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BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are substances needed by the body to carry out its basic functions. Most nutrients should be obtained from the diet, as the human body does not synthesize or manufacture them. Nutrients have the following three basic functions:

  • It gives energy
  • Contributes towards body structure
  • Coordinate chemical processes in the body.

There are six groups of nutrients needed by the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutritious foods provide nourishment for the body. Foods may also contain non-nutrients. Some non-nutrients like antioxidants (found in many plant foods) are advantageous for the body, whereas other such natural toxins (found in some plant food) or additives (such as certain dyes and preservatives which are found in processed foods) are possibly harmful.


Nutrients that are required in vast amounts are called macronutrients. There are three types of macronutrients:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins

Macronutrients are mostly carbon-based compounds that can be metabolically processed into cellular energy through changes in their chemical bonds. The chemical energy is transformed into cellular energy known as ATP, which is used by the body to carry out basic functions.

The quantity of energy a person consumes on an everyday basis originates basically from the 3 macronutrients. Food energy is measured in kilocalories.

1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories

Water is likewise a macronutrient; it is so because the body needs it in large amounts, but unlike the other macronutrients, it does not consist of carbon or yield energy.



Protein was first discovered in 1838 AD. A Dutch resident, a chemist named Mulder concluded from his research that the cells of all living beings are made of protein tissue.

Protein is an important element among all the elements present in the body. Protein is the main component of muscle fibers, and a small number of carbs and fats are also present.

Chemical Organization- Protein is an organic compound. It contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Apart from these, sulfur and phosphorus are also present in some protein molecules. Iron, copper, iodine, cobalt, and other salts are also present along with some protein molecules. Nitrogen is the main component of protein.

Amino Acids—Protein breaks down into its simplest unit amino acids after hydrolysis. Therefore, the amino acid is the smallest unit of protein. Many amino acids combine to form proteins.

Protein molecules are very large. Their molecular weight ranges from 15,000 – 50,000.

Definition-Proteins are the main constituent of all the body cells and thus form the greater part of muscles and other tissues.

Structure—Each amino acid contains one amino group (Amino (NH.) groups) and one carboxyl group (COOH) group. The alkalinity of the protein from the amino group and the carboxyl (COOH) group maintains the acidic property of the protein. Both amino and carboxyl groups form proteins by peptide linkages. A molecule of protein consists of many amino acids joined by many peptide linkages.

A total of 23 amino acids are found in the food substance, and more than 120 amino acids in the protein are joined by a peptide linkage to form a protein molecule.

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material


Classification of proteins

Proteins are large molecules formed by the combination of a number of amino acids that have been found to occur in proteins and are important from the point of view of human nutrition. Amino acids can be classified as follows:

Nutritional Classification of Amino Acids

  1. Essential Amino acids (Indispensable amino acids)- An essential amino acid may be defined as one which is necessary for the growth and health of all living organisms and which cannot be synthesized in the body and must therefore be supplied through dietary intake. There are 9 amino acids considered essential for the human infant, out of which Histidine is considered non-essential for the adult.
  2. Semi-essential Amino acids (Conditionally essential amino acids)-Sometimes, a non-essential amino acid can become essential. During illness or conditions of trauma, or in other special circumstances, the need for an amino acid that is normally non-essential may become greater than the body’s ability to produce it. In such circumstances, that amino acid becomes essential for the ill person. Amino acids that behave this way are referred to as ‘Conditionally essential’ amino acids for critically ill people.

Methionine can be converted to cystine, but cystine cannot be converted to methionine. Similarly, phenylalanine can be converted to tyrosine, but not vice-versa, yet these spare the requirements of the corresponding essential amino acid. Hence, cysteine and tyrosine are sub-classified as semi-essential amino acids.

Nutritional Classification of amino acids
Nutritional Classification of amino acids

Classification of Proteins (Based on chemical composition)

  1. Simple proteins: It is composed entirely of amino acids only.
  2. Conjugated or Complex proteins: It is made up of amino acids and other organic or inorganic compounds.

The non-amino acid group is termed as Prosthetic group (e.g.)


  1. Derived proteins: These are derivatives of proteins resulting from the action of heat, enzymes, or chemical reagents. This group also includes artificially-produced polypeptides e.g. Fibrin.

BCom 1st Year Nutrients Macro and Micro-Protein Notes Study Material

Classification of proteins (Based on nutritional value)

Proteins are classified into two types based on nutrition viewpoint as follows:

  1. Complete proteins: These contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to supply the needs of the body. They support life even if supplied as the sole source of protein. These proteins are of animal origin (e.g.) milk, meat, poultry, egg, and fish. The quality of these proteins is much superior to those of incomplete proteins.


Dietary protein is required for the body as there are 9 essential amino acids the body cannot create and must obtain from one’s diet. Complete proteins contain all 9 of these essential amino acids versus incomplete proteins do not.

Complementary proteins are combinations of two or more incomplete proteins that supply all 9 essential amino acids.

Complete Proteins:                                                     Incomplete Proteins

Plant-Based                                                                          Animal-Based

→ Meat                                                                                  → Vegetables

→ Poultry                                                                              → Grains

→ Dairy                                                                                  → Legumes/Beans

→ Eggs                                                                                  → Nuts/Seeds

→ Fish

Complementary Proteins:

→ Grains+Legumes/Vegetables

→ Nuts/Seeds+Vegetables/Legumes

Incomplete proteins: These proteins are deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids and therefore, they do not support life on their own. All plant sources of proteins (i.e.) vegetables, fruits, cereals, pulses, nuts, and oilseeds contain incomplete proteins to varying degrees.

Complementary proteins: If two sources of incomplete proteins are combined in the same meal, the resulting protein may be of better quality. These are called complementary proteins e.g. Pongal prepared using moong dhal and rice is of better quality than rice or dhal cooked separately. Rice is deficient in the amino acid lysine but rich in methionine. Pulses are rich in lysine but deficient in methionine. So, rice and pulse combination will complement each other. Rice Kheer is another example, where animal and vegetable proteins -milk and rice are cooked together.

Food sources of proteins

Animal sources are complete proteins which include meat, egg, fish, and poultry and they are good protein foods in both quantity and quality. Milk is a valuable source of protein (casein) although it does not contain a large quantity of protein, the quality is excellent.

Good sources of plant proteins are legumes, pulses, nuts, and oilseeds, but their quality is poorer than that of animal foods. However, complementing two plant sources or combining an animal and a vegetable source in one meal increases the nutritional value of the meal tremendously. All vegetables and fruits are poor sources of proteins.


Proteins are classified into three major categories according to their physical and chemical properties, namely

(1) Simple Proteins-Simple proteins are those proteins that are converted into amino acids only after the body’s decomposition (Hydrolysis). The following proteins are simple proteins such as:

(i) Albumin: It dissolves in water and coagulates by heat. The lacto albumin of milk is an example,

(ii) Globulin: It is soluble in alkali solution and gets solidified by heat, Such as carcinogens of milk, ovoglobulin of eggs, tuberin of potatoes, etc.

(iii) Glutelin: It is soluble in mild acids and bases. For example, the gluten of wheat, arikshinin of rice.

(iv) Prolamin: It is soluble in only 70-80% alcohol. Example: Blydin of wheat, Zein of maize.

(v) Fibrous Protein: These are not soluble in any solution, they are found in the structure of bones, skin, nails, and hair. For example, collagen of tissue, keratin of hair, and myosin of muscle.

(2) Conjugated Protein- Simple protein when combined with another non-protein component, then it is called conjugated protein. Examples of this are the following:

(i) Nucleoprotein—It is found in every cell.

(ii) Glycoprotein-Glycoprotein is found in globulin and albumin of blood.

(iii) Phosphoprotein- is found in milk carcinogen and egg yolk in the form of ovoprotein.

(iv) Haemoglobin-found in the blood by the name of hemoglobin.

(3) Derived Protein-Due to the breakdown of simple and combined proteins in the digestive process, two types of derived proteins are formed before the formation of amino acids. They are primary and secondary derived proteins.

Properties of Protein

(1) Some proteins are soluble in water.

(2) Some proteins form colloidal solutions.

(3) On heating, proteins coagulate in the form of thick clots.

(4) Some proteins are soluble in sodium hydroxide.

(5) Some proteins are soluble in solutions of dilute acids and bases.

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