can be stored in the blood. The remaining glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. Glucose cannot be converted into glycogen due to the low production of insulin. Due to which glucose starts being expelled from the urinary tract along with urine. This is called diabetes.
- Heart Related Disease—The amount of cholesterol in the blood increases due to excess of fat. Due to its accumulation, the amount of cholesterol starts depositing on the inner walls of the arteries. Due to this, the walls of the arteries start thinning which is called atherosclerosis. Gradually, cholesterol accumulates on the walls of these arteries. This hardens the walls of the arteries and reduces the flow of blood. This increases the blood pressure, its direct effect falls on the heart and this increases the chances of heart attack.
- Effects kidney-Due to obesity, a thick layer of fatty fibers accumulates around the kidney and waste material like urea, uric acid, ammonia, toxins etc. are not completely removed and pigment and harmful substances remain in the blood. As a result, the process of filtering blood is not done properly and pigment and harmful substances remain dissolved in the blood itself. Impure blood is toxic to the body, due to which the person dies. Gradually the kidneys stop working
DAILY DEMAND OF FAT
The body should get a good amount of essential fatty acids through food for he smooth completion of all the functions of fat content in the body. For this purpose, 50% of the total aliphatic substances of food should be taken by vegetable oils.
Generally, the requirement of aliphatic substances of every person is fulfilled by getting a certain percentage of calories from fat substances as follows:
Adult (pregnancy) 10-20% calories from fat
Children 1-18 years old 15-20% calories from fat
Infant (one year old) 25-30% calories from fat
Active adults 30-40% calories from fat
DIGESTION OF FAT
Digestion of fat takes place in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine. The main digestion takes place in the ileum, the last part of the small intestine. Fat is not digested in the mouth. Due to the lipase digestion action of gastric juice in the stomach, the fat flows into glycerol and fatty acids. This digestion takes place on the emulsified lipids. From here the food goes to the upper part of the small intestine, the duodenum, where lipase of pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile from the gall bladder splits it into smaller tri-glyceride units.
From here the food enters the last part of the small intestine where the internal juices are split by lipase into glycerol and fatty acids.
The process of absorption of fats is more complex than that of proteins and carbohydrates. Their absorption takes place in the following steps:
(1) The fatty particles and fatty acids that remain after the digestion of fats combine with bile salts and water to form a soluble substance which are called micelles.
(2) Micelles reach the cells of the inner lining of the intestine (Mucous membrane). Here monoglycerides (glycerol) and fatty acids are assimilated by the cells of the inner lining of the intestine. The bile salts remain outside and convert the fat into micelles.
(3) Glyceroyl fatty acid (monoglycerides) combine in the cells of the mucosal membrane to form triglycerides.
(4) Triglycerides are converted into lipoproteins and chylomicrons which are absorbed by the lymphatic tubes.
(5) The glycerol part in the fat is carried to the liver by the portal vein and the fatty acid reaches the liver through the dorsal vein along with the protein albumin of the blood.
Absorbed fats are known as Chylomicrons. Metabolism of this fat takes place in the following steps:
(1) Some amount of chylomicrons are taken up by adipose tissue where it is converted into triglycerides and it is stored in adipose tissue and when the body needs energy it is again converted into glycerol and they give energy to the body by converting it into fatty acids. They give energy due to chemical changes resulting in the formation of energy, CO2, and water.
(2) Some part of chylomicrons is converted into glucose, glycogen and nonessential amino acids by some complex chemical reactions.
(3) Some parts become helpful in cell formation.