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BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

What is Nutrition? Every person gives the answer on the basis of his thoughts. According to doctors, nutrition is that by which the patient can get more comfort, for which he will include such substances in the diet table so that the patient can get better soon, while according to the patient he will have to sacrifice his favorite food to maintain his health. All the nutritious elements found in food, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, etc., help in the growth and development of human beings and give them strength.

Human beings have always been curious to get information about the use of food, its utilization by the body, its effect on the body, etc. The human body is like a machine, whose various parts are always active like mechanical parts. Just like fuel is needed to keep the parts of the machine functional, in the same way, the body needs food to function smoothly.

Energy is spent due to the functioning of the body parts and bacteria need to be destroyed, as well as the growth and development of the body are also continuous, therefore it is natural for humans to take an interest in food and nutrition science. If growth and development are stunted due to a lack of proper nutrition during the early growth period, then no such opportunity is likely to come in life when this defect can be removed.


The meaning of nutrition is the complex chemical process by which the human body absorbs (by digestion) essential substances from the food consumed (by absorption) and uses it (metabolism). Nutrition means the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food,

through which the body’s construction work, its growth and development, and disease immunity are developed. If the food eaten by man performs these three functions, then he is nourished otherwise not. This function of nutrition is done by the nutritious elements found in the food, so nutrition is related to the nutritious elements, because digestion, absorption, and metabolism in the body take place with these nutritious elements.

Therefore, it is necessary that the food should be full of nutritious elements so that the health of the person remains good. Due to a lack of energy in the diet, the body becomes weak. Apart from this, food also plays a role in growth and development. Due to continuous work, the cells of the body are destroyed and new cells are formed by nutritious elements. In addition to this, foods also control the internal actions in the body so that various chemical activities of the body also operate smoothly.

With new knowledge of nutrition, the human body can become healthier. There is an increase in the average age, as a result of good nutrition, and there is also an increase in mental efficiency. The ability to do good and stable mental work depend a lot on good physical condition. On several occasions, when appropriate changes were made in the diet of children who were impatient, irritable, and lacking in concentration, a substantial improvement in their behavior was observed.

The diet survey conducted in our country in the last few years proves that a large part of the total population which belongs to the low-income group gets food below the accepted normal level of diet. When the minimum calorie requirement is not met in the diet of the poor class, then the protein requirement is also met at a low level. Vitamins and minerals are also found in minimal amounts.

Nutritional surveys reveal that nutritional deficiency-related diseases are more common in pregnant women, infants, children, and nursing mothers. Some of these do not show signs of malnutrition but also do not have the characteristics of good health.

Many types of diseases, lack of inhibitory ability, and nutritional deficiency-borne diseases like anemia, scurvy, bary-berry, etc. can be overcome by adequate and suitable nutritional food items.

Therefore, it can be said that it is very important for food to be full of nutrition so that the health of the person remains good. Depending on the type of food we consume, conditions of good nutrition, insufficient nutrition, and excessive nutrition are visible.

Some important definitions of nutrition are as follows:

“Nutrition is the combination of processes by which the living organism receives and utilizes the materials necessary for the maintenance of its functions and for growth and renewal of its components.” -Turner

“Nutrition is the science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action and balance in relation to health and disease and the process by which the organism ingest, digest, transport, utilizes and creates food substances.” -Council on Foods and Nutrition, American Medical Association

In simple words, we can say that “Nutrition is the synergy of various activities in the body by which living beings absorb substances that are necessary for the various functions of the body.” It controls the body’s growth and repair of physical wear and tear.” On this basis, it is clear that the collective processes of performing various functions of food are called nutrition.


Nutrition is the relationship between man and his wellness and includes physical, social, psychological, and biological aspects. Nutrition science and food complement each other. They cannot be separated. The food consumed by man nourishes the body along with pacifying the hunger of the stomach, it depends on the composition of that person’s body, his physical and mental condition, his physical activity, etc. If a person gets proper nutrition from the food he eats, then it is called perfect or ideal nutrition.

If a person does not get proper nutrition from the food consumed by him, then it is called malnutrition. It has two situations – one in which the food elements are more than the requirement, the other where the nutritional elements are less than the requirement. These conditions are called malnutrition and undernutrition. It is mainly of the following two types:

  1. Good Nutrition
  2. Malnutrition

1. Good Nutrition

Good Nutrition is the condition where any human being can maintain his body and health with the food he consumes and receives nutritious elements of all the food as required, which go into the body to complete its functions, give energy to man, builds the body, and provide protection. Nutrition or good nutrition refers to that state of nutrition in which the person remains physically and mentally balanced and his performance is according to his age.

With the said nutrition, a person can get good health, because his body has the ability to fight diseases. His bones, muscles, and anatomy i.e. body height, length, and weight are proportional to his age because body-building food elements are in proper quantity in his food, the person has enthusiasm and concentration to work, and there is no lack of power.

The reason he remains happy is that there is enough fat laver in the body because fat and carbs are in sufficient quantity in the food. Due to the proper amount of mineral salts in the food, bones, teeth, and hair remain healthy. As a result of all this, his digestive system remains smooth

The World Health Organization (WHO) has clarified good health in this way-

“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

Characteristics of the good nutrition-The following are the characteristics of good nutrition:

  1. The body of a person receiving good nutrition remains strong and there is a balance in his body length proportion.
  2. The body’s digestive organs, blood circulation, and respiratory system function well.
  3. The muscles of a well-nourished person are healthy and strong.
  4. There is a normal layer of fat in the body which makes the skin look smooth and healthy.
  5. The mucous membrane is pink in color.
  6. Teeth and gums are healthy.
  7. Hair is long, shiny, and thick.
  8. Eyesight is correct and their vision is perfect.
  9. He always feels fresh, he feels normal hunger, and he is less sick.
  10. There is energy in the body, he is enthusiastic and he gets good sleep.
  11. The immune system of s well-nourished person remains strong and healthy.
  12. He can work hard and does not feel tired soon because of his healthy stamina.
  13. Along with physical health, mental health is also good.
  14. Excellent posture, taut head, raised chest, flat shoulders, and healthy stomach,
  15. Well-developed bone structure.
  16. Sleep is regular and regular excretion habits.

Need of nutrition/good nutrition—The main requirements of nutrition/ good nutrition are as follows:

  1. To meet physical needs and maintain weight according to age and height, there should be enough energy in the body for which fats and carbs are necessary.
  2. An adequate amount of protein is necessary for building and rebuilding muscle tissue, providing and controlling energy, and building the body.
  3. To make the body fit and strong, an adequate amount of minerals, vitamins, and water are needed to control the blood and major body processes. For good nutrition, it is necessary that a person should take the proper amount of carbohydrates, protein, mineral salts, vitamins, and water in his diet so that the development of the body takes place in the right proportion and the body does not show any kind of deficiency due to nutritional elements.
  4. It protects you against many chronic non-communicable diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. It also maintains the immune system.

Apart from the above-mentioned characteristics, good appetite, taste in food, doing any work satisfactorily, and having emotional stability, all these symptoms show the states of good nutrition. Good nutrition keeps the body healthy, its functionality remains physically and mentally balanced. We make our place in society by treating our friends, relatives, and colleagues with courtesy, along with this we cooperate in the progress of society and the nation.

Types of good nutrition- The following are the main types of nutrition/ good nutrition:

  1. Balanced nutrition-Balanced nutrition is that, which provides all the necessary nutrients to your body. Nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals are found in those nutrients. In other words, according to age, sex, occupation, body composition, body weight, and physical condition, the number of nutrients required to remain healthy is determined. If the person is getting the such amount of nutrition from the food he is taking, then it will be called balanced nutrition. Fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and proteins should be included in your daily diet for balanced nutrition.
  2. Adequate (optimal) nutrition-Optimum nutrition is also called best nutrition. If a person takes these substances (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals) in more than 50% of the prescribed quantity on the basis of his age, sex, occupation, body composition, body weight, and physical condition, then this is called adequate nutrition.

Adequate nutrition includes the balance of food ingredients and nutrients to meet the needs of an organism for the basic maintenance of physiological function, growth, and reproduction/lactation.

Things to keep in mind for Adequate (optimal) nutrition—The following are key points to note for adequate (optimal) nutrition

1. Fuel your body-First of all, don’t eat less! Calories are not the enemy. If you fuel your body for health and daily activities, you will optimize your health and performance. If you restrict calories or whole food groups, you can deprive yourself of the energy and nutrients you need to live and feel your best. If you are on a low-energy diet your approach may be too extreme – even if your goal is to lose weight. Eating less is not always better.

2. Consider Energy Density-Energy density is the amount of energy you get from eating a certain amount of food. A high-energy-dense food contains a large number of calories per standard serving (eg pizza), while a low-energy-dense food will contain a small number of calories per standard serving (eg spinach). You can eat far more spinach than pizza to get the same amount of energy.

One type of energy density is no better than the other. A balanced diet should contain foods that are both high and low in energy. However, if you have specific goals, such as weight gain or weight loss, it can be helpful to think about the energy density of foods.

3. Focus on Whole Foods—Whole foods are an important part of any balanced diet. By whole foods, we mean those foods that are minimally processed and commonly found within the confines of the grocery store. For example fruits, vegetables, meat, seafood, most dairy products, eggs, and whole grains are full of important macronutrients (fat, protein, and fat) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) that our bodies need for growth.

4. 80/20 Rule-When it comes to your diet, you should always remember two things. The first is that life happens. The second is that no one is perfect. Food should never be the biggest source of stress in your life, nor should it prevent you from enjoying life’s important events and experiences. This is where the 80/20 rule comes in. It should be your best effort to eat healthy, whole foods 80 percent of the time that meets your energy needs and goals. The other 20 percent of the time, don’t worry about calories and focus on enjoying yourself at that moment.

5. Fill in the gaps-What’s the best way to identify gaps in your diet? How do you know when it’s time to start supplementing with additional nutrients like protein or vitamins? These are questions that never have the same answer for everyone. There are many factors that determine supplementation.

The Importance of Adequate Nutrition-Most people know that adequate nutrition and physical activity help maintain a healthy weight, but the benefits of adequate nutrition far outweigh them all. The importance of adequate nutrition can be explained under the following points:

  1. Adequate nutrition reduces the risk of certain diseases including heart disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers, and osteoporosis.
  2. Adequate nutrition helps in reducing high blood pressure.
  3. Adequate nutrition is helpful in reducing cholesterol.
  4. Adequate nutrition helps in staying healthy.
  5. Adequate nutrition enhances the ability to fight disease and recover from injury.
  6. Adequate nutrition is helpful in increasing energy levels.

2. Malnutrition

If the nutrition is not proper then it is insufficient nutrition or excessive nutrition. Both these conditions result in malnutrition. If a person does not get all the food elements in proper quantity according to his physical requirement or gets more than required due to which growth and development stop or if there is a harmful effect on the body’s functioning, then it is called malnutrition.

Sometimes such conditions arise in the environment which keeps the consumer away from its nutritional value even after using suitable and adequate food items. In malnutrition, out of all the 6 nutritious elements of the food, the amount of some nutritious elements is more than the demand of the body and the amount of some nutritious elements is less than the requirement.

Example-If the number of carbs and fat in the food is more than the requirement, the weight of the human body becomes more than the requirement according to his age, which is harmful to him. Due to a lack of vitality and mineral salts, there is a decrease in body-building work and immunity. Many times, even if there are elements in the food, there is a state of malnutrition, due to improper absorption, metabolism, and storage process of these elements in the body.

They are excreted out of the body along with useless substances. Apart from this, there are some other reasons due to which the condition of malnutrition arises. When food is taken in insufficient quantity and quality and the physical requirement cannot be met by food, then it is called a state of malnutrition. This is the exact opposite of good nutrition.

According to dietitian Emily Wonder, “Malnutrition means disordered nutrition which may be due to excessive nutrition (over nutrition) or deficient nutrition (undernutrition). Dietary deficiency may be both qualitative and quantitative.”

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