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BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

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BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

The five-food group system can be used both for planning and assessing balanced diets. It is a simple daily food guide that can be used for nutrition education as well. Guidelines could be adopted depending on the food groups.

  • Include at least one or a minimum number of servings from each food group in each meal.
  • Make choices within each group as foods within each group are similar but not identical in nutritive value.
  • If the meal is vegetarian, use suitable combinations to improve the overall protein quality of the diet. For example, serving cereal-pulse combinations or including small quantities of milk or curds in the meal.
  • Include uncooked vegetables and fruits in the meals.
  • Include at least one serving of milk to ensure a supply of calcium and other nutrients as milk contains all nutrients except iron, vitamin C and fibre. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)
  • Cereals should not supply more than 75 percent of total Kcal/Calories.

IMPORTANCE OF FOOD GROUPS

Foods may be broadly classified into 11 groups based on their nutritive value: (1) Cereals and millets, (2) Pulses (legumies), (3) Nuts and oilseeds, (4) Vegetables, (5) Fruits, (6) Milk and milk products, (7) Eggs, (8) Meat, fish and other animal foods, (9) Fats and oils, (10) Sugar and other carbohydrate foods and (11) Spices, and condiments. The nutritional importance of the different food groups in planning balanced diets is briefly discussed below.

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD GROUPS

Cereals and millets

Cereals and millets constitute by far the most important group of foodstuffs as they form the staple food of a large majority of the population throughout the world. They form about 70 to 80 percent of the diet of the low-income groups in India and other developing countries. They contain about 6-12 percent proteins and are good sources of some B vitamins e.g. thiamine, niacin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B, and minerals e.g. phosphorus and iron.

Hence, they provide about 70 to 80 percent of the calories, proteins, and other nutrients mentioned above in the diets of the low-income groups. All cereals except ragi are poor to moderate sources of calcium. Ragi is one of the richest sources of calcium, containing about 0.4 percent calcium. Cereals are deficient in vitamins A, D, B12, and C. Yellow maize, however, contains fair amounts of carotene (Provitamin A). Puffed cereals are consumed widely as a snack by low-income groups in India.

Pulses

Dried pulses are rich in proteins containing about 19-24 percent. They are good sources of many B vitamins and minerals but are deficient in vitamins A, D, B12, and C. They effectively supplement cereals. Puffed pulses, e.g. puffed Bengal gram and tapioca are the main contributory cause for the wide prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition in some countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, especially among children. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Other vegetables-This group includes a large number of vegetables. Some of them are good sources of vitamin C. Yellow pumpkin is a fair source of carotene. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Fruits

Fruits, in general, are good sources of vitamin C. Some of them e.g. mango and papaya, are fair sources of carotene, and Indian gooseberry (Amla) and guava are very rich sources of vitamin C. They are also the cheapest fruits. Other fruits which are good sources of vitamin C are tomatoes, citrus fruits, papaya, cashew fruit, and pineapple. Apple, bananas, and grapes are poor sources of vitamin C.

Milk and milk products

Milk has always been used as the staple food for infants and as a supplement to the diets of children and adults. Milk is almost a complete food except for deficiencies of iron and vitamins C and D. Milk proteins are of high biological value. One litre of cow’s milk provides about 35 g protein, 35 g fat, 1 g calcium, 1.5 mg riboflavin, 1500 I.U. of vitamin A, and substantial amounts of other B vitamins and minerals. Buffalo milk is used extensively in India, Pakistan, and Egypt. Its fat content is about twice that of cow’s milk.

Full-fat milk powder: Full-fat milk powder is about 8 times as rich as cow’s milk containing about 26 percent proteins and 26 percent fat. It can be reconstituted to 7 times its weight with warm water and used in place of fresh milk.

Skimmed milk powder: Skim milk powder is prepared from fat-free milk. It is completely devoid of fat and vitamin A. It is about 10 times as rich as fresh skim milk and contains about 35 percent proteins. It can be used as a supplement to the diets of children. It is not suitable for feeding infants. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Eggs

Hen’s egg contains about 13 percent proteins of very high biological value and 13 percent fat. It is a rich source of vitamin A and some B vitamins. It is a fair source of vitamin D but does not contain any vitamin C. The chemical composition of a duck’s egg is similar to that of a hen’s egg. Egg white contains about 12 percent proteins and some B vitamins but is devoid of fat and vitamin A.

Egg yolk contains about 15 percent proteins and 27 percent fat. It is a rich source of vitamin A and a fair source of iron, B vitamins, and vitamin D, and therefore it is used as a supplement for infants. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Meat, fish, and other animal foods

Meat: Meat is rich in proteins (18-22 percent) of high biological value. It is a fair source of B vitamins. It does not contain any vitamins A, C, or D.

Fish: Fish is rich in proteins (18-22 percent) of high biological value. It is a fair source of B vitamins. Fatty fish contain some vitamins A and D. Large fish are rich in phosphorus but are deficient in calcium. Small fish eaten with bones are good sources of calcium.

Liver: Liver is rich in proteins (18-20 percent) and vitamin A and B-complex. It is the richest natural source of vitamin B12.

Fats and Oils

Fats and oils serve mainly as a source of energy and provide essential fatty acids. Butter and ghee and Vanaspathi are good sources of vitamin A (about 2500 I.U. per 100 g). The common vegetable oils and fats do not contain carotene or vitamin A. Many of them are good sources of vitamin E. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Sugar and other carbohydrate foods

The carbohydrate foods commonly used are cane sugar, jaggery, glucose, honey, syrup, custard powder, arrowroot flour, and sago. They serve mainly as a source of energy. Honey and jaggery contain small quantities of minerals and vitamins.

Condiments and spices

Condiments and spices are not important sources of nutrients in average diets but are used mainly for enhancing the palatability of the diet. The essential oils present in them help to improve the flavor and acceptability of food preparations.

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD

The different groups of foods listed above may be broadly classified under three heads from the nutritional point of view :(i) Energy yielding foods; (ii) Body building foods and (iii) Protective foods.

Energy-yielding foods: This group includes foods rich in carbohydrates and fats and also pure fats and carbohydrates. Cereals, roots and tubers, dried fruits, sugar, and fats form important energy-yielding foods. In addition to energy, cereals however provide the greater part of the proteins, certain minerals, and vitamins in the diets of the low-income groups in the developing countries

Body-building foods: Foods rich in proteins are called body-building foods. This may be broadly divided into two groups :(a) Milk, egg, meat, and fish rich in proteins of high biological value and (b) pulses, oilseeds, nuts, and low-fat oilseed flours rich in proteins of medium nutritive value. (BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material)

Protective foods: Foods rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals are termed protective foods. Protective foods are broadly classified into two groups :(a) Foods rich in vitamins, minerals, and proteins of high biological value e.g. milk, eggs, fish, and liver, and (b) Foods rich in certain vitamins and minerals only e.g. green leafy vegetables and some fruits. The five food groups are summarised in the table below:

BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

Five Food Groups
Five Food Groups

BCom 1st Year Food Groups and Functions Notes Study Material

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