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BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material


(1) Vitamin ‘A’

Vitamin A was the first of the fat soluble vitamins discovered. It is mainly related to chlorophyll the green color of plants. Carotenoid pigments found in yellow fruits and vegetables are pre-vitamins for vitamin A.

MeColum and Davis discovered this vitamin in 1915 and it was obtained in pure form in 1937.

This vitamin is also called retinal. It is obtained from carotene, a substance found in plants. It is called the Precursor of Vitamin A. The molecular formula of carotenes is H40H56. These are of several types: Like-a, Br. Beta carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body.


β Carotene is found in plant foods. β Carotenes are dark red colored fibrous substances.

Types of Vitamin ‘A’

Vitamin ‘A’ is mainly of four types. Many foods contain more than one vitamin ‘A’.

  1. Vitamin A (Retinol)- It is found only in animal food items, such as meat, fish, egg, milk, cheese, butter, ghee etc. Marine fish are the main means of obtaining retinal.
  2. Vitamin A aldehyde-It is also called retinal. It is present in the rhodopsin and iodopsin pigments present in the rods and cones of the retina of the eyes. This vitamin is helpful in improving vision.
  3. Vitamin A, Retinoic Acid-It is produced in the body and it is absolutely necessary for physical growth and development. This vitamin is not helpful in eye health and reproduction, as it is not converted into retinal.
  4. Vitamin A2 It is found only in the liver of fish found in fast water. Vitamin A is less active. Its chemical structure has more than one double bond as compared to A2.

In terms of activity, this vitamin is very rarely active (only 30%). Vitamin A is the most active (100%) which plays an important role in eye health and reproduction.

Function of Vitamin A

  1. Vitamin A is very important for good eye health in providing normal vision to the eyes. The ability to see in dim light comes from Vitamin A only. There are rods and cons in the retina of the eyes. It also contains pigments that impart color. Rhodopsin provides the ability to see in low light.

Deficiency of Vitamin A leads to Night Blindness.

Vitamin + Aldehyde + Apsin = Rhodopsin

Thus this cycle goes on continuously.

  1. Helpful in physical growth–Vitamin A plays an important role in physical growth and development. Its deficiency stops the pace of physical growth. It is found from research that in the absence of vitamin A, the division activity of cells decreases by 30/1. Therefore, when the division of the cells of the body is less, then the formation of new cells and tissues will also be less. As a result, physical growth will stop.
  2. Helpful in the health of reproductive organs-Vitamin A plays an important role in the good health of reproductive organs and the smooth the functioning of reproductive organs. In its absence, disorders and reproductive organs of men and women. There is no complete secretion of sex hormones.
  3. To keep the skin healthy-Vitamin ‘A’ is essential to keep the skin elastic, attractive, shiny, soft, beautiful and healthy. Due to its deficiency, the skin becomes dry, lifeless, dull and hard. Its softness and aliphaticity is destroyed. The skin of the face becomes dry and acne appears on it. A bulging formation is visible in the thighs and arms.
  4. Helps in bone growth-Vitamin A is very important for normal growth and development of bones. But excessive vitamin A is also toxic to bones. Duel to its excess, the bones become brittle and break soon after a slight injury or fall.
  5. To keep teeth healthy-Vitamin A is also essential for good dental health. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to early tooth loss. The deterioration of enamel also affects the dental cell, the dentin and their structure gets distorted.
  6. Resistance to infection-Vitamin A acts as an anti-disease in the body. It plays an important role in providing freshness, vigor, and strength to the body.
  7. Keeping the Vascular System Health-Vitamin A is essential for better functioning of vascular system. In its absence, myelin is destroyed quickly.

Due to this a distortion occurs in the functioning of the nervous system.

Effects of Deficiency

Deficiency of Vitamin A leads to the following diseases:

  1. In particular, the bones of the skull are more affected, due to which the area of the skull is reduced so there is pressure on the brain. Due to pressure on the brain, the nerves coming out of the brain are also suppressed.
  2. Stone formation in the kidneys—The inner surface of the kidneys is covered with tissue, which secretes mucus continuously. In the absence of vitamin A, this secretion stops due to which they become dry, hard and lifeless and stones start forming in the kidney.
  3. Phrynoderma-In the absence of vitamin A, the white glands of the skin do not function properly, due to which sweat does not come out and the skin becomes dry, rough, hard and hoarse. Facial hair grow upwards on the skin. It is also called Follicular Hyperkeratoses. Small pimples appear on the skin. This disease is called Tod Skin.
  4. Decreased fertility-Deficiency of vitamin A affects the genital organs of men. There is less secretion of sex hormones. Sperm are produced in small quantities.
  5. Night Blindness-Due to the deficiency of Vitamin A in the body, night blindness is caused. Night blindness is a disease of the eyes. One cannot see in the dark or in low light in case of night blindness.

The rods near the retina control the vision in dim light and the visual violet found in the cones near the retina control the increase in bright light. Vitamin A is essential for the re-creation of both visual purple and violet. Therefore, due to lack of vitamin A, less or no vision in dim light is called night blindness.

  1. Xerophthalmia-If there is a constant deficiency of vitamin A in the diet, then xerophthalmia disease occurs. In this disease the mucous membrane of the cornea of the eye dries up and inflammation occurs in the cornea. This causes keratinization of cornea. Due to this disease, the inner part of the cornea appears like a cloud of smoke. Gradually, the eyesight becomes weak.
  2. Xerosis cornea-Due to deficiency of vitamin A, the nuclear glands dry up due to which the tears stop coming out. The cornea of the eye dries up and loses its transparency. This is called xerosis cornea, which is a symptom arising after the conjunctiva of the eye.
  3. Destructive Changes in Bone and Cartilage-Deficiency of Vitamin A causes destructive changes in the bones and cartilages of the body.

Note-Normally an adult person needs 750 micrograms of vitamin A or 3006 micrograms of carotene per day.

Effects of Excess of Vitamin ‘A’

The more side effects the deficiency of Vitamin A has on the body, the more severe the consequences are due to its excess. If a person takes vitamin ‘A’ according to body weight from 4000 to 25000 IU / Kg per day, then there is an excess of vitamin A in his body and hypervitaminosis occurs.

The following effects are seen due to an excess of vitamin A

(1) Loss of appetite,

(2) Joint pain,

(3) Bleeding in the retina of the eye,

(4) Liver enlargement,

(5) Swelling of the leg bones,

(6) Dry and rough skin,

(7) Headache and irritability,

(8) Difficulty in breathing,

(9) Hair loss,

(10) Puffy lips and blisters on the lips.

Sources of receipt-Food items obtained from the body of animals are excellent sources of vitamin A – fish oil, liver of goat, sheep and pig.

Food items obtained from the body of the plant like-coriander leaves, carrots, drumstick leaves etc. are excellent sources of B carotene.

Best source-Butter, ghee, whole egg, milk, spinach, radish leaves, papaya, mango etc. Vitamin A is found in high quantity in these food items.

Moderate sources- Cabbage, fenugreek leaves, mint, pumpkin, orange, tomato, etc.

The following is the demand for vitamin A in the international unit

0-1 Years                   1000 IU

1-12 Years                 2000-4500

13-19 Years              5,000

Adult Female-Male  5,000

Pregnant Female     6,000

Lactating Female     8,000

Absorption of vitamin A-its absorption takes place through the mucous membranes in the small intestine into the lymphatic vessels. The hydrolysis of vitamins occurs in the small intestine due to which the vitamin is converted into retinal and then its absorption occurs. Vitamin A is rapidly absorbed in the presence of bile juice and fat. Carotene is converted to vitamin A in the small intestine itself. When it is absorbed in the small intestine, it is transported to the liver. Storage – 99% of the vitamin A stored in the body is in the liver and 1% in the adipose tissue and kidneys.

(2) Vitamin D

In the year 1919, Mellanly told about the treatment of rickets from codliver oil. In 1922, Macholm Steinwock and Dumond isolated vitamin A from the oxidation of cod-liver oil and also isolated another vitamin, which was named vitamin ‘D’ and proved that this vitamin has the property of curing rickets. In 1924, Steenbok and Hess, through separate experiments, showed that by exposure to ultraviolet light on food, vitamin D was present in.

Properties and Characteristics—There are two main types of Vitamin D in terms of human use:

(1) Vitamin D2 or Calciferol – It is also called Ergosterol or Pre-Vitamin D3.

Vitamin D is found in mold and yeast.

Calciferol are formed by the action of ultraviolet rays on HO ergosterol.

(2) Vitamin D3 is also called 7 dehydrocholesterol or pre-vitamin D3. It is made from cholesterol in humans. It is formed by the exposure of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the skin.

Vitamin D3 is more active and stable than Vitamin D2. Hydroxylation of vitamins D2 and D3 in the body leads to the formation of more reactive calcifediol and calcitriol.


The absorption of vitamin D reaches the liver through blood vessels and the lymphatic duct from the mucous membrane of the intestine.

Vitamin D is absorbed with fat and bile salts are needed for the absorption of vitamin D. Factors that affect the absorption of fats also affect the absorption of vitamin D. Some amount of vitamin D is destroyed during absorption.

Major Functions

(1) Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium in the small intestine and controls it. In the absence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus are excreted through the stool.

(2) Vitamin D increases the reabsorption of phosphate from the kidney.

(3) The work of regulating the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood is done by vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency increases the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.

(4) The amount of parathyroid hormone is controlled by vitamin D. This function of hormones helps in keeping the amount of calcium and phosphate in the blood normal.

(5) Vitamin D is associated with the synthesis of proteins in the intestinal mucosa.

(6) Bone formation is strengthened by the presence of vitamin D and it is possible to store sufficient amount of calcium and phosphate in the bones.

(7) Vitamin D is essential for normal body growth.

(8) Vitamin D is essential for healthy growth and development of teeth.

(9) Vitamin D supports and helps in citric acid metabolism (in which energy is produced in the body).

Storage-Vitamin D is mainly stored in the liver. It is also found in the brain, skin, bone and fatty tissue. Plasma of normal blood contains 5-80 nanograms of calcium per 100 ml. It is found around 25 – 75 picograms per millilitre of calcification (25 – 75) in the serum.

Effect of Deficiency:

Deficiency of vitamin D mainly occurs due to lack of vitamin D in the diet and lack of exposure to sun rays. In the initial symptoms of vitamin D deficiency, the amount of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the blood increases and the condition of the following diseases starts if the deficiency of vitamin D lasts to a long time.

Rickets occurs in children, especially in preterm infants, due to deficiency of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. Its main symptoms are:

(1) Twisting of the legs, (2) Softening of the center of the head, (3) Restlessness and irritability, (4) Increased phosphorus in the serum and decreased phosphorus in the blood, (5) Swelling in the joints, (6) Flatulence, (7) Bulging of the ribs.

The above symptoms have an effect on the normal growth and development of the baby.

  1. Tetany-Tetany develops suddenly due to lack of proper treatment of rickets. In tetany, joint spasms occur due to which the person/child becomes unconscious. This condition can be due to any of these conditions–calcium and phosphorous metabolism, vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid gland disturbances.
  2. Osteomalacia-Deficiency of vitamin D in adolescence and adult results in osteomalacia. Due to the excessive weight of the people of this condition, there is improper development in bones, which makes it difficult to move and can lead to sudden bone fractures.

Effect of Excess of Vitamin D

Excess of Vitamin D is curative in the condition of arthritis and tuberculosis (T.B.). Toxic effects have been observed in adults with prolonged exposure to high doses of vitamin D (1000, 3,000 1.0./kg or 100,000 I.U./day). The consequences of excess of vitamin D and excess of parathyroid hormone are the same due to which the amount of calcium and phosphate in the blood increases and more calcium and phosphate is also excreted in the urine. Calcium gets deposited in many places; for example, heart, blood vessels, lungs and kidneys.

Other symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, dysentery, loss of weight and increased urine output.

Necessary Quantity of per day and Sources of Occurrence

Dosage of 400 I.U. Or 10 µg/day is necessary for an infant, child, pregnant and lactating woman. Adolescents and adults require 200 I.U. or 5 µg Vitamin D daily as needed.

Vitamin D is found in very small amounts in foods. It is found in small amounts in the yellow part of the egg, liver, and some fish. Cholesterol and ergosterol are found in food items which are converted into vitamin D2 and D3 respectively in the body. The ultra-violet rays of the sun can make vitamin D in the skin of the body, but the above action is hindered by soil particles, smoke, clothes etc.

(3) Vitamin E (Vitamin E Tocoferol, Anti Sterility Vitamin)

In the year 1923 Evans and Bishop first introduced it as Vitamin E and named a sterility removing ingredient. In 1936, Evans isolated vitamin E from wheat germ oil in its pure form and named it tocopherol according to its chemical organization. In 1938, Karer and colleagues together synthesized vitamin E.

Chemical Composition and Properties

Vitamin E or Tocopherol is found in many forms nowadays. All have a lot in common in their functionality and properties. Vitamin E is mostly synthesized in the form of alpha tocopherol in which most of the creation of vitamin E is done and in this the working capacity of vitamin E is maximum. Other forms of vitamin E or tocopherol are beta tocopherol, gamma tocopherol (Gamma Tocopherol) and delta-tocopherol (Delta Tocopherol) in that order.

Vitamin E is oxidised in small amounts in the presence of fat and its efficiency decreases. Oxidation of fat does not take place in the presence of Vitamin E, as a result, the fat does not have a foul odor. This action of vitamin E is called anti-oxidation property and vitamin E is called anti-oxidant. Vitamin A and carotene do not get oxidized by this property of Vitamin E and both of them are able to function well in the body. Vitamin E is oxidized in the presence of a lot of foul-smelling fat and vitamin E is broken down by ultra-violet rays.

Absorption and Storage

Vitamin E is absorbed into the blood along with other fat-soluble vitamins and fats in the small intestine. The normal amount of vitamin E or tocopherol in the blood of an adult is 1 mgn/100mn. Vitamin E is stored in the liver, muscles and body fat.


(1) Saving Vitamin A-By acting as a vitamin antioxidant, Vitamin E protects vitamin A from oxidation. It absorbs oxygen and reduces the oxidation of vitamin A and carotene in the small intestine.

(2) Protecting red blood cells—It protects red blood cells from breaking down by oxidizing substances.

(3) Assisting in reproductive activities-Due to its deficiency, there is a lack of reproductive power in both men and women.

(4) Protects the liver from damage caused by carbon tetrachloride poisoning.

(5) Vitamin E inhibits the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in tissue and cell membranes.

Effect of Deficiency

(1) The reproductive organs do not work properly, which leads to infertility.

(2) The fetus dies in pregnancy.

(3) Sperm are produced in less quantity due to rupture in the sperm-producing ducts in the male, hence infertility occurs.

(4) There is weakness and wear and tear in the muscles.

(5) There is a lack of blood, because red blood cells break down quickly and new red blood cells are also not formed quickly.

Effect of Excess:

The toxic effect of an overdose of vitamin E has not been observed in humans.

Required quantity and availability-Vitamin E is found in almost all food items in general. Its quantity is more in vegetable foods. This vitamin is found in small amounts in animal foods. It is found in large quantities in corn, soybean, groundnut, coconut and cereals.

(4) Vitamin ‘K’

In 1935, two scientists named an element as vitamin K and told that this element is necessary for the process of blood clotting. In 1939, Dam and Karer isolated this vitamin from vegetables and also synthesized this vitamin. He isolated vitamin K from a vegetable called alpha and obtained vitamin K from rotten fish.

Chemical Composition and Properties

The organization of vitamin K is quite complex. It is soluble in fat and does not get destroyed quickly by heat. Nepthoquinone Ring is found in Vitamin K. Vitamin K is available in two forms as Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2.

Absorption, Storage and Excretion

Vitamin K is easily adsorbed with fats. Biles is required for its absorption. Vitamin K after absorption reaches the blood through the lymphatic system. Vitamin K is not stored in the body. This vitamin K is excreted with faeces.


(1) Vitamin K1 is found in green leafy while Vitamin K2 is produced by the synthetic composition of bacteria,

(2) It is a yellow colored substance.

(3) There is no effect of heat.

(4) Decomposes in acids and bases.

(6) Soluble in fat and fat solution.

(6) It gets destroyed by oxidation reactions and sunlight, sources of occurrence-In vegetables like, spinach, cabbage, it is found in abundance. It is also found in cauliflower, soybean, wheat bran among other items. In the intestine, bacteria called E.coli synthesize vitamin ‘K’.


Helps in clotting-Vitamin K activates the cells making prothrombin which is an essential substance in blood clotting. Prothrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin. Fibrin forms a thin web through which red blood circulates and the blood coagulates in the form of a clot.

Vitamin K is essential for the production of prothrombin, which is essential in this entire process.

Effect of Deficiency

(1) Due to non-absorption of vitamin K in the body, its deficiency occurs as well as liver and intestinal diseases.

(2) Diarrhea is caused by the disturbance of the intestines.

(3) Jaundice can occur.

(4) The amount of prothrombin in the body decreases, due to which it takes more time for blood to clot and blood flows more.

(5) Inner Haemorrhage occurs.

(6) Deficiency of vitamin ‘K’ during pregnancy causes bleeding.

Effect of Excess

The adverse effect of excess of vitamin ‘K’ was seen on preterm birth babies. On giving them more K2, red blood cells start breaking down.

Demand Per day—The exact quantity of their demand has not been ascertained yet. It has been found that if a person takes a normal balanced diet, then there is no deficiency of vitamin ‘K’, but if there is a deficiency in the lactating mother, its deficiency is found in the child who drinks her milk.

BCom 1st Year Vitamins Notes Study Material

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