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BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material


(1) Iron

It is an important mineral salt. Its deficiency is found in the diet of Indians. Its deficiency can often be seen in people of all age groups, especially in adolescence.

A total of 3-4 grams of iron is found in the human body. Most of the iron content (60 – 70%) remains in the blood in the form of Haemoglobin in which iron forms compounds with proteins. The normal amount of iron in plasma is 60 – 100 mg/100 ml.

Functions of Iron

The main functions of iron in the body are as follows:

  1. Formation of Haemoglobin-Most of the iron works to make Haemoglobin (3-4mg iron per one gram Haemoglobin). Haemoglobin is the oxygen carrying component of red blood cells. The main function of Haemoglobin is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the cell tissues and from the cell tissues to the lungs and releasing CO2. The life span of RBC is 120 days. After this the heme and globin of haemoglobin are separated. Iron is separated from heme and is used to make second RBC in the bone marrow. This process is called Hematopoiesis.
  2. Myoglobin-Myoglobin combines with proteins in muscles to form iron. Oxygen is stored in the muscles in the form of myoglobin and provides oxygen to the cells when they need oxygen immediately. Iron is the main component of myoglobin.
  3. Source of Enzymes and Coenzymes-Iron is the source of many enzymes. For example enzymes like catalase cytochrome oxidase, xanthine, oxidase, these enzymes are essential for respiration in cells.
  4. Iron helps in the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A.
  5. Iron works in reducing the fat level in the blood and in the synthesis of purines.

Effect of Deficiency of Iron

Iron deficiency is found in most of the people in our country. Iron deficiency has many side effects.

  1. Anemia- Anemia occurs due to iron deficiency in infants, children, adolescent girls and during pregnancy, in which the amount of Haemoglobin in the blood decreases to 4-9 grams per 100 mm of blood (normal amount is 14 grams per 100 ml of blood). Following are the main symptoms of anemia.

(i) Blisters on tongue,

(ii) Loss of appetite,

(iii) Low iron content in serum,

(iv) Low Haemoglobin content in blood,

(v) Low red blood cell count,

(vi) Weakness, lethargy and change in nail colour.

Green leafy vegetables are often used in very small quantities in our diet. Cauliflower, beetroot, radish leaves, etc., are rich in iron.

  1. Due to loss of blood during pregnancy and menstruation in women, the amount of iron in the body starts decreasing.
  2. Along with the amount of iron in the diet of Indians, iron deficiency increases due to substances and medicines that obstruct iron absorption.
  3. The condition of hemosiderosis in which the blood cells are continuously destroyed appears along with hemolytic anemia. During this stage, excessive iron intake accumulates in the liver, leading to symptoms such as cirrhosis.

When the body develops iron deficiency, increasing the amount of iron in the diet does not improve the situation because the processes of absorption and metabolism cannot provide the amount of iron to make haemoglobin in the blood. In such a situation, phorus sulphate in the form of medicine shows quick effect in the body, which improves the symptoms of anemia.

Absorption of Iron

For the absorption of iron salts, the ferric form of iron salt in the duodenum is converted into ferrous by the action of vitamins C, E and other acids and its absorption takes place in the ferrous form in the duodenum. The absorption rate is slow.

Storage-The life of red blood cells in our body is about 120 days. They end in liver and spleen. When red blood cells end their life here and break down, the iron salt (which is about 27-28 mg) from them reaches the bone marrow. Thus iron salts come from three sources in the bone marrow.

(a) Iron salt of broken red blood cells in liver and spleen.

(b) The iron salts of blood plasma in the body together with proteins in the com of siderophlin, absorbed in the epithelium, reach the bone marrow to form new red blood cells.

Excretion—The iron-salt which is not absorbed passes out of the body with feces.

Sources of occurrence – found in eggs, meat liver, green leafy vegetables, pulses, dry fruits, honey, jaggery, dates, raisins, soybeans. The iron salt of Cereals is destroyed in the process of grinding grains.

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

Essential Quantity of Iron

Where iron is supplied through animal protein-rich foods, the body’s requirement is fulfilled even if the amount of iron in the diet is low, but where the diet is rich in vegetable protein, the iron requirement of the body is fulfilled only by having a high amount of iron.

(2) Copper

Small amounts of copper are found in all body tissues. The copper present in the blood is mixed with food and remains in red blood cells in the form of hemocuprein. Similarly copper is present in the plasma as a compound of ceruloplasmin. There is a presence of 100 to 150 mg of copper in the body of a normal healthy person.

Functions of Copper

(1) Copper is helpful as a catalyst in the formation of haemoglobin.

(2) Its presence is essential in the absorption and metabolism of iron in the body.

(3) Helps in the oxidation of fatty acids.

(4) Helps in the oxidation of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

(5) Its presence is essential in providing natural color to the skin, the lack of copper causes the hair to turn white.

Sources of occurrence

The presence of copper resides in meat, liver, cereals, poultry, coffee, cocoa and milk, its quantity is less in cow’s milk than in mother’s milk. Even by drinking water filled in a copper vessel, sufficient quantity reaches the body.

Daily Essential Quantity of Copper

The daily required amount of copper is as follows: infant 0.5-1.0 mg, child 2 mg, pregnant woman 3 mg, male 2 mg, adolescent 3 mg.

Effect of Deficiency

Often the inferiority of this element is less, because it is present in many food elements. Its deficiency results in anemia. Along with iron, the an copper should also be taken in the diet, especially by those children who are dependent only on milk.

Effect of Excess

Excess of copper leads to disturbances in its metabolism. If taken in excess, lesions are formed in the liver and nerves. This is called Wilson’s disease. To increase the expulsion of copper through urine, high protein food is used so that it becomes a copper compound with amino acids and is expelled out of the body,

(3) Iodine

Iodine is an essential mineral salt in very small quantities. A total of 50 mg of iodine remains in the human body, 60% of which resides in the thyroid gland and the rest in the tissues,

Functions of Iodine

(1) Formation of thyroxine hormone in the thyroid gland in the body.

(2) Controls the oxidation process inside the cell and determines the rate of metabolism.

(3) Metabolism of energy in the body indirectly / indirectly and is helpful in physical growth/development.

(4) Converts glycogen into glucose.

(5) Removes calcium and phosphorus from bones and excretes them in urine.

Absorption, Storage and Excretion

The organic iodine present in the food substances is absorbed in the body by converting it into inorganic iodide. Small amounts of iodine are found in the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain and muscles. Iodine in the blood serum binds to protein [Protein Bound Iodine (PBI)], the normal amount of which is 4-85 per m of serum. (4-8ug / 100ml Serum)

Iodine is stored in the thyroid gland (20-25 mg). The absorption of iodine by the thyroid gland does not depend on the need of the gland but depends on the activity of the gland.

Iodine which is not absorbed by the gland is excreted through urine. Some amount of iodine is excreted through feces, sweat etc.

Effect of Deficiency

  1. Goitre- Iodine is very less in the water and soil in the lowland areas, to which the food items cooked and grown in that water are not supplied with iodine, which results in the development of goitre, Women are affected more than men. Deficiency of iodine in pregnant woman leads to deficiency of iodine in the fetus and also develops ketinism (dwarfism). Dwarfism is characterized by low BMR, muscle weakness, dry skin, thickening of the tongue, inhibition of bone growth and mental disorders.
  2. Goitrogens-Many foodstuffs such as cabbage, cauliflower, groundnut, rye, etc., contain elements which hinder the activity of thyroxine hormone in the body. These elements are called goitrogens. When it is active in the body, symptoms of goitre develop while iodine deficiency does not occur.

Sources of Occurrence:

The amount of iodine in fish is the highest and the amount of iodine in the food items like eggs, meat and milk depends on the amount of iodine available in the animals. The amount of iodine found in vegetables depends on the iodine content of the soil and water from which the vegetables are grown. Nowadays, by adding iodine to salt, efforts are being made to prevent iodine deficiency.

Essential Quantity

(1) Adults 150-200 mg per day

(2) Pregnancy / lactating – + 25-30 mg/day

(3) Infant 50 mg per day

(4) Children 100 mg per day

(4) Manganese

In 1961, scientists Hurley and Everson concluded from studies and found that manganese is related to bone development, growth, reproduction and the central nervous system.

This element activates enzymes working in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. In the absence of manganese, fertility decreases and if children are born, they are able to live only for a short time. Physical deformity occurs due to lack of proper bone development. There is sterility in the body. The presence of manganese is found in cereals, pulses, mustard leaves, lemon, orange and almond etc.

Functions- (1) This element affects the hormones of child birth and pituitary pregnancy. (2) It helps in transporting the CO2 produced in the tissues to the lungs.

Effects of Manganese Deficiency

Usually no effect of Mn deficiency is seen in humans, but it is se animals and birds.

(1) Due to its deficiency in chickens, bone deformities called ptosis occur.

(2) The reproductive organs of animals are not developed properly. There is a decrease in the ability of chickens to lay eggs and incubate.

(3) The newborn babies of animals suffer from ataxia disease due to which they start to wobble while walking.

Effect of Excess—The following effects are produced by the absorption manganese :(1) Loss of appetite, (2) Headache, (3) Muscle cramps, (4) Difficult in speaking, (5) Dullness, (6) Difficulty in walking, (7) Muscles become stiff.

Metabolism-Only 3-4% of the manganese consumed by the diet i absorbed by the small intestine. The rest is excreted through feces. Very little excretion from urine.

(5) Fluorine

There is usually no deficiency of fluorine in the body, but in many parts of India, where the amount of fluorine in water is found to be less than 1 ppm, its deficiency causes the disease of ‘fluorosis’.

During research, McCallum and his colleagues found that fluorine deficiency in rats causes tooth loss.

Sources of occurrence

Fluorine mineral salt is naturally present in water and land, fluorine is found more in milk, cheese, egg, potato, sea fish, meat etc.

Functions of Fluorine

(1) Required in small amounts for maintaining healthy teeth.

(2) Fluorine in large quantities is essential for the good health of bone fibers.

(3) To protect fruits and vegetables from insects, spray insecticide containing fluorine, which kills the insects.

Effect of Excess of Fluorine

Even the amount of fluorine of 3-5 ppm in water is injurious to health. Many diseases come from this. Excess of fluorine causes many diseases such as:

  1. Dental fluorosis—When the amount of fluorine of 3-5 ppm or more is present in water, then dental fluorosis occurs. The following are the symptoms of this disease:

(1) The enamel of the teeth loses its luster and white spots appear.

(2) After a few days, the white spots also turn into yellow, brown or beige spots.

(3) The enamel of the teeth becomes very weak. There are many holes in the teeth.

  1. Skeletal Fluorosis-When the amount of fluorine in drinking water exceeds 10 ppm or more, a person has skeletal fluorosis. Due to this the bone structure of the body deteriorates. The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

(1) The back is bent and the pain starts.

(2) The neck is not able to bend.

(3) Knees and elbows are not able to bend.

(4) Mental anguish arises.

(5) There is a pulse disorder.

(6) To Painful tremors and twitches are created in the muscles.

(7) The respiratory rate decreases.

Daily Demand of Fluorine-Generally there is no shortage of fluorine mineral salt in our body, because the amount of fluorine is present in the water and food we consume. The amount of fluorine of 1-2 ppm in drinking water is fine.

NRC – USA 1980 daily demand for fluorine is as follows:

BCom 1st Year Mineral Salts Notes Study Material

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