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BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes Pdf by the Latest BCom Syllabus. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest BCom Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material, Long Questions Answers, and Notes in Pdf for BCom 1st Year.

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BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material
BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

60-80% of the total weight of the human body is water.

The percentage of water in the body is higher in infancy than in adults and decreases with age. Even after all efforts, the percentage of body water decreases in old age.

Due to high body weight, the amount and percentage of water is less than that of a person with low body weight.

An unhealthy condition arises when the water content in the body decreases by 10-20%. Clean drinking water is the problem of today. Water is stored in the houses through river, canal, well-tubewell and taps and is used for cooking, washing, drinking. Water should be clean and free from diseases, otherwise there is a possibility of getting cholera, typhoid, dysentery, jaundice, etc.


Some facts about our internal water supply include:

  • Body water content is higher in’ men than in women and falls in both with age.
  • Most mature adults lose about 2.5 to 3 litres of water per day. Water loss may increase in hot weather and with prolonged exercise.
  • Elderly people lose about two litres per day.
  • An air traveller can lose approximately 1.5 litres of water during a three hour flight.
  • Water loss needs to be replaced.
  • About 20% of our daily fluid requirement comes from food. Butter and oils are the only foods with no water


Water is needed for most body functions, including

  • To maintain the health and integrity of every cell in the body.
  • To keep the bloodstream liquid enough to flow through blood vessels.
  • Help eliminate the by-products of the body’s metabolism, excess electrolytes (for example, sodium and potassium), and urea, which is a waste product formed through the processing of dietary protein.
  • Regulate body temperature through sweating.
  • Moisten mucous membranes such as those of the lungs and mouth.
  • Lubricate and cushion joints.
  • Reduce the risk of cystitis by keeping the bladder clear of bacteria.
  • Aid digestion and prevent constipation
  • Moisturise the skin to maintain its texture and appearance.
  • Carry nutrients and oxygen to cells.
  • Serve as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the foetus in pregnancy.


Water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Its formula is H2O or HOH, Water is colourless, odorless and tasteless. Calcium, magnesium, iron and other mineral salts are present in soluble form in water whose ratio varies from place to place, due to which the taste of water is different from place to place. Excess of mineral salts makes water hard, which makes it difficult to use water.

It takes time to cook food and clothes are not cleaned. Most of the amount of water present in the body is found in the intra-cellular fluid (ICF) and a large amount is found in the form of extracellular fluid (Exmi cellular fluid: ECF). Plasma, lymph, tissue fluid, brain fluid and water found in eyes etc is called extracellular fluid.


Water is absorbed in small amounts in the stomach and in the small intestine, it is absorbed quickly in large quantities. The amount of water absorption in the large intestine is somewhat reduced. Beta works and inhibits the absorption of water and its electrolytes in the small intestine.


  1. As a conductor of food element-In the soluble state of water, each food component is absorbed from the digestive system in the metabolic process and is delivered to the tissues in the body.
  2. Component of fluids—Water is the main component of blood, urine, sweat, lymph, etc. All the chemical reactions that take place in these fluids and in the cells depend on the solubility property of water.
  3. The function of water in the blood-90 percent water remains in the blood. Water does the work of transporting carbon dioxide to the lungs and transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues / heart.
  4. Function of water in the kidney-All the discarded components of the body’s metabolism are excreted out of the body in the form of urine from the kidneys in a water-soluble state. Water helps the body to stay healthy by regulating the amount of urine excreted.
  5. Function of Water in Tissues—The health remains good due to the presence of excess amount of water in all cells and all tissues.

(i) in blood plasma—92%

(ii) in red blood corpuscles of blood –70%

(iii) majority percentage in digestive juices

(iv) in urine-9.7%

Maintaining maximum amount of water in the above cells is the main task.

  1. Controlling body temperature—Water helps in keeping the body temperature regular/controlled. Water comes out of the body through respiration and sweat and regulates the heat in the body. When the temperature of the environment is high, water in the form of sweat loses the body heat.
  2. Function of Water as Lubricant-In the state of activity in the joints, water prevents friction from taking place. The synovial fluid around these joints allows the cells to be immersed in the water, so the vascular work between the cells and the blood vessels goes smoothly.
  3. Protecting the soft parts of the body-Water is a vital component of the body. By staying in sufficient quantity around the lungs, heart, brain it keeps these organs safe from external shocks.
  4. Excretion-About 170 liters of water reaches the kidneys daily, out of which only 1.5 liters are excreted in the form of urine. The remaining 168.5 liters of water gets reabsorbed. If due to some reason less amount of water is taken in the body or more amount of water is lost from the body by sweating and respiration, then there is a decrease in the amount of urine. A maximum of 4% of urea is excreted in the urine. When the amount of urine becomes less, sufficient amount of urea is not excreted in the body, due to the remaining amount of urea in the body, the state of disease arises.


The water content is more than 90% in foods like milk and yoghurt, and in some fruits and green vegetables, such as watermelon, cucumber, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach. Fruits like apples, grapes, oranges, pears, and pineapple are 80% to 90% water, while beans and legumes have a water content ranging from 60% to 70%. Even dried fruits, seeds and nuts are 1% to 9% water.

Coconut water contains potassium, which helps fight dehydration by increasing the body’s capacity to absorb and retain water and is particularly useful to hydrate people who are ill or very active. But since a 250 ml glass has 50 calories, using it as a substitute for zero-calorie water leads to weight gain.


The body receives water from three sources: (1) from the water that one drinks, (2) from the water found in food items, (3) the amount of water excreted from the body by metabolism. The amount of water in urine, the amount of water in the stool, the amount of water excreted from the skin and lungs should be equal to the amount of water taken in the body and the amount of water excreted from the body. Balance is essential for health.

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material

Homeostatic Mechanism Responsive to the Stats of Body Water is controlled by a system in the body in which the amount of water is taken up by hormones. The amount of urine is excreted in proportion to it. Water balance is controlled by the thirst fat protein hormone.

Mechanism of Water Balance- There is a difference in the amount of water consumed by us every day, but still the water balance remains in the body. The amount of water taken in and the amount of water excreted from the urine is controlled under a system in the body, from which the amount of urine is excreted by hormones in proportion to the amount of water taken up.

Antidiuretic hormone ADH, secreted by the nerve center present in the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary, plays an invaluable contribution in maintaining the water balance in the body.

These hormones control the reabsorption of water by the tubules in the kidneys. In the hypothalamus there are broadcast receptors which are affected by the fluidity of the plasma. When water is taken up by the body, the fluidity in the plasma increases.

This discourages the activity in osmotic cells. Due to their discouragement, the secretion of ADH stops, resulting in frequent urination. Conversely, due to the lack of water in the body, the fluidity in the plasma decreases, due to which the osmotic receptor cells become more excited. The thirst center is also present in the hypothalamus, which regulates the action of thirst. When the osmotic cells are stimulated, the ADH hormone begins to be secreted, which leads to the feeling of excessive thirst, stops diuresis and reduces the expulsion of urine. In this way, there is always a balance of water in the body.

BCom 1st Year Water and Dietary Fibre Notes Study Material


The excretion of water from the body is continuous. Water is excreted through feces, urine, sweat, lungs etc. Therefore, it is necessary that proper amount of water should be consumed daily. Water and food should be taken so that there is no shortage of water in the body. The following condition arises due to lack of water in the body:

(1) There is an imbalance in the digestive juices – digestive disturbances arise.

(2) Complete removal of uric acid, urea toxin, etc. is not possible from the body. Due to this disorders and diseases arise in the body.

(3) The person becomes restless and irritable.

(4) Loss of appetite.

(5) Body weight is reduced.

(6) Physical growth is affected.

(7) There is an increase in body temperature,

(8) There is an obstruction in the function of the kidney.

(9) The fluidity of the blood decreases, so there is a hindrance in circulation. If there is a shortage of water up to 10% in the body, then the condition of dehydration arises.

In the condition of dehydration, the following symptoms appear in a person:

(1) Eyes sink inwards.

(2) The tongue becomes dry.

(3) The person becomes more thirsty.

(4) The skin becomes wrinkled, loose and limp.

(5) There is a decrease in the amount of urine.

(6) The person becomes powerless.

If there is a decrease of 10-15% in the body, then:

(1) There is a contraction in the tubules present on the outer surface of the body.

(2) The pulse rate becomes faster,

(3) The blood pressure decreases.

(4) Sodium, potassium and other electrolytes are also expelled in large quantities along with the water. Therefore, there is a shortage of water in the body. If there is a shortage of water up to 15-20% in the body, the result is the death of a person.


In the event of dehydration, a solution of lemon, water, salt and sugar is given to the person to supply water in the body. All types of liquids available in the house, such as curd, buttermilk, lentil water, rice porridge, fruit juice, vegetable soup, coconut water, water from torn milk etc. should be given.

At present all health ORS packets (ORS) are available free of cost at centres, hospitals and maternal child welfare centres.

Therefore, it should be given in the form of a solution. If the person is not in a position to take water by mouth, then Saline water is delivered to his body through intravenous medium.

One thing to be noted is that if there is a slight shortage of water in the body, then it is appropriate to use water supply instead of dehydration. Dehydration means—excess amount of water depletion from the body.


When an adult person consumes 2 liters of water, this water is quickly distributed throughout the body and excess water is expelled through the kidney within three hours. Hence there is no water storage in the body.

Usually the removal of urine from our body is 50 ml/hour. It is caused by the consumption of more water. Volume increases up to 1500 ml/h. In hot climates, water is removed through sweat, but if the amount of water excreted by the body is less than the water received by the body, then there is an excess of water in the body. Due to this, sodium and water cannot be removed from the body, Due to this the fluidity of extracellular juices increases. Due to high sodium content, water fills the tissues.

The following symptoms are seen in a person due to excess of water:

(1) The person’s body becomes swollen.

(2) There is a lack of protein in the blood. Due to this water gets filled in the body tissues.

(3) The person starts feeling nauseous. Vomiting and nervousness begin.

(4) Neurological disorders arise.

(5) Hepatic disease occurs.


Every person’s water requirement is different. Water requirement mainly depends on the following factors.

  1. Activity-The person who is more active requires more water in his body. The demand for water in the body increases due to exercise, playing football, cycling, running etc.
  2. Temperature of the environment-In a warm environment, the demand for water in the body increases, because the body sweats more.
  3. Sickness-In case of diseases like diarrhea, fever, vomiting, etc., excess amount of water comes out of the body. Due to this the demand for water in the body increases.
  4. Nature of food–The demand for water also depends on the nature of food. On consuming a diet rich in protein, more water is needed to digest it. Taking food containing fried roasted chilies, spicy food also increases the demand for water in the body.

According to, International Research Committee a person should consume 1ml of water per calorie.

Food /1 Cal/1 ml of water

i.e., if the person’s body requires 2250 K.cal, so there should be a demand of 2250 ml of water in the body.

A healthy adult person should drink 6-8 glasses of water every day. Water should be consumed more in summer.


Dietary fibre is called the fibre element present in the diet, these are such elements obtained from plants which are themselves indigestible, but basically contribute to smooth digestion. Fibres form the wall of the cells of the body, enzymes are not able to break them, so they are indigestible.

Until some time ago they were considered useless in relation to diet, but later research revealed that many of them have mechanical and other characteristics, such as they retain water in the body, so that there is no loss of water in the waste (faeces) and avoid the condition of constipation. Fibre food sources are often divided on the basis of their solubility. These soluble fibres dissolve easily in water and also form a gel on heating, soluble fibres also increase beneficial bacteria in the body.

  • Soluble fibre is found in foods like fruit, oats, beans, and barley. When it dissolves in water it forms a gel-like substance. Soluble fibre helps to:
  • Support the growth of friendly bacteria needed to help maintain a healthy gut.
  • Reduce cholesterol absorption by binding to it in the gut.
  • Slow down the time it takes for food to pass through the stomach into the small intestine. This helps slow down the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream and has the benefits of keeping you feeling fuller for longer, helping to control blood sugar levels, which are important for the management of diabetes.
  • Insoluble fibre docs not dissolve in water and is found in foods like wholemeal bread, wheat bran, vegetables, and nuts. Insoluble fibre adds bulk to stools by absorbing water. It is important to increase your fluid intake as you increase fibre. Without fluid, the stool stays hard, making it difficult to pass and causing constipation.

Advantages of fibre in the treatment of constipation: Due to more absorption of water and control on peristalsis speed, fibres are helpful in expelling the stool.

Lowering cholesterol: Fibres absorb bile and excrete it with the stool, which is converted into cholesterol, so fibres are helpful in reducing cholesterol.

Helps in reducing weight: The fibre stays in the stomach for a longer time by slowing down the digestion process and absorbing more water and provides satiety, thereby reducing appetite and controlling weight.

Control of diabetes: Fibre allows the slow release of sugar into the blood, which helps in maintaining the level of sugar in the blood.

Main Sources of Fibre

Fruits: Orange, Guava, Pomegranate, Papaya etc.

Vegetables: Green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, peas etc.

Coarse cereals: Oatmeal, wheat flour (including bran), millet maize etc.

Whole Pulses: Moong, Moth, Soyabean, Rajma, Whole Gram etc.


Based on energy intake, a level of about 40g of fibre/2000 Kcal in a diet is considered reasonably safe by Indian Council of Medical Research. Intakes in excess of 60 g of fibre over a day can reduce the absorption of nutrients and may cause irritation in the bowel apart from diarrhoea.

It has been suggested that achieving a fibre intake higher than the average can help reduce the risk of some diseases. Introducing too much fibre too quickly or eating too much can cause constipation or diarrhoea in some people. It is important to introduce fibre into your diet gradually and ensure that you drink adequate amounts of fluid.

Remember to drink plenty of water as well to prevent constipation.

Examples of high fibre foods include all bran cereals, lentils, flaxseed, chickpeas, dried figs, kidney beans, green peas, spinach and pears.

Examples of foods that contain 2-4 grams of fibre per serving include soybeans, carrots, wheat germ, apples, popcorn, baked potatoes, almonds, strawberries, oranges, broccoli and corn.

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