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BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

Good immunity protects us from all kinds of diseases and infections. It is a kind of protective shield of the body which we always need.


Immune system refers to the internal defence system of the body which provides protection to the body from external threats. As soon as any virus, bacteria or pathogenic germs attack the body, then automatically this system becomes active and starts the process of defence against them. In other words, the immune system is a protective shield that protects us from various types of infections. Our immune system is a complex network of cell proteins that detect and destroy harmful foreign substances.

In scientific language, the immune system is a collection of biological processes occurring inside the body of an organism, which protects that organism from diseases by first identifying and then killing pathogenic factors and tumour cells. It is capable of detecting a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as distinguishing these agents from healthy cells and tissues of the organism, so that it does not react against them and the entire system works smoothly.

Pathogens are extremely difficult to identify as they mutate very quickly and adapt themselves in such a way as to evade the immune system and infect the body’s cells.

The body becomes diseased due to a malfunction in the body’s immune system. The failure of the immune system is called ‘immunodeficiency’. It can either be due to a genetic disease or it is also possible due to certain drugs or infection. The study of the immune system is called ‘immunology’.


Immunity is mainly of the following two types:

  1. Natural Immunity
  2. Acquired Immunity

1. Natural Immunity-The natural formation of our body is like this that it prevents any kind of virus or bacteria from entering the body easily. Skin, eyes and nose hair, tears and sweat protect us from many types of infections. But, sometimes harmful substances enter the body. After that, the army inside the body called white blood cells fight against the germs.

2. Acquired Immunity-Vaccination is a form of acquired immunity. The immunity that is created in the laboratory to fight against a particular virus. Its effect is slow, but it works in the body for a long time. It works differently in the elderly and the young.


Many things affect our immunity. The diet of the mother during pregnancy also affects the immunity of the child. If she eats well then she can also breastfeed properly. Eating right, healthy lifestyle, exercise, plenty of sleep and positive thinking also have a good effect on immunity. The main factors affecting immunity are as follows:

  1. Improper diet—The most damaging factor in immunity is improper diet. Nowadays people are leaving behind the nutritional value and running after the taste. Leaving the nutrients, junk food has been included in the daily diet. Instead of getting up early in the morning, one sleeps till noon and then wakes up at night.
  2. Not getting proper sleep-Sleep also affects our immunity. Due to not getting proper sleep and not sleeping at the right time, our defense gets weakened.
  3. Habit of addictions—Cigarette, tobacco, alcohol or any other kind of addiction also weakens our immunity.
  4. Worry-Anxiety is also very harmful for our immunity.


The main symptoms of a weak immunity are:

  1. Feeling tired all the time—There can be many reasons for feeling tired and lethargic all the time, such as lack of sleep, stress, anemia or chronic fatigue syndrome. If you do not know the reason for this and you feel tired even after getting enough sleep, then your immune system is weak.
  2. Falling sick frequently-It is common to get sick when the weather changes, especially in the winter, but if you get sick frequently, it may be because your immune system is weak. The immune system fights bacteria, viruses, and disease. If you have frequent urinary tract infections, mouth sores, colds or flu, contact your doctor.
  3. Allergy complaints-Many people have complaints of allergies, due to which they keep getting seasonal fever. But if your eyes are always watery, you have a reaction to some food item, skin rashes, joint pain and stomach problems are always there, then this also means that your immune system is weak.
  4. Time taken for wound healing-During wound healing, a dry crust forms on the skin which prevents blood from exiting the body. If your wound does not heal quickly, your immune system may be weakened.
  5. Long-term persistence of cold and flu—The problem of weak immune system is also with cold and flu. Most people recover after a week, but if you have the flu for a long time, your body may not be able to fight off the infection.


A good immunity or immune system is very important to protect the body m disease so that your body functions normally and keeps you healthy. It is Important to always keep your immune system ready to fight disease, so that you can stay safe from various deadly viruses. bacteria, pathogens and other types of diseases. If your immune system will work properly, then it will directly increase your immunity and you will be safe and healthy. Some of the common ways to boost immunity are described as follows:

  1. Eat nutritious food- Just like a vehicle needs fuel to run, our body needs energy to function properly which we get from foods. They not only provide your body with the energy it needs to function, but also play an important role in increasing your patience level.

There are many different foods that have been proven by doctors and researchers to boost immunity. Food-based mainly on protein, fibre, vitamins etc. helps in building immunity and helps your immune system to fight against diseases. Immunity can be increased by including red-yellow capsicum, broccoli, gram, banana, papaya, orange, strawberry, kiwi, onion, garlic, mushroom, spinach, yoghurt, sunflower seeds, vegetable seeds etc in your daily diet.

  1. Get good sleep-Sleep is very important to keep your body healthy and boost your immunity. While we are sleeping, our body heals itself from any disease or damage. A person who is not getting enough sleep is more likely to develop serious diseases. This is not just a random claim, but certified by medical institutions and universities. According to research, adults should sleep a minimum of 7 hours to be healthy, adolescents (13 to 18) years should sleep at least 8 to 10 hours and babies should sleep at least 14 hours.
  2. Exercise-Exercise has long been practised by people all over the world to stay healthy and fit. There are countless benefits of exercising regularly if done properly. Exercising reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, high cholesterol, diabetes, etc and keeps your immune system functioning properly. However, according to various researches, too much exercise should be avoided as it can also cause harm.
  3. Drink more water-Water is an essential substance without which we cannot survive. Water plays an important role in keeping the body hydrated and keeping the body healthy. An adult should drink 8 to 10 glasses of water to stay healthy. It maintains the functions of the body and helps in improving metabolism. Apart from this, drinking water also protects against kidney-related diseases and the immune system also works properly.
  4. Take Supplements and Vitamins-Often the body is not able to get essential vitamins and minerals through food. Thus it becomes very important to eat those foods which are rich in vitamins and minerals. Supplements and vitamins play an important role in boosting immunity and helping the body fight against disease.


The following is a description of the essential elements that make up immunity:

  1. Vitamin C: The process of development of new cells and destruction of old cells goes on regularly in the body but sometimes there is an error in this process. In such a situation, the cells are destroyed rapidly and new cells cannot be formed. To stop this process, we need antioxidants. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant. It plays an important role in repairing the damaged cell. It is also necessary for the connecting tissues of our body. Vitamin C is soluble in water.

It comes out through constant sweating and urination. That’s why we need Vitamin C from time to time. In general, 65 to 90 mg regularly is sufficient for adults, but those who have very weak immunity are advised to take higher amounts.

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

Amla, lemon, orange, tomato, guava, cabbage, broccoli, red and green capsicum are rich in vitamin C, Vitamin C is also found in red and green chillies, but we cannot eat them in large quantities. Cherries are also rich in Vitamin C.


  1. Protein: Our body consists of 60 to 70% water, after that protein is needed the most. If someone’s weight is 60 kg, then they should eat one gram of protein daily for every one kg of weight. Children should take one and a half grams of protein per kilogram. It is needed more in pregnancy. Our immune system is made up of proteins. That’s why we should take plenty of protein. Protein supplements are recommended for those who are more deficient in protein.

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

Eggs and non-veg food items are rich in protein. Soybean is a good option for vegetarians. One cup of soy milk contains about eight grams of protein. Oatmeal and cottage cheese are also rich in protein. One cup of dried oats contains about 13 grams of protein and 8 grams of fiber. One cup of green peas contains 8 grams of protein. Broccoli and cauliflower are also good sources of protein.

  1. Zinc: Zinc also has a great role in increasing immunity. Women need 8 milligrams of zinc and men need 11 milligrams of zinc a day. Eggs are rich in zinc. Chickpeas also contain fibre, antioxidants and other nutrients, including zinc.

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

Both protein and zinc are abundantly present in gram, beans and lentils. Watermelon seeds are also a source of zinc and potassium. Their consumption increases immunity.

  1. Vitamin D: Vitamin D is also helpful in boosting immunity. Stay in direct sunlight for about 15 minutes once or twice a week between 10 am and 12 noon. Do not attempt to cover the skin with clothing or sunscreen. It is considered good to take 1,000 to 2,000 IU (international units) of vitamin D every day. In our country, 80% of the population is deficient in Vitamin D.

According to doctors, you can take vitamin D supplements if you have Vitamin D deficiency. The most common medications are 60,000 IU tablets, sachets or liquids given initially for 6 to 8 weeks. After this, it is advised to take it twice a month for a year. However, sunlight is the cheapest, accessible and best way to take vitamin D. By spending time outside in the sunlight regularly, this deficiency is fulfilled.

  1. Magnesium and Potassium: Magnesium and potassium are also very important for immunity. Green leafy vegetables, especially spinach, seeds, nuts and whole grains are rich in magnesium. Similarly, potassium is found in potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, cucumbers, pomegranates, tomatoes, etc. People with diabetes can eat other things apart from potatoes, bananas and pomegranates.
  2. Calcium: Calcium is also essential for immunity. The amount of calcium taken every day is decided according to the age of the person. It is usually recommended to take about 800 to 1,500 mg of calcium in 24 hours. A glass of milk or a bowl of yogurt contains about 300 mg of calcium.

BCom 1st Year Immunity System and Immunity Booster Food Notes Study Material

Calcium can also be found in Tofu, Soyabean, Green Leafy Vegetables, Paneer, Cheese and Amla. It is true that calcium from food is better, but sometimes one may have to take calcium tablets or supplements due to illness and digestive problems.


Some of the main immunity-boosting foods are as follows:

  1. Red Capsicum: Among fruits and vegetables, red capsicum contains the most vitamin C. According to the US Department of Agriculture, a cup of chopped paprika contains about 211% vitamin C, which is twice the amount of Vitamin C found in oranges.

According to a 2017 study published in the National Institutes of Health, Vitamin C strengthens cells in the body that boost immunity. In addition, it also reduces the risk of respiratory infections. Vitamin C also strengthens the tissues of the body.

  1. Broccoli: Broccoli is also rich in vitamin C. Half a cup of broccoli contains 43 percent vitamin C. According to the National Institutes of Health, your body needs the same amount of vitamin C daily. According to Dr Seema Sarin, a physician at EHE Health, USA, broccoli is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants that strengthen our immune system. It also contains vitamin E, which is an antioxidant and helps fight bacteria and viruses.
  2. Chickpeas: It contains a lot of protein. It contains essential nutrients made up of amino acids that help in growing and strengthening body tissues. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, it maintains enzymatic activity so that our body systems can function properly. Dietitian Emily Wonder says that zinc is found in abundance in chickpeas which regulates the immune system and immune response.
  3. Strawberries: Dietitian Emily Wonder says that half a cup of strawberries is enough to meet the vitamin C requirement of a day because 50 percent vitamin C is found in half a cup of strawberries.

Our cells are damaged in many ways due to the environment and vitamin C protects them from getting damaged.

  1. Garlic: Doctors say garlic not only enhances the taste of food, it is also beneficial for health in many ways, such as reducing blood pressure and heart-related risks. Due to the sulfur compound found in garlic, it helps in fighting infections. Apart from this, it also increases immunity. Garlic also protects the body from cold and cough.
  2. Mushrooms: Emily Wonder says that the best source of vitamin D is the sun’s rays, but it can also be found through certain foods, including mushrooms.

A review conducted in 2018 on the use of mushrooms as a source of vitamin D found that mushrooms enhance the absorption of calcium, which is good for bones. Apart from this, it also protects against certain types of cancer and respiratory diseases.

  1. Spinach: Spinach is rich in vitamin C and antioxidants which protect our cells from damage caused by the environment. In addition, it contains beta carotene, which is the main source of vitamin A.

Vitamin A is essential for immune system to system properly. Like broccoli, spinach is also considered good when eaten raw or slightly cooked.

  1. Yogurt: Yogurt is the best source of probiotics. According to Dr. Sarin, it is the good bacteria that keeps the immune system and digestive system healthy. Some recent studies have also found probiotics to be effective in fighting respiratory infections such as the common cold and influenza. Doctors recommend eating plain yogurt instead of flavored.
  2. Sunflower seeds: Sunflower seeds are rich in vitamin E, which acts as an antioxidant and helps in boosting the immune system.

According to the National Institutes of Health, just one ounce of dry-roasted sunflower seeds can give you 49 percent of the vitamin E you need in a day.

  1. Lemon: Vitamin C is found in abundance in lemon, which is necessary for increasing immunity. According to research, a medium-sized lemon is capable of meeting more than half of the vitamin C requirement of a normal person.

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