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BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

96% of our total body weight is made up of water, carbs, fats and proteins. The remaining 4% is made up of mineral salts. Thus, if seen on the basis of pre only a small amount of mineral salts remain present in the body, but despite being in small quantities, their importance is invaluable from the point of view of body building and protection.


Although mineral salts constitute only 4% of our body, yet they are absolutely essential for the growth and development of the body. Of the 4% mineral salts 3/4th part is calcium and phosphorus and the remaining 1/4 part is of other mineral salts.

On the basis of the amount (concentration) of mineral salts present in the body, they are divided into two parts:

(1) Major Mineral Elements

(2) Trace Mineral Elements or Micro Mineral Elements

Major Mineral Elements—There are total 7 mineral salts present in our body which come under the main mineral element. Their quantity will be more in the body. It is necessary to take them through food items.

These elements are as follows:(1) Calcium (Ca), (2) Phosphorus (P), (3) Potassium (K),(4) Sulfur, (S), (5) Sodium (Na), (6) Chlorine (Cl), ( 7 ) Magnesium (Mg).

Trace Mineral Elements-(1) Iron (Fe), (2) Manganese (Mn), (3) Copper (Cu), (4) Cobalt (Co), (5) Aluminum (AI), (6) Selenium (Se), (7) Zinc (Zn), (8) Fluorine (F), (9) Bromine (Br), (10) Iodine (I), (11) Chromium (Cr), (12) Cadmium (Cd), ( 13 ) Molybdenum ( Mo ), ( 14 ) Silicon ( Si ), (15 ) Nickel (Ni), (16) Vanadium (V).

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

Properties of minerals

  • Minerals are water-soluble and do not require enzymatic digestion.
  • Minerals are generally better absorbed from animal-based foods.
  • Some minerals influence the absorption of others.
  • Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in small amounts for a variety of different functions.

The body requires different amounts of each mineral; people have different requirements, according to their age, sex, physiological state (e.g. pregnancy) and sometimes their state of health.

Functions of Mineral Salts

(1) To structure bone, tooth, tissue, blood and nerve cells.

(2) To regulate the stimulation of contraction and expansion of muscles by nerve fibers.

(3) Maintaining the acid-alkaline balance of fluids/liquids in the body.

(4) To control the water balance.

(5) To control the osmotic pressure in the body and the movement power of the cell membranes.

(6) To help in digestion process to increase the usability of food.

(7) Organizing hormones and enzymes.

(8) Activation of enzymes by some minerals.

(9) Controls the oxidation process of cells.


(1) Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant mineral found in bones and tissues among all mineral salts. About 1200 grams of calcium is found in the body, of which 99% resides in bones and one percent calcium is found in blood, soft tissues and fluids, whose functions are:

(1) Helping in clotting of blood

Thromboplastin + Prothrombin – Thrombin

(2) Activating many enzymes, such as Pancreatin lipase, adenosine triphosphatase, etc.

(3) Stimulating the sensation of nerve fibers necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine.

(4) Helping in the absorption of vitamin B.

(5) To regulate the contraction and expansion of the muscles.

(6) To regulate the heart rate.

(7) To help in the absorption process by increasing the permeability of the cells.

Absorption of Calcium

The absorption of calcium at the site of the beginning of the small intestine is affected by the following elements of the small intestine of the digestive system.

  1. Sunlight-The rays of sunlight form vitamin-D, which leads to absorption of calcium.
  2. Deficiency of Vitamin-D-Due to deficiency of Vitamin-D in the digestive system, calcium absorption is not possible.
  3. Phytic acid-The action of phytic acid found in cereals and the total calcium of the digestive system forms calcium phytates, which are insoluble and not absorbed.
  4. Oxalic acid-Oxalic acid found in green leafy vegetables is important for the digestive system. It converts calcium into calcium oxalate, which is not absorbed due to being insoluble.
  5. Ratio of calcium and phosphorus-When the ratio of total calcium and phosphorus in food items is normal (W), the absorption is of ideal nature. In case of abnormal ratio, absorption takes place according to the need and condition of the body.

The following things affect the absorption of soluble calcium from the small intestine into the blood:

(1) The soluble calcium is absorbed into the blood according to the calcium requirement of the body.

(2) The acidity of the stomach helps in the absorption of calcium.

(3) Vitamin C helps in the absorption of calcium.

(4) Lactose after digestion of food substance with lactose forms lactic acid which combines with calcium to form a soluble element called calcium lactate, in which form calcium is easily absorbed in the blood.

(5) Due to the development of acidic medium in the digestive system with some amino acids, the absorption of calcium increases.

The amount of calcium that cannot be absorbed into the blood plasma from the small intestine is expelled out of the body with the stool. Up to 30% of calcium can be absorbed in the body.

The process of bone calcium coming into the blood is accomplished by: (1) Parathyroid hormone, (2) Excessive vitamin D, (3) Bone mobility. Excess calcium from the blood is expelled in the urine. Metabolism of Calcium:

The calcium metabolism is regulated in three ways to maintain the normal amount of calcium in the blood plasma, such as

(1) By increasing the amount of absorption from the intestines.

(2) Reabsorption of calcium from the kidney.

(3) By increasing the amount of plasma calcium by removing bone calcium from the bones.

As a result of the above three systems, calcium balance is maintained in the plasma. The normal amount of calcium in the blood is 9-10 mg calcium per 100 ml of serum.

Effect of Deficiency of Calcium

(1) When the amount of calcium that continuously reaches the body is much less than the requirement there is no increase in body weight, there is a hindrance in the development of bones, white spots on the face, white spots on the nails etc, specially in children.

(2) When the amount of calcium in the blood decreases to 4-5 mg per 100 ml of serum, the symptoms of tetany disease appear, in which excessive stimulation of the nervous system can lead to unconsciousness and death.

(3) Rickets has been observed in children due to excessive calcium deficiency. In preterm infants, a lack of calcium and vitamin D leads to a preterm stage due to lack of complete bone growth and development.

(4) Osteomalacia: During pregnancy, due to the deficiency of calcium and vitamin D, the bones become soft.

Effect of Excess of Calcium

Excess amount of calcium is absorbed in the body from food items, tonics and medicines, due to which the amount of calcium in the blood increases. As a result, the process of calcium deposition in the tissues and the amount of calcium excreted in the urine increases. Patients suffering from peptic ulcer consume milk and alkaline substances in large quantities for a long time.

There may be an overdose of calcium in such patients. Along with this, symptoms like vomiting, bleeding in the stomach, increase in blood pressure etc. are also seen. Abdominal disturbances and disparity in physical growth have been observed in infants who are given high amounts of calcium and vitamin D in the form of medicines and tonics. This condition can be improved by not giving vitamin D supplements in tonic form. The calcium content of the serum is found to be increased in the following conditions;

  • Such as hyperactivity of Parathyroid Gland,
  • Bone destruction in Cancer,
  • Milk-Alkali Syndrome,
  • Hypervitaminosis D, which increases calcium absorption from gut.

Sources of Occurrence of Calcium

There are rich means of obtaining calcium in food items like milk and milk products. Good sources of calcium are green leafy vegetables, peeled sesame seeds, ragi among other Following are the means of obtaining calcium:

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

Storage of Calcium-Maximum calcium is stored in bones and teeth. Calcium can be stored continuously in the bones and can be separated from the bones and enter the blood. This process is high in childhood, which decreases with age. Normally one percent of calcium remains in the blood stream and tissues.

Excretion of Calcium-50% of the calcium taken by food in the body is excreted daily through feces, which contains calcium from absorption and calcium of the body. The calcium of the stool decreases when the amount of vitamin D is given in the form of medicine. Calcium taken in the form of daily food items is excreted in urine. Parathyroid hormones control this process.

(2) Phosphorus

400-500 grams of phosphorus mineral salts are found in the human body in the form of phosphates. Phosphorus is an important component of RNA and DNA which controls the properties of genes. About 85% of phosphorus in inorganic form works with calcium in bone and tooth structure.

Functions of Phosphorus:

  1. Auxiliary in the formation of bones and teeth-Phosphorus combines with calcium to form calcium phosphate (insoluble salts) which make bones and teeth strong. Calcium phosphorous remains in 1:5 ratio in bones.
  2. Formation of Nucleoproteins and Nucleic acids-Phosphorus is an essential substance for the formation of nucleoproteins and nucleic acids. Nucleoprotein resides in the cytoplasm and nucleus of our cells and here this cell helps in reproduction and exchange of hereditary properties.
  3. Maintaining the balance of acid-base in the body—The specialty of phosphorus is that it can combine with more hydrogen iron. Due to this characteristic it prevents the body from being acidic and maintains the balance of acid base in the blood. The amount of phosphorus in the blood serum of adults is 2.5-4 mg / 100 ml and the amount of phosphorus in the serum of children is 4.5 mg / 100 ml.
  4. Helps in the energy production process-Phosphorus is an essential component when the liver reuse the glycogen stored in the muscles to get energy, because at that time this glycogen is in the form of a phosphorus-containing glucose compound.
  5. Helps in Carbohydrate Metabolism-ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is necessary for the catabolism of carbs in cells and for generating heat. Phosphorus combines with other elements to form ATP.
  6. Phosphorus—the enzymes involved in the metabolism are needed for the formation of enzymes and co-carboxylase.
  7. Facilitates the transport of nutrients-Fats are transported in the blood in the form of phospholipids.
  8. It is essential for skeletal growth and general health.

Daily Requirement-A healthy person needs one milligram of phosphorus per day.

Effects of Deficiency

In humans, the effects of phosphorous deficiency are mostly not developed. Especially such a diet in which adequate amount of protein and calcium is found, the amount of phosphorus remains in excess. Phosphorus deficiency is possible only in the case of calcium deficiency.

Therefore, all those symptoms, development and diseases are caused by the deficiency of phosphorus which is caused by the deficiency of calcium. Symptoms such as lack of physical growth, abnormality in the structure of teeth and bones, rickets, weakness, loss of appetite, bone pain etc. are found due to the deficiency of phosphorus.

Sources of Occurrence- Phosphorus is present in almost all food items. Phosphorus is found in foods in the form of a compound of fats, proteins, carbs.

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

Absorption of Phosphorus

(1) Phosphorus is absorbed in the small intestine.

(2) First the organic compound of phosphorus is converted into inorganic phosphate.

(3) 70% of phosphorus is absorbed in inorganic form.

Storage of Phosphorus-80% of the total phosphorus is stored in the bones and teeth. The remaining 20% resides in soft tissues and fluids.

Excretion of Phosphorus-0 to 40% of the absorbed phosphorus reaches the organs of the body, the rest goes to the kidneys, from where it is excreted out of the body with urine.

Potassium (Potassium)

The state of potassium mineral salt resides in intracellular fluids, red blood cells and muscles. It is sufficient to take 1.5-6.00 grams of Potassium in equal quantity through daily diet.

Functions of Potassium

(1) Potassium especially works to keep the heart rate regular.

(2) Potassium plays a helpful role in muscle contraction.

(3) It is also helpful in increasing the absorption of some enzymes.

Sources of occurrence of Potassium

Potassium element is found in milk and milk products. Potassium elements are present in juicy fruits like Lemon, Orange etc. There is less quantity of it in the upper layer of maize flour and rice. Some vegetables and fruits like cucumber, tomato and grapes and potatoes also contain potassium. Potassium is present in all vegetable foods and it is in excess in tea, coffee, cocoa, rice.

Daily Need—The daily requirement of potassium of a normal person is 2.5 to 3.3 grams per day. The requirement in the form of potassium chloride is 4 to 6 grams per day. In infants and children its requirement is derived from the body weight; 75 mg. kcal per kg body weight is sufficient for them.

Effect of Deficiency-Generally there is no deficiency of this mineral element in the body but in special circumstances its deficiency can result in acute diarrhoea, diabetes or burns. Due to deficiency, the muscles become weak Appetite decreases, the person appears irritable, restless and upset. There is no control over the rate of heartbeat. In Addison’s disease, the amount of potassium in the blood increases and it is very harmful.

Excess of Potassium

Excess of it causes the following symptoms:

(1) Apathy of the heart and central nervous system,

(2) Mental agitation,

(3) Numbness of consciousness,

(4) Cardiovascular diseases,

(5) Nervous diseases,

(6) Muscle cramps and pain.

Excretion of potassium-Excretion of potassium in excess is through urine. 95% of potassium is excreted through urine and the remaining 5% through feces.

(4) Sulfur

Sulfur is a component of the sulfur mineral salt protein food element. About 175 grams of sulfur remain in the human body. Sulfur-containing amino acids are found in almost all cells in the form of methionyl and cysteine. Sulfur is found in abundance in the skin, hair, nails and tissues.

Functions of Sulfur

Absorbed in the intestines, sulfur, mostly in the organic form, remains in the body in the form of amino acids and is helpful in performing the following functions. For example,

(1) A component in cartilage, bone, skin, heart valves makes chondroitin sulfate, which is a mucopolysaccharide.

(2) Acts as a sulfhydryl group in enzymes.

(3) Working in the form of sulfolipids in the tissues of liver, kidney, salivary gland and in the white matter of the brain.

(4) Insulin, heparin, found in bile juice and sulfur containing compounds (which are essential for oxidation reduction processes.)

Effect of Deficiency-Sulfur deficiency is not often seen in humans. Diet which contains amino acids like methionyl, cysteine in sufficient quantity provide enough. Sulfur in the body.

Sources of occurrence-Sulfur mineral salts are found in all animal food items.

(5) Sodium

Its prescribed quantity in the body is indispensable. Combined with chlorine, it forms sodium chloride (NaCl). NaCl in the form of salt is used in the food dishes. Total sodium that remains in the body of a normal person is 92 grams.

Functions of Sodium

(1) The major component of the fluid outside the cell is sodium, which maintains the osmotic pressure and water balance. About 90% sodium is found in the fluid outside the cell.

(2) Sodium works in bringing the contraction of nerves and the activity of nerve cells to normal levels.

(3) Regulates the growth of cells.

(4) Maintains other mineral salts in the fluid inside and outside the cell.

Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion of Sodium

Sodium is absorbed in the jejunum, the initial part of the small intestine Absorption occurs quickly in the presence of dietary glucose and amino acids Sodium is excreted in the form of sodium phosphate and sodium chloride. Excess of this hormone keeps the amount of sodium in the body and the condition of sodium disease comes in the body. The average diet of a normal person excretes 3-5 grams of sodium (from 8-12 grams of salt) daily in the urine.

Effect of Deficiency of Sodium

(1) There is a deficiency of sodium in sportsmen and heavy working labor community. Sodium is passed out of the body through sweat. Such a deficiency can be compensated by saline fluids.

(2) Deficiency of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) causes Addison’s disease in which excessive amount of sodium is excreted from the body In this condition, the person has a desire to eat more amount of salt.

(3) Due to frequent vomiting and diarrhea, there is a deficiency of sodium in the body,

(4) Sodium deficiency develops into starvation, high blood pressure, heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver and edema. Its fulfillment is done by consuming salt all conditions.

(5) The initial symptoms of sodium deficiency include weakness, dizziness, nausea, lethargy.

Sodium Imbalance

Due to excessive use of sodium/salt, an increase in the state of hypertension is seen over a period of time. The habit of using less amount of salt should be made from childhood, so that the sodium balance in the body is maintained.

When the heart and kidney function, the excretion of sodium outside the body is reduced and the excretion of sodium inside and outside the cells of the body is also reduced but the amount of sodium in the fluid inside and outside the body cells increases. This problem is called Dedna. By the long-term use of adrenocorticotropic hormone and due to excess secretion of corticoids and hormones, the amount of sodium in the body remains high.

Sources of Occurrence

Salt has the highest amount of sodium in fact 40% of salt is sodium. Sodium-containing substances that are used with food are backing powder, sodium citrate, sodium propionate, monosodium glutamate.

Required amount-Adult person needs 2-6 grams of salt every day when doing more labor and during summer and hot climate, the requirement is 25-30 grams per day.

(6) Chlorine

Chlorine does not exist freely in the body, Together with sodium, it is present in the form of common salt in blood plasma, extracellular fluid and other fluids. Chlorine combines with potassium to form potassium chloride, which is present in intracellular substances, Chloride can easily move in and out of cells.

Functions of Chlorine- Chlorine works jointly with sodium and potassium. It plays an important role in all the functions that sodium and potassium perform like:

(1) In acid-base balance, (2) In water balance, (3) In the formation of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, (4) In physical growth, (5) In making the digestive juices active, (6) In contraction of muscles etc.

Daily Requirement of Chlorine – The daily requirement of chlorine in the body is 3-9 grams.

(7) Magnesium

A total of 20-30 mg of magnesium is found in the body of adults, of which 65% resides in the bones, 34% inside the cell and one percent outside the cell. In bones, magnesium is found in the form of phosphate and magnesium carbonate at both ends of the bones.

Functions of Magnesium

Magnesium does the following functions

(1) Acts as a catalyst in the metabolic process.

(2) It is necessary to make enzymes functional, specificaliy, the enzymes from which adenosine diphosphate reacts with adenosine triphosphate to form adenosine monophosphate.

(3) It is necessary for the balance of calcium, sodium and potassium in the fluid outside the cell, due to which regular contraction of muscles is possible by starting pulse sensation. In a nutshell; it maintains heart rate and blood pressure.

Metabolism of Magnesium

40 to 50% of magnesium is excreted in feces without absorption and after some absorption is excreted in urine. In the serum of blood 2-3 mg per 100 ml of magnesium is found and in the blood there is 1-0 mg per 100 ml of magnesium.

Effect of Deficiency

Magnesium deficiency is not found mostly in healthy humans. A lack of magnesium in the diet and excessive excretion of magnesium in the urine can lead to a decrease in the amount of magnesium in the blood plasma. Conditions such as hypocalcemia and tetany develop with symptoms such as muscle tremors, fainting, and depression. People who drink heavily often develop magnesium deficiency during liver cirrhosis, kwashiorkor, excess vomiting, acute diabetes and renal disease.

Required Quantity-The daily required amount of magnesium mineral salt has been determined as follows. Such as:

Adult (female/man)              200-300 mg

Pregnancy                            200 + 150 mg

Infant                                      100 + 150 mg

Child                                      150 + 200 mg

Sources of occurrence-Milk, Milk products, Green leafy vegetables, Oil, Seeds, Pulses, etc. are good sources of magnesium.

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