A2zNotes.com -Best Bcom BBA Bed Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

Clinical Assessment

Clinical examination is one of the simplest and most practical methods used to assess nutritional deprivation. Nutritional deprivation here refers to a deficiency of vitamins, minerals, proteins, energy, and other nutrients. When there is a nutritional deficiency it is associated with physical signs and symptoms: what we refer to as clinical signs which can be valuable aids in detecting malnutrition. Clinical signs are changes (specific and non-specific in the body) that are indicative of nutritional deficiency and/or excess.

General clinical examination with special attention to organs like mouth, eyes, skin, nails, tongue, muscle, bone, etc. is useful. Therefore knowledge of relevant signs and their detection helps in establishing the nutritional diagnosis.

The table presents some of the commonly occurring signs and symptoms of nutritional deprivation with their related body parts/system which can be used for the purpose of physical examination in nutritional surveys.

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material

Clinical assessment is fast and easy to perform, but the limitation is that they do not help in detecting early cases of deficiency as the signs and symptoms appear after prolonged biochemical changes have set in.

BCom 1st Year Nutrition and Types of Nutrition Notes Study Material
Consequences of malnutrition

Having considered the consequences of malnutrition, it is important for us now as public health nutrition students to be able to assess/identify individuals who are suffering from malnutrition or identify population groups or individuals who are at risk of malnutrition. How do we identify which individual is of optimal health, who is underweight or overweight or obese or suffering from a nutrient deficiency? How do we get to know the severity and magnitude of the nutritional problem? Are there any indicators? How do we assess the nutritional status? Our next section deals with this.

Causes of malnutrition-There are the following causes of malnutrition:

  1. Inadequate food-Food is the medium of nutrition, if less food is consumed than the requirement of the body, then the nutritional elements available in it are also less and the condition of malnutrition arises.
  2. Improper food-Some food items are nutritionally inappropriate for the body, which hinders the functioning and development of the body and controls the digestive system, such substances can also be the cause of malnutrition.
  3. Food unsuitable for physical condition, age, and nature-Different food is useful for different ages, sex, different stages of the life cycles. Proper food provides proper nutrition.
  4. Socio-economic reasons—The availability of food items depends on the basis of economic conditions. Along with this, social beliefs like fasting, etc. can be the cause of malnutrition.
  5. Unhealthy environment–Lack of clean air, lack of sunlight and lack of cleanliness can also be the reason for malnutrition.
  6. Insomnia and lack of sleep-Sleep make a person stress-free and healthy. Nutritious food also does not show its usefulness in the absence of sleep.
  7. Ignorance-Ignorance is one of the main causes of malnutrition in our country India and other underdeveloped and developing countries. Not taking food containing vitamins, minerals, and salts in food is a sign of ignorance. The common man has a belief that nutritious food can be obtained only by expensive means,
  8. Eating Habits-Many faulty eating habits are helpful in causing malnutrition; e.g. (i) aversion to food, (ii) eating at frequent intervals or late (iii) Taking food frequently at short intervals (iv) Eating more fried and spicy food (v) Consumption of alcohol or excessive tea, coffee, tobacco.
  9. Defective digestion and absorption-In many circumstances, proper digestion and nutrition of the diet is not possible, due to which the condition of malnutrition can arise:

(i) Liver diseases obstruct the digestion of nutritious elements such as vitamins and proteins.

(ii) Certain drugs and genetic defects also affect metabolism.

(iii) Food cooked ignorantly destroys its nutritional value even though adequate nutrition is available.

(iv) In diabetes, the condition of undernutrition arises due to the excretion of sugar through urine.

(v) There is a deficiency of potassium in chronic diarrhea.

(vi) Symptoms of anemia due to a deficiency of iron minerals are manifested in intense menstrual bleeding.

Sometimes some mental health issues business and family problems, and failure in examination or other work are some of the reasons that make the person worried, as a result, he shows neglect towards food, and the situation of malnutrition arises, and his physical and psychological development is adversely affected.

Treatment of Malnutrition-In daily life, a man is so busy with work that he is not able to take out enough time for necessary tasks. In today’s run-of-the-mill life, he does not get the time to work at the right time. Due to not taking food at the right time, not paying attention to one’s lifestyle, working for long hours, not chewing food properly, consuming intoxicants, removing fatigue with tea or coffee, etc, the person becomes a victim of malnutrition. All these reasons can be overcome by improving your daily routine.

For the prevention of malnutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute. Mysore has developed a very low-cost balanced diet called Indian Multipurpose Food (I.N.S.). In this, 25% gram flour and 75% groundnut flour are mixed and all the vitamins are added in proper quantity. Apart from this, a person can avoid malnutrition by improving his diet. A balanced diet is the main treatment for malnutrition. The inclusion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fibrous substances, etc. in the food is absolutely necessary.

Types of Malnutrition-There are mainly the following types of Malnutrition:

  1. Over Nutrition-Over consumption of calories or vitamins and minerals can result in overnutrition.

In our country where the poor people are victims of inadequate nutrition, the rich class is suffering from excessive nutrition and obesity. Overeating or eating more fatty substances in food – Ghee, oil, butter, cream, egg, nuts, sweets, and starchy fruits leads to obesity due to continuous consumption. People in this class do not even have to do much work, so most of the energy is stored in the form of fat in the body, and the body weight increases. Due to obesity, the body is prone to many diseases. The body becomes a victim and diseases of the heart and blood arteries, diabetes, kidney diseases, gallstones, and arthritis are very common.

Nowadays children are also liking fast food, burger, pizza, etc. They are getting attracted to fast food and seeing the qualities of lentils, roti, rice, etc., due to which calories are reaching the body in excess, as well as children, are afraid to do physical labor and prefer watching TV working on computers, etc. Eating fast food has become a part of today’s lifestyle.

The ill effects of adopting western culture are coming to the fore today, children are getting diabetes, eye diseases, etc. at a young age, and the government is serious about this problem. According to government statistics, while on the one hand poverty and malnutrition are causing deaths, on the other hand, people are also dying due to overeating. Excess of protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, and mineral salts in the food also has a harmful effect on the body.

If the amount of protein in the diet is increased without any reason, kidney function increases which can be harmful. Excess of carbs increases obesity, increased weight invites other diseases like diabetes, heart disease, etc.

Due to the excess of fat, the blood arteries become distorted, which affects blood flow and blood pressure. The chances of getting heart disease increase. Excess of Vitamin ‘A’ causes difficulty in breathing in children, the skin starts drying, the skin gets stretched, the bones become weak, there are complains of joint pain and the liver becomes enlarged.

  1. Inadequate/undernutrition-Inadequate Nutrition/Undernutrition devotes insufficient intake of energy and nutrients to meet an individual’s needs to maintain good health. Inadequate nutrition prevents proper growth and development of the body as well as increases the chances of developing diseases due to lack of nutrients.

75% of the people in India are victims of inadequate nutrition. Inadequate nutrition is most commonly seen in 3-5-year-olds. At this age, they need more nutrition but they do not get enough nutrition. Most children are deficient in protein, vitamins, iron, etc. Protein and calorie malnutrition is observed in 30-40% of children, and anemia in 60% of children.

Every year thousands of children suffer from carotomalacia and become blind due to a deficiency of Vitamin A. In the absence of nutritious elements that increase immunity in the diet, children do not have the ability to prevent diseases, due to which they become victims of infection and death up to 40% in underdeveloped countries whereas, in developed countries, the number of people who die from such diseases is 6.8%.

Scurvy, beriberi, anemia, kwashiorkor, pangha disease are caused by insufficient nutrition. Defective body shape, deformity of bones, suppressed chest, incompletely developed teeth, loose body, etc. are the symptoms of inadequate nutrition.

A severely undernourished person is weak and suffers from attacks of fainting and psychological symptoms also begin to appear. Symptoms of physical apathy may be evident in such a person. The muscles related to the respiratory system become weak and the death rate increases due to Bronchopneumonia. Undernourished people suffer from diarrhea in general. In times of famine, people who are hungry often have high death rates due to epidemics like typhoid, and cholera.

If the weight of the affected person is less than 70% of the average weight, then starvation should be considered very serious and dangerous.

Symptoms of Inadequate Nutrition—The main symptoms of insufficient nutrition are:

  1. The skin becomes wrinkled, dry, and lifeless.
  2. The body weight gradually decreases.
  3. Hair loses its luster and looks dry.
  4. The body appears yellow due to a lack of blood.
  5. Digestive diseases occur.
  6. The eyesight decreases, and night blindness and other eye diseases occur.
  7. The bones of children get deformed and their growth slows down.
  8. There is no interest in doing any work and the ability to work decreases, fatigue is felt quickly. There is a lack of physical and mental strength.
  9. Due to the low immunity of the body, a person becomes easily affected by infectious diseases.
  10. Imperfectly developed teeth and erratic eruption of teeth in the jaws are symptoms of inadequate nutrition.

Due to insufficient nutrition—Today malnutrition is prevalent not only in India but in many other underdeveloped countries. The population of these countries is more than developed countries but 3/4 of the population is sick and physically weak. Children are just a structure of thin bones. The main causes of insufficient nutrition are as follows:

  1. Poverty-Poverty is plentiful in those countries where this problem is there. They’re 3/4 of the population is living below the poverty line. Their main problem is food, shelter, and clothing. If they do not get enough food to fill their stomach, then the question of getting nutritious food does not arise.
  2. Illiteracy-The meaning of illiteracy is the lack of education in nutrition and dietetics. The victims of this problem do not know which food items are full of nutrition and are cheap. Due to a lack of this knowledge, they are unable to consume nutritious foods. They are also ignorant of the proper methods of preparing food. For example, throwing away the water while cooking rice, removing the coarse peels of vegetables, washing them after cutting, etc. are such reasons.
  3. Shortage of food items-Food items are not produced so much in proportion to the population, so the difference between population and other production increases.
  4. Adulteration in food items-Today a corrupt way of earning money is by adulteration of food items like adding mixing stones in papaya seeds in black pepper, others in turmeric, wheat, rice, lentils, etc. Due to this adulterated food, there is an effect on nutrition and the functions of the body become irregular.
  5. Wrong food habits-Sometimes we continue with our wrong food habits despite our education and knowledge. Even after knowing that too much chili, spices, and fried greasy food are harmful to us, due to the good taste, we are not able to leave them. The wrong time of eating and the increased gap between two meals is also included in our wrong habits.
  6. Religious and social superstitions-Many religious and social reasons are also responsible for insufficient nutrition like fasting, etc. Even if a person is physically weak, he is not able to leave them due to religious beliefs. Sometimes on some religious occasions, some food items have to be sacrificed.

Nutrients that remove insufficient nutrition-If enough nutrition is not received, it has a bad effect on the body, by hampering the growth and development of the body, its physical strength starts decreasing, and the power to fight diseases decreases. Many diseases arise in the body due to the deficiency of carbs, vitamins, and minerals. The description of the main nutrients that remove insufficient nutrition is as follows:

  1. Protein- Protein is a body-building nutritious element. Due to its deficiency in food, the growth, and development of the body stop. It is needed in high quantity in children, adolescents, and pregnant women, but due to deficiency of this element in these stages, growth, and development are stunted which has a harmful effect. Its deficiency causes marasmus and kwashiorkor diseases.
  2. Carbs—Carbs work to give energy to the body. Due to its deficiency, there is a lack of energy in the body and a decrease in strength, which leads to weakness and weight loss.
  3. Fat-Fat also serves to give energy to the body. Due to its deficiency, the skin becomes dry, the weight decreases, and the muscles start loosening.
  4. Vitamins—Their main function is to provide protection to the body. Different vitamins play different roles in this function,
  5. Vitamin ‘A’-Its special contribution is in the protection of the eyes and helps in the growth of the body. Its deficiency causes visual impairment, a decrease in the ability to see clearly.
  6. Vitamin ‘B’-Its deficiency causes weakness in the body, the skin becomes dry, and there are blisters: in the mouth, there is a complaint of indigestion, and its deficiency causes beriberi disease.
  7. Vitamin ‘C’-This vitamin strengthens the teeth and gums, its deficiency causes a disease called scurvy, and this vitamin provides protection from colds. Due to its deficiency iron salts are not absorbed in the body and there is a shortage of blood in the body.
  8. Vitamin ‘D’-Its deficiency affects our bones and teeth. Its deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
  9. Vitamins ‘E’ and ‘K’-are essential for the body’s defenses and fertility.
  10. Mineral salts-Mineral salts control the chemical reactions of the body and do the work of building the body. Due to its deficiency, physical growth stops.
  11. Calcium and Phosphorus-deficiency affect the strength of bones and teeth.
  12. Iron element-Due to its deficiency, the amount of hemoglobin in the blood decreases.
  13. Iodine—A deficiency of this causes esophagus disease and hinders physical growth.

Leave a Reply