BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material
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BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material
Diarrhoea is a bowel movement that is more liquid than solid or has a loose texture. Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of watery loose stools, accompanied by an excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes.
In addition to loose or runny stools, diarrhoea is also associated with other digestive symptoms including:
- Cramps • Abdominal bloating and pain
- A bubbly feeling in the intestines
- An urgent need to have a bowel movement
Diarrhoea can happen for a wide variety of reasons and it usually goes away on its own in one to three days.
Who can get diarrhoea?
Anyone can get diarrhoea. It’s not uncommon for many people to have diarrhoea several times a year. It’s very common and usually not a major concern for most people.
However, diarrhoea can be serious in certain groups of people including:
- Young children
- Older adults (the elderly).
- Those with medical conditions.
For each of these people, diarrhoea can cause other health problems.
Types of Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea is mainly of two types:
- Organic Diarrhoea-If there is a disease like dysentery, typhoid etc., which causes diarrhoea.
- Functional Diarrhoea—The main reason for this is stress, anxiety, worry etc. Neuro-muscular overactivity increases greatly due to emotional stress, thus causing diarrhoea.
Diarrhoea also occurs due to physical, chemical or bacterial irritation in the mucous membrane of the intestines. This disease mostly occurs in summer and rainy season.
The main reason for the spread of this disease is:
- Contaminated water,
- Contaminated milk and beverages,
- Stale and contaminated food,
- Rotten fruits.
On the basis of severity, diarrhoea is divided into two types:
- Acute Diarrhoea.
- Chronic Diarrhoea.
1. Acute Diarrhoea-It is short-term diarrhoea and lasts for 24-28 hours. The stool is very thin. Pain in the abdomen is accompanied by cramping. The stool starts to be expelled in more quantity and more frequently.
Reason—The main causes of acute diarrhoea are:
- Consumption of rotten fruits and vegetables,
- Consuming contaminated food or uncovered food.
- From chemical toxins found in food items, such as arsenic, glass, mercury etc.
- Bacterial Infection,
- Some bacteria enter the food and make it toxic, e.g. Salmonella staphylococcal bacteria poisoning.
- This diarrhoea is of short duration, so the patient should be given complete rest.
- Due to frequent excretion of stool, there is a lack of water in the body, so ORS solution, salt sugar solution, fruit juice etc. should be given to meet the lack of water. (BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material)
- The amount of sodium and potassium salts also comes out with the stool, so it should be supplied.
- Khichdi etc. should be given when the patient’s condition is cured.
- When the condition of the disease improves, semi-solid food should be given, such as khichdi, Moong Dal, etc.
2. Chronic Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea that lasts for more than 2-4 weeks is considered as chronic diarrhoea.
A small amount of faeces comes out in it. Dehydration is caused by the loss of excess water from the body along with the faeces. There is also a lack of nutrients in the body.
To avoid disease, special attention should be paid to the diet so that there is no shortage of water and other nutrients in the patient’s body. (BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material)
The following are the causes of chronic diarrhoea.
- Diarrhoea becomes chronic if spicy food is eaten after acute diarrhoea is cured.
- In case of metabolic irregularity.
- In case of infection in large intestine and colon.
- In case of liver disease (cirrhosis).
- If there is a reduction in the absorption capacity.
- In case of exacerbation of the disease, only liquids should be given, such as tomato juice, fruit juice, rice water, lentil water etc.
- There should not be a deficiency of sodium and potassium salts in the body, so the solution of Electral powder or ORS should be given at an interval of one hour. (BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material)
- After the disease is controlled, barley water should be given with fat free milk.
- If there is a slight improvement in the health, semi-liquid food, such as milk, curd, mashed banana, khichdi, lassi should be given.
- When the patient starts digesting the semi-liquid diet, then boiled vegetables without chili spices can be given to eat.
- Excess excretion of faeces leads to a deficiency of iron in the body, as well as many B, vitamins such as Niacin, folic acid, etc. Therefore, one tablet of multi-vitamin should be given daily for the supply of minerals and vitamins.
The most severe threat posed by diarrhoea is dehydration. During a diarrhoeal episode, water and electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate) are lost through liquid stools, vomit, sweat, urine and breathing. Dehydration occurs when these losses are not replaced. (BCom 1st Year Nutrition During Diarrhoea Notes Study Material)
The degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three.
- Severe dehydration (at least two of the following signs):
> Sunken eyes
> Unable to drink or drink poorly
> Skin pinch goes back very slowly (>2 seconds)
- Some dehydration (two or more of the following signs):
> Restlessness and irritability
> Sunken eyes
> Drinks eagerly, thirsty
- No dehydration (not enough signs to classify as some or severe dehydration).
Diarrhoea Diet Restrictions: Food Items to limit
- Milk and dairy products
- Fried, fatty, greasy foods
- Spicy Foods
- Raw vegetables
- Coffee and Soda
Do’s and Don’ts While Following Diet Plan for Diarrhoea
- Re-hydrate, drink plenty of fluids such as Coconut water, pure water
- Have banana, rice cereals, toast etc.
- Eat small, frequent meals. Eating heavy meals after diarrhoea puts stress on your digestive system, making it hard for your recovering stomach to process foods properly.
- Be careful with what you eat or drink.
- Drink Caffeine.
- Drink milk or eat fried foods and sweets.
Food Items you can easily consume in Diarrhoea Diet Plan
- Clear broths like chicken broth
- Electrolyte-enhanced water or coconut water with vitamins or electrolytes.
- Decaffeinated tea
- Banana, Apple