BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes
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Aims of Education in Present Democratic India
In geographical terms India is a country, in political science terms, India is a democratic state or nation and in educational terms, India is a society. Thus, in the context of education, the meaning of modern democratic India stands for modern Indian society. Now our moot point is modern Indian society. From the viewpoint of humanists, only natives of India are included in Indian society. but from the viewpoint of political scientists, all people or citizens of India are included in the Indian society.
Our country has democracy and democracy does not distinguish between one individual and another. From this viewpoint too, Indian society includes all its people, and because the arrangement of education is the duty of the state, in the context of education, Indian society is meant for the whole Indian population. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
Now the matter under discussion is to determine the aims of education in this society. In this context, we have already submitted that all the aims of education of any society, country or state can be classified into nine general classes; only their analysis would have to be done according to the form, needs and aspirations of the society, country or state. As far as the form of our country is concerned, there are several communities, cultures and religions. And the place with classes is bound to have class struggles.
As far as the political system in the country is concerned, it has a democratic system, as far as the needs and aspirations of the country are concerned, we want to establish a classless society, want to modernize the society, want to control the population, want to eradicate pollution and want to develop the spirits of national integration and international understanding.
Form and Scope of Aims of Education
In this context, we will have to determine the form and scope of the aims of education in democratic India. They are being discussed here.
1. Physical Development: What is man? He is the sum total of body, mind and soul. And his body is the basis of his whole development. He executes all his activities through his body. So the first step of human development should be physical development. And it should be the foremost aim of education in any country.
However, some people opine that even animals and birds look after their bodies, what is the need for education in human society? In this context, we would like to submit that the human body is very delicate. Secondly, we would not like to die just like animals and birds. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
Moreover, the people in our country are not so much aware of their health as are animals and birds; their conduct and living manners have become polluted to the extent that they have started to die before time. So we will have to use school education for acquainting them with their living and will have to train them in the art of living.
Not only this, we will have to make them aware of the diseases being caused by harmful foods and intoxicants and will have to educate them on the proper diagnosis and treatment of diseases. And this function should be performed in the initial period of life and education should perform this function. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
2. Mental Development: Man is a psycho-physical creature, so alongside his physical development his mental development is also essential, and it should be the second most important aim of education in any country.
Now we will have to consider mental development. Under it, the most important is language development. As far as the general knowledge of the mother tongue is concerned, a child learns it by imitation, but he needs education for its clear knowledge. The second step is mental development which includes the mental powers of observation, imagination, memory and reasoning, intellect and logic. Its third step includes the knowledge of different subjects and the faculties of thinking and exploration. And all this can be done only through planned education. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
In this context, the fact worth mentioning is that ours is a progressive country, we want to modernize our country by the use of science and technology. For it, we need education in science and technology. So, it should be the chief aim of education in present India. In the context of mental development we have to mention that with the material development of our country, the mental illnesses in the people are also increasing. So it is very essential for us that acquaint the students with the methods for protection against mental illnesses, such as fear, suspicion, over-aspiration, stress and imbalance. In this field, Yoga psychology can come of great help.
3. Individual and Social Development and Education of Leadership: A democracy respects the individuality of every person, and believes in the highest development of his individual abilities. It also favours people’s welfare. It lays equal emphasis on the individual and social development of man. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
So education should be used for individual development according to the ability, aptitude and interest of the individual, of course, keeping common welfare in mind. Psychologists have divulged the fact that man has the instinct of gregariousness; he likes to live in a group. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
Sociologists have approved this fact and have said that man without society cannot even be imagined. But how can an individual become a member of society, and how can he live happily, it needs education. And this should be the chief aim of education in any society or country. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
However, some scholars reason that children learn to live in society while being in society, and there is no need for education for it. In this context, we would like to submit that the children learn both, good and bad in their family and social environment, while we tend to teach them only good. Secondly, in such a case they are limited to only their home and society, and they do not develop liberal social feelings. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
Our third submission in this regard is that ours is a democratic country and we want to form a classless society. And it would be possible only when the children are made sensitive to the Indian society, that is, to the whole population of India. This job can be performed by school education properly because the children of different communities, religions and cultures study together in schools they are members of the mini Indian society. The children coming from different classes of society work together.
The clever children take the lead and receive training in leadership. These qualities are founded in the initial period of life and last lifelong. The type of social feeling developed in the children at this stage is followed by them lifelong. Therefore, this should be the chief aim of education in present India. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
4. Development of Cultural Tolerance: Culture is the greatest feature of mankind. The people living in different areas of the world have developed different methods of living and eating and they have developed different languages, literature, religions and philosophies. Their synthesis is called the name of culture. As far as learning one’s own culture is concerned, it is learnt by taking part in the family and social activities in its natural course. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
However, the children in our country learn their respective cultures in their respective families and communities. The greatest thing in this respect is that they consider their own culture to be the best. When these children are admitted to the schools, it is natural for them to have a cultural confrontation. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
Ours is a democratic country and democracy does not distinguish between one individual and another on the basis of place, caste, religion or culture. So it is essential to develop the spirit of cultural forbearance in the children through education, and this should be the fourth important aim of education in present India. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
For it, it is necessary that the school acquaints the children with their respective cultures, as well as with other cultures, cultures of the country and of other countries, and impart knowledge of the common factors in them and develop liberal feeling towards them all. If we are able to develop cultural tolerance in the children in the initial stage, then the condition of cultural confrontation would not arise.
5. Moral and Character Development: Every society has certain conduct-related rules. Generally, the loyalty towards these rules and abidance of these rules is called morality and the internal desire and power to follow these rules is called character. Morality and character are those qualities of man which take him out of the limit of selfishness and take him forward towards social welfare. In its absence, no society can last for many years, so one of the aims of education in a country should be moral and character development, including that of India. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
However, some scholars opine that moral and character development takes place through active participation in the family and social activities, for school education is not needed. In this context, our first submission is that the children learn both good and bad in society and family, while in schools they are provided with a higher social environment to educate them in high mortality. Secondly, our country is deficient in morality. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
We can see corruption pervading all spheres of life in the absence of morality and character. The people are even adulterating the food articles for their self-interests. People feel no shame in taking bribes. Even the people in the justice department are not untouched by corruption. The people who are entrusted with the duties of protecting others are exploiting others. Even the top leaders in our country are prone to selfishness. The people who give out the slogans of classless society are collecting votes in the name of class or caste.
The people who talk about clean administration give undue favours to their relatives and all of them are after money. There are only a few seams that have been unearthed so far, yet their number is very high. Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizens and some of them would become leaders. We should take the help of law in order to reform the present and should arrange moral education in order to secure the future. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
6. Vocational Development: We need food, cloth and shelter for the protection of this body, and we need other means and appliances in order to make our life pleasant. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
So we need vocational education in order to produce them, and vocational education is needed for it. So, the aim of education in any country should be vocational development, including that of India.
However, some scholars opine that education in agriculture, cottage industries and trading of different materials is imparted on jobs at the production centres and trade centres; the schools only need to make arrangements for the education of advocates, doctors, teachers, engineers, scientists and technicians. In this context, our first submission is that science and technology are used in every field of production and its education can be imparted in schools. Unless the children are not trained in theoretical aspects of these fields and receive their practical training at the production centre, they would not be able to obtain skills in them.
Secondly, only liberal education is not going to help much. In order to march shoulder to shoulder with the world, it is essential that our citizens are trained in one or the other production work or profession. Vocational education is also very essential in order to eliminate unemployment in our country. Though this should be the chief aim of education in any country, in a developing country like India, there is a need to lay special emphasis on it. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
7. Education of Democracy and Democratic Citizenship: At present, our country has a democratic political system, and the fundamental principles of our democracy are: freedom, equality, fraternity, socialism, secularism and justice. However, the reality is that we have not been able to realize them in our national life as yet.
In such a situation, the knowledge of the principles and abiding by them in our life should be the chief aim of education in present India. Besides, the students should be imparted clear knowledge about the rights and duties of the citizens. As far as rights are concerned, we are much aware of them, and we take to roads to demand one thing or another; however, when it comes to duties, we are much distant from their abidance. We have limited ourselves only to others’ criticism.
The education of conduct can be given by conduct alone. When the top leaders of our country do not behave according to democratic principles and do not follow their citizenship duties, how can then we expect the common people to abide by them? But education is a means by which anything can be realized. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
If we use education to find democratic principles in the common people and encourage them to follow their duties, clever leaders would have no place to go. Education must take up this task into its own hands.
8. Population Education, Environmental Education, Modernisation of the Country, National Integration and International Understanding: The chief problems before our country are: population explosion, environmental pollution, backwardness, separatism and selfishness. So education in our country should lay special emphasis on population education, environmental education, science and technology education and the development of national integration. And this is the time of internationalism. At present, all countries depend on one another. We should also develop international understanding in children through education.
In this regard, we have to say that India is a developing country, and we are making efforts to make our country a developed one. We can realize this dream of ours only when we are able to control population explosion and environmental pollution and proceed towards modernization and develop national integration and international understanding in our countrymen and do not hesitate in adopting good from anywhere and think of the national welfare rising above our selfishness. From this view too, education should keep before it the objectives of realization of national goals. (BEd 2nd Year Aims of Education in Present Democratic India Study Notes)
9. Development of Religious Tolerance: Most people of the world consider that man is a sum total of body, mind and soul, and they talk about the development of all these three aspects. And Religion is that means by the adoption of which all these three aspects are developed. So education should have provision for religious education.