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BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

Active organic substances are those which are essential for the good health of the body. Although they are rarely needed in the body, yet they are essential for maintaining the growth, development, health, agility and vitality of the body.

Vitamins provide protection to the body from various diseases and regulate and control various body functions. Vitamins are essential for the good health of organs like bones, teeth, skin, hair, eyes etc. The credit for the discovery of vitamins goes to the Polish scientist Casimir Funk. The literal meaning of vitamin is ‘life giver’, the word vitamin is derived from Vital Amine. The word ‘E’ at the end of Vitamin’ was later removed and it came to be called simply ‘Vitamin’. Each vitamin is named after the English letters ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’, ‘K’.


By 1936, complete information regarding vitamins was obtained, and it was proved that Vitamin is an organic compound which is present in small amounts in our food.

People who eat a variety of foods are unlikely to develop most vitamin deficiencies. A well-balanced diet is often enough to meet the vitamin needs of healthy individuals. Vitamins have three characteristics:

  • They are natural components of foods; usually present in very small amounts.
  • They are essential for normal physiological function (eg. growth, reproduction, etc).
  • When absent from the diet, they will cause a specific deficiency.

Vitamins are classified as either: fat-soluble (will dissolve in oil) or water soluble (will dissolve in water). Only four of the vitamins: A, D, E and K are fat-soluble. The other 9 vitamins are water-soluble, including: vitamin C and all the B vitamins (Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamine, B., Folate, B., Pantothenic Acid and Biotin). It is also important to note that, the term “vitamin” can refer to several compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin.

For example, “vitamin A”, includes the compounds: retinal, retinol, retinoic acid and four known carotenoids. All these compounds can be converted into active vitamin A in the body and are therefore considered to be precursors to vitamin A.

Vitamins are grouped into two categories:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat.

There are nine water-soluble vitamins. They are not stored in the body. Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine. Although, the body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins, they have to be taken on a regular basis to prevent shortage in the body. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver many years.

Some vitamin-like factors are also needed by the body such as:

  • Choline
  • Carnitine

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material



(1) These vitamins are soluble in water.

(2) It cannot be stored in excess in the body. It dissolves in water and is quickly excreted from the body.

(3) The effect of its deficiency starts to be seen on the body.

(4) Water soluble vitamins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and cobalt in some amount. Due to their rapid reduction in the body, it is necessary to take them daily in food. Give water soluble vitamins. There are three types of ter soluble vitamins – Vitamins ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘P’.

Vitamin ‘B’ is not one but a group of many vitamins, which are collectively called vitamin ‘B’ (complex) group.

(1) Vitamin ‘B’

By 1882-1901, Eijkman proved by experiment that the use of polished rice cause a disease called beri-beri and it is cured by the use of vegetables, fish and meat in food.

In 1911, Casimir Funk described the element found in rice polish as a vitamin and named it anti-beriberi factor.

In 1926, Williams and Klein made crystals of vitamin B and its composition.

In 1936, Williams synthesized vitamin B and gave its chemical formula.

Chemical Properties, Composition and Structure-Pure Vitamin B does not have any colour and odour. In general, its smell and taste are like east. It is soluble in water and insoluble in chloroform and benzene. This vitamin is rapidly destroyed in alkaline solution and splits into its constituent pyrimidine and Thiazole rings.

This vitamin remains stable and active for some time in acidic solution. Vitamin B is not adversely affected by the acidic medium in the stomach in the human body, but it is quickly destroyed due to the pancreatic juice in the duodenum. It is stable in acidic medium by keeping it at 100 °C temperature.

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material


Vitamin B1 is absorbed in the small intestine mucosa and gets phosphorylated and converted to thiamine pyro-phosphate and adenylic acid. The salts of vitamin B1 are not fully absorbed and are quickly destroyed thereby the alkaline medium.

(1) It is soluble in water

(2) It is also soluble in some amount of alcohol,

(3) It is salty in taste.

Sources of Occurrence-Cereals and whole pulses are its main sources. Apart from this, seeds are also found in large quantities in dry fruits. It is also found in meat, fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits.

Rice and dried yeast are excellent sources.

Functions- (1) Helps in the growth of the body,

(2) Helps in the smooth functioning of nerves,

(3) Helps in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Effect of Thiamine Deficiency—If we do not take a balanced diet, then there is a deficiency of thiamine in the body. Sometimes it is deficient even if is not absorbed or if there is a deficiency of thiamine in the body due to lack of excess supply under special circumstances (pregnancy, lactating or illness). Deficiency of thiamine causes beri-beri disease in which the following symptoms are seen:

(1) Loss of appetite, feeling of heaviness.

(2) Nausea

(3) Indigestion, Constipation

(4) Headache, Sleeplessness

(5) Shortness of breath, Feeling tired early,

(6) Feeling weak in the legs,

(7) Muscle weakness, pain in pressing the muscles of the legs,

(8) Decreased activity of the ankles,

(9) Reduced functionality,

(10) Burning sensation and numbness in the feet.

The above symptoms are of Beri-Beri disease. If its deficiency is not rectified even after the appearance of these symptoms, then the characteristic symptom of beri-beri include nervous system disorders, heart disorders and water accumulation in the body.

In this way there are three types of Beri-Beri diseases:

  1. Wet Beri-Beri—Swelling occurs on the feet, mouth and neck. The pulse rate intensifies. There is difficulty in breathing. Blood pressure increases.
  2. Dry Beri-Beri- Disorders related to the nervous system are prominent and the muscles become weak, hence it is difficult to walk.
  3. Infantile beriberi is seen in breastfed infants of thiamine-deficient mothers, who live in developing nations. Infants who are breastfed by a thiamine-deficient mother usually develop symptoms of deficiency between the second and fourth month of life. They are pale, restless, and unable to sleep, prone to diarrhoea, and have muscle wasting and oedema in their arms and legs. They develop heart failure and nerve damage as well.

Treatment-Increasing the amount of vitamin B complex in the diet improves the disease condition. It is advisable to give high protein and energy rich diet in case of disease.

Recommended Daily Amount-Thiamine being helpful in the energy metabolism of carbohydrates, is needed in proportion to its calories. According to FAO/WHO scientists, 4 mg of thiamine is required for 1000 calories.

(2) Vitamin ‘B2‘-Riboflavin

In 1932, Alexander Blyth discovered the flava protein in which vitamin B or flavin yellow pigment is found. Initially this vitamin was named as Vitamin B2 in America and Vitamin B in England. In stature, it was known as vitamin B2 riboflavin. It was synthesized by Kunh and Karrer in 1935.

Chemical Composition-Riboflavin consists of a pentose sugar called ribose and an allogeneic nucleus. It has a chemical formula.

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material


(1) It is less soluble in water. Only 12 mg of riboflavin is soluble in 100 ml of water at 25°C, whereas on increasing the temperature (100°C), 230 mg B2 dissolves in 100 ml of water.

(2) After dissolving in water, it becomes a greenish-yellow liquid.

(3) Riboflavin in its pure form is an orange-yellow fibrous substance.

(4) Its taste is astringent.

(5) It is odourless.

(6) Riboflavin is stable towards acid, temperature and air. But on coming in contact with alkali, it gets destroyed at room temperature.

(7) When riboflavin is placed in contact with an acidic solution, it converts to lumichrome and gives off a greenish-yellow glow.

(8) When an alkaline solution of riboflavin is exposed to ultraviolet rays of the sun, it gets converted into ‘lumiflavin’ and it gives a greenish-yellow glow.

(9) It is unstable to alkali and ultraviolet rays of the sun and gets destroyed when it comes in contact with it.


(1) The main function of flava protein is to act as a co-enzyme in the respiratory function of the cell in tissues.

(2) Vitamin B2 helps in the formation of red blood cells.

(3) It is an essential factor for the health of the eye and for normal vision

(4) Vitamin B is essential for normal growth and quick healing of wounds

(5) To keep the skin healthy, vitamin B2 is essential for the health of the skin.

(6) To regulate and control hormones, vitamin B2, is necessary. It is also essential for the activation of the insulin hormone.

Storage-Vitamin B2 is found in the body, in the liver (16 mg/g), in the kidney (20 – 25 M/g) and in the muscles (23 mg). Vitamin B2 is found in the form of component in the above ingredients and not as an independent excess. Therefore, there is a daily requirement of vitamin B2. The excess amount of B2 is expelled.

Daily Requirement–Vitamin B2 helps in the metabolism of proteins, carbs, fats, so its requirement depends on the caloric demand of human beings. For every 1000 calories, 0.55 ml/g of B2 is required. (0.55 min. Gram B2/1000 Calorie)

According to ICMR experts, amount of vitamin B, required in different stages:

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

Effects of an overdose of riboflavin

In humans, the side effects of riboflavin overdose have not been observed so far. Although there is a side effect of excess of B2 on rats. Too much of it kills the rats. This vitamin being less soluble in water can also be an important reason for this.

Effects of riboflavin deficiency

(1) Skin lesions. The first effect of riboflavin deficiency is on the skin of the face, eyes and nervous system. Due to its inferiority, the skin of the nose, ears, cheeks and face gets burnt. Scabs start coming out on them. There are sores on the face and mouth.

(2) There are wounds in the edges of the lips and their edges are torn which causes blood to come out.

(3) There are blisters on the tongue and red papillae emerge.

(4) Due to the deficiency of B2 the ability of the eyes to tolerate light decreases.

(5) Due to the deficiency of B2 there is a wound on the testicles of men.

(6) The bacterial count of white blood cells (WBC) is reduced due to the absence of B2.

(7) Man appears weak and tired.

(8) The physical growth stops. There is no appetite, the digestive power becomes weak and growth and development stops.

Absorption, Storage and Excretion of Riboflavin

B2 is absorbed in the small intestine. It is carried and distributed to every cell and tissue of the body during normal blood circulation through vasculature. B2 is not stored in the body. Excess riboflavin is excreted through urine. It is also excreted in very small amounts through sweat.

(3) Niacin, Vitamin B3, Nicotinic Acid Nicotinamide

In 1911-1913, Funk scientist first isolated this vitamin from yeast and polished rice.

Kuhn and workers synthesized this enzyme in 1935.

Chemical Composition- Niacin/Nicotinic Acid or B-Carboxylic Acid of Pyridine.


(1) Niacin is less soluble in cold water but generally soluble in hot water.

(2) It is a white colored needle-shaped fibrous substance.

(3) Its taste is astringent.

(4) It dissolves in alkali hydroxides and carbonates to form salts.

5) It is stable towards acids, bases, temperature and air.

(6) Even after boiling at 120 °C, its capacity remains.

Absorption-Absorption and swelling of niacin occurs easily and quickly in the small intestine. It is not stored in the body but is present in all cells for the metabolism of tissues. Its excess amount is excreted in the urine.

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