BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material
Food, clothing, and shelter are the three basic needs of human beings. Without this human life is not possible. If a person does not get a house and clothes, then he can live for some time, but cannot survive without food. Food is needed not by one person but by all the members of the family. Diet is important to keep the body healthy. A balanced diet is essential for good health. A diet consisting of a mixture of different foods is called a balanced diet. People of each age have different dietary needs.
Diet should be organized according to gender. The housewife has to take many decisions in order to have a balanced diet for all the members of the family. How to cook food, in what quantity to be cooked, all these things should be taken care of by the housewife. Dietetics is the practical application of the principles of nutrition, including food for health and disease, dietary components, and specific chemical compounds; for example, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF DIET PLANNING
To include the number of food items of the seven food groups in the diet in such a way that all the members of the family get all the nutritious elements in sufficient quantity is called diet planning.
Meal–One specific thing you eat eg dinner is a meal, lunch is a meal, fish and chips is a meal, etc.
Diet-Refers to everything you regularly eat. Diet can also be used to describe a weight loss food plan.
PRINCIPLES OF MEAL PLANNING
The food requirements of each member of the family are not the same. Their nutritional requirements are different. Children eat less food than adults. If someone has diabetes, he does not eat sweets. A laborer eats more than a mental worker. Therefore, planning meals should be done wisely. So that all the family members can get proper nutrition. Some principles of diet planning are as follows:
1. Family-friendly food-No two families have the same nutritional requirements, due to the difference in the number of family members, age, and food preferences. In addition, the number of meals eaten in a day varies in a family. If the main diet is taken twice, most of the nutritional needs should be met in those two meals. The quantity of each meal can be reduced somewhat to three meals.
The diet should be organized keeping in mind all the members of the family. The diet can be made to suit everyone. For example, the water of lentils can be removed and used for soup. By reducing the amount of salt in lentils, it can be given to patients with high blood pressure. Lentils without tempering can be given to the sick person and some members can also take tempered lentils as a diet.
2. Psychosis and Nutrition- If a person does not get proper nutrition, he can become mentally weak or sick. Due to a lack of proper nutrition, a person loses his mental concentration and mental balance. Malnourished people are often more aware of themselves due to physical inequalities; for example, a fat person or a very lean person suffers from the feeling of social disdain, in which the feeling of loneliness prevails. Due to this such people have symptoms like non-cooperation, irritability, impatience, etc.
Various surveys on children have found instability of thought, lack of concentration, and impatience in malnourished children. Substantial improvement in behavior was observed by making necessary changes in the diet of such children. With good nutrition, a person feels self-confident, alert, and secure. He finds himself capable of adjusting to different people and situations, for example, not getting angry, not getting too excited, being happy, etc.
3. Nutritional Requirements-Only proper nutrition maintains a person’s good health. When the child is young, he should be given more amount of protein, because during this time his physical development is more rapid. Children should be given a diet rich in protein; for example, milk, egg, soybean, etc. Pregnant women and lactating mothers also have higher protein requirements.
A person needs more protein for a quick recovery after the operation. The calorie requirement of adolescents and adolescent girls is very high. Sportsmen and laborers have to work hard, so they need food that gives them more energy. Nutritional requirements change when a person becomes ill. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
4. Nutrition and mental strength-For a person to be mentally healthy, he should get enough nutrients. Our nervous stability, intelligence, memory power, receptive power, speech power, etc. depend on nutrients. Malnourished children lack these mental abilities. It has been proved from many experiments that the mental achievement of young children in school is affected by nutrition; for example, in a state of hunger, he does not feel like studying.
Children born by malnourished mothers during pregnancy have less mental capacity than normal children. After weaning from breast milk, if the child does not get enough nutrition, the multiplication activity of their fibers decreases, due to which mental functions are not able to increase. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
5. Food served in an attractive manner-A properly organized diet should also look good. Beautifully served food increases appetite. Food sold in public places has more emphasis on decoration, which in turn attracts more customers. The wise mother and housewife make every effort to serve well-equipped food. Due to her efforts, the health of every member of the family remains good.
6. Innovative diet-Everyone cannot eat the same food every day, he needs different types of food on different days. There must be variety in the diet. Only then the members will eat from the heart. Innovation can be brought into food by using different colors, textures, aromas, and different types of cooking methods. Some of the main reasons are:
(i) Novelty in color scheme-In order to bring novelty to the diet, attractive colors should be mixed, as it increases the appetite of the person even more. Conversely, if all the food items are of the same color, the food looks dull; for example, if the diet consists of washed urad lentils, plain curd, plain rice, onion, and radish salad, then the diet will not look attractive even though it is nutritious.
On the contrary, if the diet includes whole urad, onion garnished with green coriander, tomato, carrot and radish salad, curd raita, mint chutney, and pulao, then it will look attractive because it has a beautiful combination of colors. Such a diet increases appetite.
(ii) Use of Cooking Methods–Many types of cooking methods are popular in India. By using these methods, changes can be brought in the texture taste, and aroma of foods. In addition to traditional cooking methods, such as frying, boiling, roasting, baking, etc. the use of fermentation and germination can bring innovation to the food. Novelty can be brought by making potato raita, koftas, cutlets, halwa, etc. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
(iii) Selection of food items from different food groups-Food group means a group of foods having similar nutrients. Substances from the same food group are neither tasty nor balanced; for example, in the morning breakfast, a person should take milk, a cheese sandwich, and milk pudding. On the contrary, if that person chooses from different groups and takes a vegetable sandwich with milk and some fruit, then both his taste and nutritional value will increase due to the variation in the food.
(iv) Novelty in texture—Novelty can be brought in by changing the texture of food. If all the food items in the diet are the same then it will not look good. Some substances in the food item should be solid or hard that can be chewed raw; for example, salads and fruits. Some food items should be crunchy; for example-papad, chips, etc. Some foods should be bland; such as – custard pudding, lentils, etc.
(v) Novelty in taste and aroma-If the food is tasty then more saliva starts secreting in the mouth of the eater. The taste of food brings novelty to the food. If all the dishes of the food are more pungent, then the taste of the food will not be known. On the contrary, undigested food does not taste delicious. There should also be a proper combination of different fragrances for a good diet plan.
When different foods are used together, the aroma of one food enhances the aroma of the other; Like – bread and butter, mint chutney with pakodas, coconut chutney with idli, etc. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
- According to the budget of the family—It is difficult to get a balanced diet for all the family members. Food items are very expensive, so the diet should be organized according to the budget of the family. Some major suggestions should be followed in this regard:
(i) First-class protein is found in the diet made from milk, meat, and meat products and all of them are very expensive. To overcome this, other options should also be looked at; for example, foods made from soybeans can be given in place of meat and chicken. This will reduce the cost. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
(ii) Iron elements are obtained from green vegetables. It is often seen that people eat the root part of radish and throw away the green leaves. If radish leaves are cooked and eaten, then iron elements will also be available from them. The cost will also be less.
(iii) Lemon, orange, etc. are expensive sources of Vitamin C, and in their place, Amla, Guava, can be obtained at a low price.
(iv) Seasonal diets are cheaper than conventional food. Seasonal foods are not only tasty but also cost-effective and are better in nutritional value than other foods.
- Saving time, power, and money- Every person wants to organize a diet keeping in mind the saving of time, power, and money. This work can be accomplished by the following measures:
(i) The kitchen should be well organized so that there is no fatigue while working, and the items should be arranged in order and near the place of work.
(ii) A large pack of any food item is cheaper, but a larger pack should be bought only when there is a provision to keep it safe.
(iii) Shop when the market is less crowded.
(iv) When buying food items, compare the prices of two to three shops or buy from wholesale shops where the price has to be paid less. Goods can be expensive if you shop at the last minute.
(v) Take the decision, what is to be cooked in a day or a week? For this, all the materials can be brought from the market at once by preparing a list of the necessary items, so that the rent, labor, and time of going to the market, again and again, do not have to be spent.
(vi) Incorporate useful tools to save time and labor.
- Use of leftover food material- The food items which are left after the meal should be mixed to make new types of dishes. In this way, food grains can be put to good use. If the lentils prepared from the food are left, parathas can be made by adding green coriander, green chilies, and finely chopped onions by kneading them in the flour. In this way, the leftover food can also be used and savings can be made. (BCom 1st Year Meal Planning Notes Study Material)
- Satiety-Most people like satiating food. Foods containing fats and proteins have more satiety properties than carbs. Due to this, the person doesn’t always feel hungry.
NUTRITIVE VALUE FOR DIFFERENT GROUPS
It is very important for a person to get an adequate amount of nutrition in daily life. The following table gives the recommended daily intake of nutrients for men:
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PLANNING OF DIET
It is not easy for all the members of the family to get food according to their choice. Even after being familiar with all the principles of diet planning, the housewife is unable to select food ingredients according to all the family members. The reason for this is that many factors affect diet planning, which is described as follows:
1. Age-Infants and children require more nutritious elements than adolescents and adults. The main reason for this is that the speed of their physical development is faster than that of adolescent and adult individuals. If we see this sequence of physical growth, then till 0-5 years physical growth is rapid, after that, the pace of development of the body slows down a bit, and increases again in adolescence. It stops in adulthood and old age. Due to the growth of children’s bodies, the body-building speed is rapid.
Therefore, the need for body-building elements like protein and mineral salts is more. For energy storage in newly formed cells, more energy-producing elements such as fats and carbs are necessary. Vitamins are necessary for the protection of the body. In adulthood, the body does not grow, but the wear and tear in the body are rebuilt. Therefore, with increasing age, the body becomes relaxed. Diseases are easily transmitted, so in old age, more protective elements are needed.
2. Gender-There is not only a physical difference between a man and a woman but there is also a difference in their size, weight, and activity. It has been observed that the growth of boys and girls is the same till the age of 10-11 years, after that there is a difference in size, weight, activity and also there is a difference in the demand for nutrients. Due to more body weight, and the activity of men, they require more energy than women, therefore body building elements are also needed more.
Till now it is believed that women need more iron salts, But from the chart given by ICMR in 1993 it is clear that men also need more iron salts because scientists believe that the main function of iron salts is to receive oxygen, and oxygen is required according to the proportion of the body. When the size and weight of the male are more, they need more oxygen. Therefore, they also need more iron salt.
- Climate-Humans living in cold regions are more active than humans living in hot regions, along with this, people of cold regions need more energy to increase their body temperature. Therefore, those nutritious elements are needed in their food which is energy-giving. If people from hot climate regions take the same amount of energy-producing elements in their food, then their weight will start increasing and it will be harmful to them.
- Health—The activity of the body decreases during the days of illness. So it is assumed that a sick person will need less energy but in fact but he needs more energy because the base metabolic rate of the sick person is higher. Due to more wear and tear in their body than a healthy person, more building elements and more protective elements are needed, but there is a difference in the food items; for example, instead of lentils, lentil water, roti in place of double roti is preferred. Due to the weakening of the digestive power, such food items which are digestible and made by those methods which make the food digestible are recommended.
- Activity-Different types of activity involve the different expenditures of physical energy. Therefore, the activity can be divided into three parts – (i) low activity, (ii) medium activity, and (iii) high activity.
- Specific physiological condition—The demand for nutritious elements increases in the normal state after some special physical condition, such as pregnancy, lactating stage, operation, and after an accident.
- Pregnancy-During pregnancy, extra nutritious elements are needed for the bodybuilding of the fetus.
- Economic Consideration-Some foods like cheese, meat, fruits nuts, etc. are costly. Comparatively, sources like toned milk, seasonal fruits, and vegetables are less costly.
- Religion, region, cultural patterns, traditions, and Indian customs—For instance, North Indians will consume more wheat.
UTILITY OF DIET PLANNING
Some of the major utilities of diet planning are the attainment of balanced food, an attractive and tasty diet, the use of leftover foods, saving time, saving fuel, variety in the diet, etc. These points are highlighted below:
- Diversity in diet-Diversity in diet can be brought by diet planning. While planning the diet for a week, the housewife can diversify the diet by planning different food items every day.
- Control over the food budget-By keeping control over the food budget, diet planning can be done. While planning the diet for the whole week, the housewife can keep in mind that if one day the meal consists of expensive foods; for example, if cheese, dry fruits, etc. have been used, then seasonal fruits and vegetables of less value can be used for the rest of the day. In this way, the total expenditure of a week can be made according to the budget.
- Personal interests-Food items of personal interest of family members can be included in one or the other diet while planning the diet. Delicious food is eaten by a person with pleasure.
- Obtaining a balanced diet-With proper diet planning, the nutritional needs of each member of the family can be met. Otherwise, the diet given will be balanced for one member of the family and not for someone else, for instance, that diet may be right for teenagers but the elderly may find it difficult to digest. Therefore, in proper diet planning, the nutritional needs of the members of each age group of the household are taken care of.
- Attractive and tasty food-Food can be made attractive and tasty. Due to the variation in the taste, color, and cooking methods of the food, all the members eat the food with more interest.
- Use of Leftover Foods-Diet planning can make proper use of leftover foods; for example, parathas or patties of leftover pulses and vegetables can be made for breakfast in the morning.
- Saving time and money–By organizing the diet, the housewife can save her time, money, and energy.
- Fuel saving—Diet planning is also considered suitable for the purpose of saving fuel; for example, if boiled potatoes are required in the morning and boiled arbi at night, then both foods can be boiled at once in the morning. This will save fuel.
Utility of Diet Planning
Some diets aim to curb your appetite to reduce your food intake, while others suggest restricting your intake of calories and either carbs or fat. The menu is designed carefully, keeping in mind the type of clientele:
- Intermittent fasting-Intermittent fasting is a dietary strategy that cycles between periods of fasting and eating. Intermittent fasting was shown to cause weight loss.
- Plant-based diets-Plant-based diets may help you lose weight. Vegetarianism and veganism are the most popular versions, which restrict animal products for health, ethical, and environmental reasons.
- Low-carb diets-Low-carb diets are among the most popular diets for weight loss. Examples include the Atkins diet, ketogenic (keto) diet, and low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) diet.
- The paleo diet—The paleo diet advocates eating the same foods that your hunter-gatherer ancestors allegedly ate.
It’s based on the theory that modern diseases are linked to the Western diet, as proponents believe that the human body hasn’t evolved to process legumes, grains, and dairy.
- Low-fat diets—Like low-carb diets, low-fat diets have been popular for decades. In general, a low-fat diet involves restricting your fat intake to 30% of your daily calories.
- The Mediterranean diet-The Mediterranean diet is based on foods that people in countries like Italy and Greece used to eat.
Though it was designed to lower heart disease risk, numerous studies indicate that it can also aid weight loss.
- WW (Weight Watchers)-WW, formerly Weight Watchers, is one of the most popular weight loss programs worldwide.
While it doesn’t restrict any food groups, people on a WW plan must eat within their set daily points to reach their ideal weight.
WW is a points-based system that assigns a value to different foods and beverages, depending on their calorie, fat, and fiber contents.
To reach your desired weight, you must stay within your daily point allowance.
- The DASH diet-Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, or DASH diet, is an eating plan that is designed to help treat or prevent high blood pressure, which is clinically known as hypertension.
It emphasizes eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats and a diet that is low in salt, red meat, added sugars, and fat.